Skip to main content

Full text of "North Carolina public schools"

See other formats


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 


£5 i 
7 : SH/i 













Volume 34 / Number 1 / September 1969 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director, Publications & Public Information: Almetta (Cookie) Brooks 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Editorial Consultant: James E. Jack man 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July, and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is required 
for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public Schools, Division 
of Publications and Public Information, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N. C. 27602. 


A Blow at Highway Slaughter: Improved Driver Education 3 

Public Schools Get Boost from 1969 Legislature 4 

Underground Newspapers Surface 5 

Junior Navy ROTC: Tough but Rewarding 6 

They Told It Like It Is 8 

Bridging the Gap 10 

Enrichment Materials Readied 11 

Mount Sterling Saga Ended 11 

Kids Stay After School for Fun 1 1 

Superintendent Changes 12 

New State Department of Public Instruction Staff 13 

World Cultures and Gaming Slated for ITV 13 

Honors 14 

Statewide Youth Council Established 15 

Students Grade Themselves 16 

Attorney General Rules 16 

From the 

State Superintendent 

As we start this new school year, let's take a closer look at our 

Before the past term closed, we were forcefully reminded that 
the public schools are a focal point of social tensions and 
demands for change. As schools prepared to open this September, 
it appeared that the freedom of the teacher to teach and the 
learner to learn may be at stake in some communities. 

Educational progress was made by the 1969 General 
Assembly — a beginning for a kindergarten program, relaxed 
requirements in the selection of textbooks and instructional 
materials, more freedom in teacher allotments, a salary index, 
vocational programs for the middle grades, attention to the 
special needs of the hearing-impaired and emotionally disturbed, 
and many other improvements. However, adjournment came with 
many of this State's critical public education issues unanswered. 

Legislative action reflected the atmosphere within the State. 
Taxpayers pointed to financial pressures; business and industrial 
leaders questioned the relevancy of training programs and urged 
an assessment of public education's output. At the same time, our 
political leaders were subjected to pressures created by a society 
in social ferment and demanding more and more services. 

A basic principle of sound business management is the 
development of an improved product that justifies increased 
investments. Applying this principle to public education, our 
programs must be relevant to the needs of today. To determine 
that they are, and to bring about an understanding of what it will 
take to make them more so, we must invite and achieve the 
involvement of both citizens and students. We must come up with 
new ways to successfully involve every major segment of the 
citizenry in the advancement of education. This will require a real 
team effort on the part of superintendents, principals, central 
office staff, teachers, and State agency personnel. 

During the summer the State agency staff has had small group 
discussions with all superintendents and secondary school princi- 
pals where much consideration was given to human relations, 
program relevancy, and lay involvement in the educational 
process. We wish there was enough time and money for such face 
to face discussions with each of the nearly 60,000 professionals in 
the public schools because we know that, in the final analysis, 
"it's who's up front that counts." When students and teachers are 
face to face and the classroom door is closed, only the teacher 
can determine if the programs, and methods being used to 
implement them, are truly relevant. 

Perhaps the most important team effort ahead is improving 
relationships among students, teachers, and administrators. We 
know, too, that our teachers can be counted upon to help 
develop ways of involving, and thus informing, our citizens. 

a blow at highway slaughter: 


More Americans will be killed or 
injured on U.S. highways this year 
than in Vietnam — 56,000 in North 
Carolina alone. Reducing this senseless 
slaughter is a national problem. 
Improved driver education is one 

North Carolina has led the nation in 
the field of driver education and is one 
of the few states making driver educa- 
tion available to all youngsters under 
18. This fall the State moves forward 
again with the opening of three re- 
gional driver training centers to be 
used to upgrade the training of driver 
education teachers and driver educa- 
tion programs. The centers are being 
built and equipped with matching 
State and Federal funds (Federal High- 
way Act of 1966) and are adminis 
tered by the State Department of 
Public Instruction. Centers opening 
this fall are located in Yadkin, New 
Hanover, and Cabarrus Counties. 

By the fall of 1970, six regional 
centers will be opened. (Centers in the 
Edenton, Garner, and Asheville areas 
will open next year.) Each center will 
serve a 15-20 county area, and each 
will feature a driving range, small 
control tower, driver training cars and 
teaching equipment, and a full-time 
driver training coordinator. During the 
first year of operation emphasis will be 
on improved training for driver educa- 
tion teachers and the development of 
pilot courses in driver education. As 
the project continues, additional stu- 
dent services will be developed to 
include classes for adults, handicapped 
drivers, professional drivers, pedes- 
trians, cyclists, and others. 

The driving ranges will vary in size, 
but all will provide space to practice 
dual and four-lane driving, parking, 
passing, and other road maneuvers. 
Students using the ranges will be in 
touch with instructors — located in the 
control tower or on the ground — by 
radio. Driver training cars will be pro- 
vided for each center, and, eventually, 
each will have a driving simulator. 

Present driver training courses in 
North Carolina offer classwork and 
road training only. Use of the simu- 

lators and driving ranges can increase 
the student's skills before he begins 
road practice. The centers are planned 
for year-round use to reduce the long 
waiting lists of would-be drivers. 

According to Larry Phillips, head of 
the project and associate State super- 
visor of driver education, training for 
driver education teachers will be 
greatly facilitated with use of the new 
centers. This fall, for the first time, 
in-service courses for certificate re- 
newal will be offered to North 
Carolina driver education teachers at 
the centers. Prior to this time, driver 
education teachers were required to 
meet certificate renewal requirements 
in other areas of the curriculum even if 
they taught driver education ex- 

Pre-service courses will also be 
offered at the centers, including the 
three-semester hour course qualifying 
teachers for driver education. (Phillips 
noted that requirements for teaching 

driver education in other states are 
much more stringent: Virginia, 9 
hours; Maryland, 18.) 

Further developments at the cen- 
ters, according to Phillips, will include 
research of driver reactions in situa- 
tions such as skid recovery, driver 
reaction time, etc. The centers will 
also be used for evaluation of driver 
education programs. 

Phillips foresees development of 
driver education courses that will be 
longer and more varied than the pres- 
ent 36-hour course. This "ideal" 
course would incorporate use of the 
driving range and driving simulator 
along with the classroom work and 
road experience. Although such cour- 
ses would require more time for stu- 
dents (52 hours), these activities 
would reduce the time needed for 
actual road experience, which requires 
a one-to-one teacher-student ratio. 
This would allow teachers to serve 
more students. 

Driving ranges, simulators, and special audiovisual equipment (pictured) will allow 

driver education teachers to serve more students. 

dergartens. One million dollars was 
appropriated for kindergartens, and 
the State Board of Education has 
authorized development of a network 
of Early Childhood Demonstration 
Centers — one in each of the eight 
educational districts. The target date 
for opening is December. 

Other acts approved by the Legis- 
lature encourage individualized in- 
struction, allow the State Board of 
Education and local boards to engage 
in educational research and special 

or beginning, salary. The average 
increase for teachers will be approxi- 
mately 20 percent during the bien- 
nium. While we have not yet reached 
the national average, we all are hopeful 
the increases made possible by legis- 
lative action will facilitate recruitment 
as well as better retention of teachers. 
The legal status of student teachers 
was clarified, and they were given the 
authority to exercise control over the 
classroom when such responsibility is 
assigned to them. The allocation of 

Public Schools Get Boost From 1969 Legislature 

the 1969 General Assembly listened 
carefully and patiently as we attemp- 
ted to define the crucial financial 
needs of our schools. They have pro- 
vided some of the resources necessary 
for a fighting chance to develop the 
kind of education we want for North 
Carolinians. Our schools need much 
more; yet we realize the limitations on 
tax resources at this particular time. 
Much of the legislation enacted 
stemmed from recommendations of 
the State Board of Education and the 
Governor's Study Commission and will 
serve as a tonic for the schools. 

A textbook bill completely rewrote 
two articles of the school law and 
shifts responsibility for the selection 
of supplementary textbooks and in- 
structional materials to local school 
boards. Another bill authorized at 
least a small start toward the eventual 
establishment of Statewide public kin- 

projects, authorize the use of school 
buses for instructional programs and 
for the development of transportation 
programs which will serve handicapped 
children previously excluded, and 
allow local school boards to condemn 
up to 50 acres (instead of the former 
30) for school facilities. 

Acts were passed directing the State 
Board to conduct a study on the 
feasibility of teaching about "the en- 
vironment and natural resources," to 
establish programs for hearing- 
impaired children at preschool and 
school age levels, to develop vocational 
education in the middle grades, and to 
study the feasibility of starting teacher 
training programs in economics and 
the free enterprise system and to 
determine the feasibility of intro- 
ducing this curriculum into the 
schools. One act created a commission 
to study and recommend educational 
and treatment measures for the State's 
emotionally disturbed children. 

Other legislation provides for a 
study on the location and devel- 
opment of comprehensive vocational 
rehabilitation centers; directs that eye 
safety devices be required for teachers 
and students in certain programs; and 
authorizes the Governor to order 
public buildings (including schools) 
evacuated, providing penalty for viola- 
tion of the order. 

An act designed to protect the 
neighborhood school system prohibits, 
except for specific exceptions, invol- 
untary bussing of pupils outside the 
school district in which they live. It 
also prohibits pupil assignment based 
on race, creed, color, or national 

For the first time we have an index 
salary schedule, making it possible to 
relate all professional salaries to a base. 

teachers by the State Board of Educa- 
tion was simplified. Over twenty cate- 
gories were reduced to three (general, 
vocational, and special education). 
Local boards now determine the 
length of the school day — at least six 
hours, except for handicapped pupils 
and beginners; in the event of emer- 
gencies the superintendent has the 
authority to suspend school operation, 
without loss of pay or pupil credit, 
before six hours has been completed. 
Provisions were made whereby two 
or more adjoining county units and 
city units within them may voluntarily 
merge. This action is in line with the 
trend across the nation for larger 
school systems in order to provide 
better facilities and a more varied 
curriculum through the pooling of 
resources. However, legislative author- 
ity to create three new school adminis- 
trative units represents a significant 
departure. The 1967 General Assem- 
bly enacted ten local bills, affecting 22 
school units, which either merged 
school units or authorized citizen 
votes on mergers. The 1969 session 
created small new school units in 
Scotland Neck, Warrenton, and the 
Littleton- Lake Gaston area. 

Underground student newspapers 
are springing up like grass fires in 
junior and senior high schools across 
the State. Many of the papers are 
undoubtedly short-lived fads — an 
outgrowth of the national trend to- 
ward underground publications. A 
number, however, are serious efforts 
produced by students who hold view- 
points they consider too outspoken 
for established student newspapers. 
These viewpoints, on the whole, are 
distinctly anti-establishment. 

A few of the underground news- 
papers are good. Many are indifferent 
efforts, and some are not only poorly 
written, but obscene. Many carry arti- 
cles about Vietnam, the draft, drugs, 
hippies, etc. A few limit their subject 
matter to the schools: "We've all heard 
a lot about Vietnam, etc., but in our 
paper we wanted to write about some- 
thing really relevant to us now — 
school," said one underground editor. 

Papers that do cover school subjects 
often choose problems that concern 
their elders, too — teaching out of 
field, inadequacy of grading systems, 
weak student councils, student coun- 
cils representing a limited portion of 
the student body, dress codes, and the 
lack of relevance in many courses. 

Aside from the question of quality, 
all of the underground papers have one 
plus in common: the students produ- 
cing them are trying to say things they 
consider vital. And many of them are 
doing it with creativity, youthful 
energy, and humor that can well be 

On the whole, however, the under- 
ground papers have given rise to 
more controversy than praise. One of 
the most heated disputes concerns 
whether or not they should be distri- 
buted on campus. One smart under- 
ground crew consulted a lawyer before 
going to press. They were advised to 
distribute their efforts on streets ad- 
jacent to school property. They also 
found that selling the paper without a 
license was illegal — they took dona- 
tions. Other advice included limita- 
tions regarding slander, profanity, and 
copyright regulations. 

Spearheaded by some of the 
school's brightest students, the 
aim of their efforts is change. 
The masthead says the 
"ultimate goal is to see 
that necessary chan- 
ges are made in 
school life. . . 

We are not able to change opinions. 
We cannot do away with the hate, 
prejudice, and out-dated convention- 
alism present in school and society 
today. We only try to induce some 
measure of conscious consideration of 
things as they are." 

The following satire, "The Library 
System" is an anonymous article in 
a paper that promises to "tell it like it 
is." The reprint of this article is not 
intended as a jab at libraries in general, 
but rather as an average sample of the 
creativity being mustered for some of 
these newspapers: 

The other day I had just finished 
eating lunch in the cafeteria and had 
just taken my tray up to be emptied. 
Since I was through early, I had several 
options on how to spend the rest of 
the period: I could either go outside to 
the smoking corral (where vice and evil 
thrive), use the toilet, or go to the 
library. Feeling exceptionally ambi- 
tious and intelligent, I chose the third. 
I entered the empty library and 
meekly walked over to the reference 
section. I was browsing through a 
fascinating book of Lombroso's theory 
of crime when suddenly someone 
whacked me sharply on the hand with 
a ruler. My heart resounded and my 
face must have turned sheet white 
when I saw it was the librarian, Mrs. 

"And just what do you think you 
are doing here, young man?" 

"Oh, I was just reading a book 
concerning the hypothesis of being 
able to tell who's a criminal by the 
look on his face and. . . " 

" That is not what I mean," she 
viciously interrupted. "Where is your 

"Er. . .1 just got through eat- 
ing and thought I would 
spend the rest of the 
period in the library 
reading. " 

I thought she 
would break a 

report or term paper to write, when. . . " 
The look on her face cut me short. 

"This library stays open until 3:24 
P.M. every afternoon (except, of 
course, on Mondays, Thursdays, and 
Fridays when we clean up, and once a 
week for the teachers' meeting). " 

"But Mrs. Boom, the bell rings at 
3:20, so that gives us only four 
minutes. " 

"Any conscientious, hard-working, 
and patriotic student can get in a few 
valuable minutes. " 

"But I figured since hardly anyone 
was in here now that there wouldn't 
be any inconvenience if. . . " 

"What if the whole school came in 
here, plucking books from the shelves 
at random and reading them; now 
wouldn't that make a fine library, " she 
scoffed sarcastically. "This is my 
library, and a respectable one at that, 
and none of you kids are going to tell 
me how to run it. It's high time you 
learned your place around here. . . " 

I finally sort of backed my way out 
of the door. Once in the hall I gasped 
with relief, but I could still hear her 
shout, "What do you think this 
library's for, anyway?" 














blood vessel. 
"You know that 
no one is to enter 
the library without the 
written permission from 
one of the teachers during a 
study hall!" 

I decided to take a stand. 
"B..b..but Mrs. Boom, I don't even 
have a study hall this year. If I had a 


Wilmington's John T. Hoggard High 
School is anything but rigid. Current 
issues are discussed with candor. The 
student council considers itself rele- 
vant, powerful. Many teachers and 
administrators are young, involved. 

Racial problems have been met face 
to face: student-faculty and student- 
student confrontations staged with the 
planning and help of students. Dis- 
turbances have been counteracted with 
more communication. Dress regula- 
tions are liberal: students grow their 
hair any length they fancy; cleanliness 
is the only administrative demand. 

In the midst of such freedom is a 
seeming paradox: the military. The 
school has the only Navy Junior 
ROTC program in the State. It's 
demanding. It's disciplined. And Hog- 
gard's 200 cadets are proud of it. 

They've a right to be proud. Cadets 
must maintain good grades, good be- 
havior, and good health. And they do. 
Sharply pressed blues, straight backs. 

high heads, and a polite tilting of 
white hats sets the cadets apart. 

It's discipline, however, that's 
shaped them into a proud corps. 
"For many, this is their first taste 
of discipline — the kind they're 
bound to find as adults," said Com- 
mander J. E. Bryan, NJROTC director. 
He and the three Naval science instruc- 
tors, all retired military men, are 
classic father figures. Their attitude is 
one of dignity — softened by quick 
grins — and an unquestioned belief in 
the rightness of their program. 

Hoggard's Navy ROTC program was 
launched two years ago at the urging 
of school officials and local leaders. 
(Many active and retired Navy people 
live in the area.) The Navy is generous 
with funding and picks up the tab for 
half the staff salary, all uniforms, 
rifles, class aides, equipment, travel 
expenses, etc. 

A three-year elective program, 
NJROTC begins in the 10th grade. To 
be eligible a boy must be at least 14, a 
male citizen, enrolled in and attending 
school, and physically fit to partici- 
pate in physical education. Students 
are dropped from the corps if their 
academic average goes below a C, if 
they fail one subject, or if their pro- 
gress toward a diploma falls behind 
normal. Completing the three-year 
program, a cadet can shorten college 
ROTC by one year. If he enters the 
Navy after high school graduation, one 
or two pay grades may be skipped. 

Classes carry one credit per year. 
First-year students study Navy orien- 
tation — history, tradition, organiza- 
tion, ships, aircraft, customs, courte- 
sies, etc. NJROTC II covers the basics 
of science subjects related to a Navy 
career: oceanography, meteorology, 
seamanship, piloting, small craft 
safety, and navigation. The third year 
(offered at Hoggard this fall for the 
first time) is a continuation branching 
into the fundamentals of astronomy, 
relative motion, celestial navigation, 
electronics, radar, and sonar. 

In addition to class study, cadets 
meet several times a week for march- 
ing practice (known as drills, com- 
mands, and ceremonies), which turns 
the school parking lot into a parade 
ground. The drill team, a show group 
of about 25, is at the top of the 
Hoggard military heap. Making and 
staying on the team is a matter of 

Rank is another symbol much valued 
by cadets. Based on regular military 
steps, a Cadet Commander heads the 
outfit. Under him are the usual con- 

tingent of Lt. Commanders, Executive 
Officers, etc., all the way to squad 
leaders. "Those who are real go-getters 
make a great deal of it," said the 

On the distaff side of the Hoggard 
military outfit are Navy sponsors and 
the Girls' Drill Team. Serving as a 
sponsor is an honor, a coveted posi- 
tion. The girls are required to maintain 
a 3.0 average, and all of last year's 
sponsors were A students. The duties 
are mainly honorary. Besides parading 
with the battalion, they help organize 
the yearly Navy Ball and appear at the 
Navy Honors Day program. 

The Girls' Drill Team is an unoffi- 
cial adjunct to Navy activities. It was 

organized by the Commander for stu- 
dents he felt might not otherwise be 
included in extracurricular activities. 
There are no requirements for joining. 
The Navy instructors devote their own 
time to working with the girls after 
school. "It gives girls who might be 
left out a source of pride and accom- 
plishment," the Commander said. 

Besides the concrete advantages, 
NJROTC offers other, less tangible 
rewards. Jerry Beaver, New Hanover 
supervisor of secondary education, 
says the "real advantages" are the 
transfer of skills and concepts into the 
rest of the school program. He named 
improved behavior and pride in ap- 
pearance in particular. 

The words came alive at this year's Mars Hill Superintendents 
Conference (July 22-25). In a radical change of format from years 
past, North Carolina school superintendents met for a series of 
round table discussions with students. State agency staff mem- 
bers, and a sprinkling of county commissioners, legislators, and 
others. The emphasis was on involvement. High school students, 
members of the Task Force on Student Involvement, were in on 
discussions of human relations, program relevancy, and legislation 
and politics. The 10-member student task force, jointly sponsored 
by the State Planning Task Force and the State Department of 
Public Instruction, had spent the summer talking with other 
students across the State in an effort to help solve problems 
causing student unrest. They held their own in presenting and 
defining their findings and suggestions in dialogs with the 

Means of harnessing student creativity in solving school 
problems were explored in the three-hour discussion meetings. 
Students said that there are a number of areas where they can and 
should accept responsibility, and they proposed advisory councils 
as one way that students can help administrators. 

According to Roger Carrick of High Point, head of the student 
task force, student problems should be handled as they arise. 
"Many times kids can deal with some problems — if they are 
allowed to exercise responsibility. And often a problem can be 
talked away," he said. In many discussions at the conference, 
students asked that they be told of administrative decisions and 
the reasoning behind them. "Try to use students in advisory 
committees, not decision making groups," said DeWitt McCarley, 
a Greensboro student. "Tell them your decisions, and then let 
them talk about these things with you," he said. 

The student council, they noted, is one power base and point 
of contact with students. They noted, however that in many 
schools the student council does not represent the entire student 
body. Too often the student council is the voice of only the 
upper middle class student. Precinct elections were discussed as 
one solution to problems of representation. In such elections the 
student body would be divided according to geographic areas. 
Others suggested that administrators appoint "kitchen cabinets" 
or other advisory bodies apart from established student councils. 

The task force representatives' most urgent recommendation 
was that students be given an opportunity for dialog. Seminar 
sessions were suggested to allow students from varying back- 
grounds to get to know one another and bring current problems 
out into the open. "Often the rumors that grow into student 
unrest could be controlled if they are discussed openly," they 
said. Homeroom periods were cited as one time during the day 
when a heterogeneous grouping of students should be arranged. 
This would allow mixing of various factions as well as exchange 
of ideas. It was also suggested that such dialog sessions be held on 
a regularly scheduled basis and rotated from one course period to 
another on a two-week or monthly basis. 

The students had an answer to the charge that additional 
responsibilities, dialogs, or student advisory committees might 
give subversive elements a "chance to take over the schools." 
Lonnie Merrick of Wilmington said, "You don't think a person is 
going to tear down a wall he helped build." 

Recent court rulings on student rights were discussed by 
Robert Phay of the Institute of Government of Chapel Hill. He 
noted that it is a growing concern of the courts that students "do 
not leave their rights at the schoolhouse door." Control of dress 
regulations, student press, and search and seizure of students or 
their property is changing, he noted. "The primary concern of the 
courts is that student rights are recognized within the limits of 
the restrictions necessary for the operation of the school." He 

Mlt Like, 1 1 U I 

advised superintendents to institute and publish written regula- 
tions on student conduct and procedures for handling disci- 
plinary action and expulsion. 

In a discussion of politics and legislation, Phay advised 
superintendents to prepare a "war plan" to deal with campus 
disruptions. DeWitt McCarley pleaded that administrators spend 
as much time on an "involvement plan" to keep unrest from 
erupting. One superintendent noted that the time for planning is 
now, not when the trouble occurs. 

In discussions of program relevancy, students contended that 
the "idea wasn't to add new courses, but to revamp the old 
ones." They felt that the college bound student, with four more 
years for growing, will find relevancy for himself. "It is the 
middle student, the disinterested one who is going right to work 
after graduation, that relevancy should reach toward," they said. 

Karen Byrd of Raleigh asked, "How many superintendents 
have students working with them on what's going into the 
curriculum?" Some, of course, answered that they did. 

"Of course students can't tell you the professional things," 
said Karen, "but only the student can tell you how he feels and 
what he wants." The answer to many of the problems voiced at 
the conference concerning student problems, community involve- 
ment, relevancy, etc., seemed to be dialog and more dialog — not 
only an open attitude toward all factions, but a willingness to go 
out and find those people who need to speak up. 

Superintendents, however, agreed that one important answer 
to the problem of program relevancy is the need for more 
"master teachers." They feel that better and additional in-service 
training programs are needed along with improved teacher 
education. Many voiced the opinion that the teacher training 
institutions need to work more closely with the public schools. 
"Teacher education is hitting the nail on the head," said one 

They also agreed that in order to find out what is relevant and 
to whom, teachers and administrators need more time. "We've 
got to free the teacher to teach," said one administrator. "Do you 
need a Ph.D. to check hall passes?" asked one student. Para- 
professional and parent help were pointed to as one aid to 
over-loaded teachers. The ten-month year was another. "We all 
need more time to work with the teachers," said one superin- 

In a discussion of integration problems, Preston Hill of the 
N.C. Good Neighbor Council, contended that black students 
will often watch their black teachers as a key to reaction. "If 
the teachers are rejected, the students will feel it. If teachers 
lack security and feel the system isn't working for them, the 

students will pick it up," he said. According to Hill, "a lot of 
hang-ups come from the central office, from the man and his 
attitude." Superintendents agreed that an open attitude — an 
open door — was a beginning. It was also suggested that teachers 
be in on the planning sessions for integration procedures. One 
superintendent complained, "integration always hits us during the 
summer, when there's no time to get our teachers together." 

"We always come back to this thing about communication," 
said another superintendent. And, indeed, communication was 
the most overused word at the four-day meeting. According to 
Hill, the best public relations come from word of mouth: "Telling 
it with feeling yourself. . .Letting the staff know what's going 
on." As one superintendent put it, "I wonder if we haven't been 
so caught up that we haven't gotten the picture to our teachers as 
well as our students." 

Student problems and opinions, though emphasized, did not 
dominate the four-day meeting. In a discussion of State agency 
services (led by Assistant State Superintendent Max Abbott), 
State Superintendent Craig Phillips explained new plans for State 
agency organization. 

A review of legislation affecting the schools was presented by 
State Board of Education Controller A. C. Davis during legislation 
and politics discussions (led by Assistant State Superintendent for 
Program Services Jerome Melton). Superintendents also discussed 
how local boards of education, superintendents, and county 
commissioners can coordinate involvement of the entire com- 
munity in the schools by working together to obtain the interest 
and resources of the community. Human relations discussions 
were led by Bob Strother, special assistant to the State 
Superintendent, and program relevancy meetings were conducted 
by Dick Ray, director of the Learning Institute of North 
Carolina, and members of his staff. 

The presence of the students did, however, put a stamp of 
grass-roots involvement on the conference. As one superintendent 
said, "I think the important thing is that despite their concerns 
and criticism, we've found that students want to help. They want 
relevancy, of course, but they're not against us. They're con- 
cerned, but they're positive." 

Many superintendents felt it was high time the schools start 
displaying a positive attitude themselves. "We've got a lot to 
be proud of," said one. And Dr. Phillips, at the conference's 
opening banquet," related the moon shot and a myriad of 
other cultural advances to the public schools. These advances, 
he noted, are "products of a system of universal education that 
stutters — falters — stumbles by its own massiveness and limited 
resources — yet still produces." ■ 

Kindergarten Sites Selected 

Eight sites for Early Childhood Education Demonstration 
Centers were approved by the State Board of Education at its 
August meeting. One million dollars was appropriated by the 
General Assembly to be used in the establishment of public 
kindergartens in the 1969-71 biennium. The first year of 
operation will cost $333,000. 

One site was chosen in each of the eight educational districts 
in North Carolina. The selections, based on guidelines adopted by 
the State Board, were made from 75 project proposals submitted. 

Small towns, rural areas, and urban areas are represented. Centers 
will be at Chocowinity School in Beaufort County; Beaufort 
Elementary School, Carteret County; Jeffreys Grove School, 
Wake County; Southern Pines Elementary School, Moore County; 
Saxapahaw Elementary School, Alamance County; Woodhill 
Elementary School, Gaston County; East Harper Elementary 
School, Lenoir City Schools; and Sylva Elementary School, 
Jackson County. These demonstration centers are scheduled to 
open in December. ■ 




A team of four North Carolina 
educators spent a month visiting South 
America last summer gathering re- 
source materials for the teaching of 
Hispanic culture. Sponsored by ESEA 
Title V, the team was led by Mrs. Tora 
Ladu, State supervisor of foreign 
languages. The materials collected are 
being used to develop cultural en- 
richment kits to be loaned to schools 
throughout the State. They will 
contain slides, tapes, and printed 
materials. The kits can be used for 
enrichment in the teaching of Spanish, 
social studies, and humanities courses. 
Mrs. Ladu is hopeful that the kits will 
be completed by the end of the 
academic year. 

Other team members were Virgil 
Miller, associate State supervisor of 
foreign languages, Jesse Vuncannon, 
State supervisor of social studies, and 
Mrs. Lucile Gault, a Spanish teacher at 
Murphy High School. 

The project is a continuation of the 
work begun two years ago with the 
preparation and publication of Teach- 
ing for Cross-Cultural Understanding, a 
curriculum bulletin. The bulletin and 
the kits being developed to comple- 
ment it are aimed at developing more 
positive attitudes toward and more 
accurate understanding of foreign peo- 
ples through study of various cultures. 

Resource units have been developed 
for the French culture and were based 
on materials collected by Mrs. Ladu 
when she visited France last winter 
under the sponsorship of a Fulbright 
research grant. These units will be 
available to schools on a loan basis 
sometime this fall. 

Mount Sterling 
Saga Ended 

The State's last one-room school, a 
small rock structure in the remote 
mountain community of Mount Ster- 
ling, was closed in May 1967. But the 
story didn't end there. 

Since the only road leading from 
Mount Sterling into North Carolina 
was a twisting, dirt impossibility, stu- 
dents were sent to nearby Cocke 
County, Tennessee, for their edu- 
cation. They were transported on 
North Carolina buses, and their tuition 
was paid by the State. 

Last spring, however, the 16 stu- 
dents returned to North Carolina 
schools. The completion of a 22-mile 
stretch of Interstate 40 put Mount 
Sterling within half an hour's drive of 
Waynesville where they are now atten- 
ding school. 

The old one-room school, built in 
1930, had 12 students when it closed. 
School, grades one through eight, was 
taught by Mrs. Goldie Leatherwood. 
Students, some barefoot, stoked up a 
large black coal stove on chilly morn- 
ings. Older boys could fish for trout in 
the big creek behind the building 
during recess. And at lunchtime, boys 
sat at one table while Mrs. Leather- 
wood and the girls occupied another. 

Kids Stay 

After School 
for Fun 

Sixth graders at Moore Elementary 
School in Greensboro thought staying 
after school last year was fun! In fact 
teachers had trouble sending the stu- 
dents home. 

The youngsters were enticed to 
stick around to attend hour-long "ex- 
perience clinics," an idea dreamed up 
by Mrs. Andrea Jeffers, director of 
psychological services for Greensboro 
Public Schools. 

"The idea," she said, "was to show 
them what education is all about — the 
things that grow out of attending class 
and learning. We wanted them to get 
excited about learning and to experi- 
ence things they might miss." 

Helping with the "experiences" 
were volunteer teams of A & T Uni- 
versity students who took the children 
to art galleries and greenhouses; taught 
them to swim (at the A & T pool), to 
dance, and to work with clay; and 
helped them with writing letters, set- 
ting tables, and a variety of other 
activities. One afternoon the students 
went to see "Sound of Music," and at 
the next meeting of the group they 
related the movie to their own lives. 

The clinics were held twice a week 
from January to May. Each month was 
devoted to a different aspect of experi- 
ence such as art, music, personal and 
social awareness, physical education, 
and elementary science. Ideas for acti- 
vities came from all sides: teachers, 
volunteers, and Mrs. Jeffers. The struc- 
ture was flexible enough to allow last 
minute changes and suggestions. 

There were no funds allotted for 
the project, and Mrs. Jeffers feels that 
"experience" clinics for more than one 
class of children would require some 
funding for materials and field trips. 


Twenty-seven of the State's public school systems have had 
superintendent changes since last year. Three new units were 
created by the 1969 General Assembly and three units have 
merged as a result of legislation making a total of 155 public 
school systems in North Carolina. 

Newly created units are Scotland Neck (Halifax County) and 
Warrenton and Littleton-Lake Gaston (Warren County). Glen 
Alpine and Morganton City units have merged with Burke 
County, Murphy and Andrews have merged with Cherokee 
County, and Marion has merged with McDowell County.. In 
addition, voters in the Wilson, Elm City, and the Wilson County 
units will vote on merger in November. 

Eleven of the new superintendents were either associate or 
assistant superintendents. Eight former Tar Heel Principals 
stepped up, and seven of the new superintendents changed 
position from one unit to another. 

In the list below, the name of the system's new superintendent 
and his previous position are given first, followed by the name 
and present position of the former superintendent. 

BEAUFORT: Gray Hodges, assistant superintendent, Beaufort; replaced 
Wesley F. Veasey, retired. 

BLADEN: W. J. Hair, associate superintendent, Bladen; replaced D. M. 
Calhoun, retired. 

BRUNSWICK: Ralph C. King, associate superintendent, Brunswick; re- 
placed George F. Williams, now superintendent, Orange County Schools. 

BUNCOMBE: Fred H. Martin, associate superintendent, Buncombe; 
replaced T. C. Roberson, retired. 

BURKE: Charles Weaver, superintendent, Elizabeth City-Pasquotank 
Schools, heads merged units of Burke County, Glen Alpine City, and 
Morganton City; replaced John L. Johnson, former superintendent of 
Burke, and Earl C. Whitener, former superintendent of Glen Alpine, now 
assistant superintendents of the merged unit, and Robert A. Nelson, former 
superintendent of Morganton, now administrative assistant. 

CONCORD (Cabarrus County): William M. Irvin, director of instruction, 
Concord; replaced W. W. Hartsell, now supervisor of Special Services, 
Kannapolis City Schools. 

CHEROKEE: John Jordan, superintendent. Murphy City Schools, heads 
merged units of Cherokee County, Murphy City, and Andrews City; 
replaced L. W. Hendrix, former superintendent of Cherokee, now retired, 
and C. Landrum Wilson, former superintendent of Andrews, now super- 
intendent, Yancy County Schools. 

GRAHAM: Modeal Walsh, principal of Robbinsville High (Graham); 
replaced Kenneth S. Barker, now assistant superintendent, Transylvania 
County Schools. 

GREENE: George S. Taylor, principal of Greene Central High; replaced 
Robert E. Strother, now special assistant in human relations to the State 

GREENSBORO (Guilford County): W. J. House, associate superintendent, 
Greensboro; replaced P. J. Weaver, who died in March. 

SCOTLAND NECK (Halifax County): Franklin Boyd Bailey, principal of 
Windsor School (Bertie County); heads new unit created by 1969 General 

WELDON (Halifax): Marion L. Fisher, general supervisor, Weldon; replaced 
B. P. Hammack, now superintendent, Elizabeth City-Pasquotank Schools. 

HAYWOOD: William Thomas Bird, superintendent, Richmond County 
Schools; replaced W. C. Pressley, now administrative assistant, Eden City 
Schools (Rockingham County). 

HYDE: Richard O. Singletary, principal of LaGrange School (Lenoir 
County); replaced Allen D. Bucklew, now superintendent, Tucker County, 
West Virginia. 

JONES: Joseph S. Collins, principal of Apex School (Wake County); 
replaced John E. Rooks, now principal of Millbrook School (Wake 

SANFORD (Lee County): Kenneth H. Brison, assistant superintendent, 
Sanford; replaced J. F. Hockaday, now president of Carolina Technical 
Institute, Sanford. 

KINSTON (Lenoir County): Thomas Beach, assistant superintendent, 
Kinston; replaced R. Max Abbott, now assistant State superintendent for 
special services. State Department of Public Instruction. 

McDOWELL: C. R. Dale, superintendent, Marion City Schools, heads 
merged units of McDowell County and Marion City; replaced James E. 
Johnson, now associate superintendent of the merged unit. 

ORANGE: George F. Williams, superintendent, Brunswick County; re- 
placed G. P. Carr, retired. 

ELIZABETH CITY-PASQUOTANK: B. Paul Hammack, superintendent, 
Weldon City Schools (Halifax County); replaced Charles Weaver, now 
superintendent, Burke County Schools. 

RANDOLPH: John Robert Lawrence, principal of Jamestown Junior High 
(Guilford County); replaced Lacy M. Presnell, Jr., now educational 
consultant, Division of School Planning, State Department of Public 

RICHMOND: Irie Leonard, assistant superintendent, Gaston County 
Schools; replaced William Thomas Bird, now superintendent of Haywood 
County Schools. 

LAURINBURG-SCOTLAND: Kenneth R. Newbold, assistant superinten- 
dent, Greensboro City Schools (Guilford County); replaced A. B. Gibson, 

STOKES: William E. Terry, associate superintendent, Sampson County 
Schools; replaced R. M. Green, retired. 

TRANSYLVANIA: Harry C. Corbin, principal of Brevard High (Transyl- 
vania); replaced R. E. Robinson, now associate professor of education, 
Appalachian State University. 

TYRRELL: David Davis, supervisor, Tyrrell; replaced M. L. Basnight, 

LITTLETON-LAKE GASTON (Warren County): Russell N. Manning, 
principal of South Granville High School; heads new unit created by 1969 
General Assembly. 

WARRENTON (Warren County): Fred Bartholomew, principal of John 
Graham High (Warren County); heads new unit created by 1969 General 

WATAUGA: Swanson Richards, associate superintendent, Surry County; 
replaced W. Guy Angell, now administrator of Blowing Rock Hospital and 
Extended Care Center. 

YANCEY: Landrum Wilson, superintendent of Andrews City Schools 
(Cherokee County); replaced Hubert D. Justice, resigned. 


New State Department of Public Instruction Staff 

The third of five newly created assistant State superintendent 
posts has been filled. Dr. R. Max Abbott, superintendent of 
Kinston City Schools for the past four years, began his duties in 
July. A native of Swain County, he received his A.B., M.Ed., and 
Ed. D. degrees from UNC-Chapel Hill. He served for two years in 
executive secretary of the North Carolina State School Boards 
Association. Previously, he taught and was a principal in 
Winston-Salem. As the assistant State superintendent for special 
services, his prime responsibility will be planning, developing, and 
administering regional services of the Department of Public 
Instruction. His immediate concerns will include studying re- 
gional programs in other States and means of decentralizing 
services; surveying for specific services needed throughout the 
State; developing, with professional and lay persons, definite 
plans for regional services from the State education agency. 

Reorganizational plans for the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion abolish the former post of associate State superintendent and 
look toward an executive cabinet of assistant State superinten- 
dents with specific responsibilities in different fields. Dr. Jerome 
Melton, the first assistant State superintendent named, is head of 
program services, and Dr. H. T. Conner, who joined the staff in 
March, is assistant State superintendent for planning and research. 
Assistant State superintendents for administrative services and 
vocational rehabilitation are to be named. 

Two associate directors, Harold Webb and Eugene Causby, 
have been assigned to work with Robert E. Strother, special 
assistant in human relations, in rendering technical assistance to 

local school systems in civil rights compliance and desegregation 
problems. Webb previously served the Department as assistant 
coordinator for State administration of the National Defense 
Education Act. He was a principal in Hillsborough before he 
joined the State education agency in 1962 as a science supervisor. 
He holds B.S. and M.S. degrees from A & T Univeristy in 

Causby resigned his position as administrative assistant for the 
Goldsboro City Schools to accept the State post. Causby went to 
Goldsboro in 1960 as coach and athletic director and later served 
as junior high principal. He attended Catawba College and 
received his master's degree at East Carolina University where he 
also has done additional graduate work. Webb and Causby join 
Strother in a new operation, supported by a Federal grant, which 
will coordinate the resources of the State education agency to 
assist local leadership with civil rights compliance. 

James W. Carruth has returned to North Carolina as director of 
education media for the Department to spearhead efforts to 
expand and improve the use of instructional media throughout 
the State. Carruth was director of audiovisual education in the 
Fayetteville City Schools for 10 years before he left the State to 
head media services for the Fairfax, Va., school system. He has 
had experience in the commercial educational media field and for 
over two years taught and developed courses in audiovisual 
education at East Carolina University. He holds the M.A. degree 
in education from East Carolina University and has done 
additional graduate work at Duke University and UNC-Chapel 

World Cultures and Gaming Slated for ITV This Year 

A new ITV (instructional television) series. Contemporary 
World Cultures, will be aired this year. The program replaces ITV 
World History, discontinued during 1968-69. 

The series has been developed and will be taught by Betty 
Bullard, formerly a social studies teacher at Lee Edwards High 
School, Asheville. It is designed to assist teachers with the 
transition from tenth grade world history to contemporary world 

The eleven-unit course will depart from conventional chrono- 
logical history and emphasize cultural structure. The seven units 
to be televised deal with Asia and Africa. The programming is 
planned as a supplemental aid to the classroom teacher and can 
also be used, according to Miss Bullard, for enrichment in world 
literature, world history, or world geography courses. Teacher 
aids include course outlines, in-service programs, and an anno- 
tated bibliography. 

Simulation gaming, a relatively new teaching technique, was 
tested on ITV last spring. Funded under ESEA Title V, the 
gaming experiment was aired on the UNCET network in 
conjunction with U.S. History ITV. Mary Vann Wilkins, ITV 
teacher, was in charge. 

Called "Dangerous Parallels," the game was a simulation of a 
world crisis enacted by students in the studio and in participating 
classrooms. The game was developed by the Foreign Policy 
Association, a nonprofit organization whose functions are the 

development and dissemination of foreign policy materials. 

Students visiting the television studio played the roles of 
statesmen from various countries, while the in-school audience 
was asked to act as the policy making body of the country most 
like the United States. Participating classes submitted a weekly 
ballot or consensus to their team. The game included simulated 
conferences, summit meetings, and press announcements by the 
various teams. Teachers were prepared with in-service programs, 
and students were supplied with a foreign policy information kit. 

Evaluation, under the direction of Miss Wilkins and a State 
Department of Public Instruction advisory committee, showed 
favorable attitudes toward the new technique. Complete data is 
being sent to participating schools. 

Miss Wilkins plans to use additional games with the U.S. 
history course this year. 

Further information about ITV programs may be obtained 
from Mrs. Reta P. Richardson, State Supervisor, Television 
Education, State Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh. 



Junior Historians Receive Awards 

North Carolina Student Is First in Bricklaying 

The Conquerors of Carolinian History Club, whose members 
are seventh graders at LeRoy Martin Junior High School in 
Raleigh, received this year's "special achievement" award in the 
Tar Heel Junior Historian contest sponsored by the N.C. 
Department of Archives and History. Their entry was titled 
"Justice for Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin." Clubs previously 
receiving first place recognition in the literary or arts categories 
for two years and at least honorable mention for one year are 
eligible to compete for the achievement trophy. The contest is 
sponsored by the N.C. Department of Archives and History 
through its affiliates the Tar Heel Junior Historian Association 
and the N.C. Literary and Historical Association. 

First place award winners in the 1969 competition were 
Individual Literary: Robin Phillips, Corriher-Lipe School, Landis, 
whose entry was entitled "Zion-Parnassus: Cradle of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina"; Group Literary: Joint winners — Reeds 
School, Lexington, a history of Reeds, and Whiteville Elemen- 
tary, Whiteville, a history of "Mille-Christine," nineteenth cen- 
tury Siamese twins from that area; Arts: Albemarle Junior High 
School, Albemarle, a relief map of North Carolina with models by 
Steve Crowell. 

Honorable mention winners were Special Achievement: LeRoy 
Martin Junior High, Raleigh, a study of the Raleigh City 
Cemetery; and Silk Hope School, Siler City, a history of the Siler 
City Post Office; Arts: Reeds School Lexington, a log cabin by 
Ricky D. Leonard; Whiteville Elementary School, Whiteville, a 
model of the Fayetteville Market Place by Elizabeth Parks; 
Individual Literary: Katherine Rodenbough, Madison-Mayodan 
School, a history of early business in Madison. 

The award winning entries are on display in the Tar Heel 
Junior Historian Gallery of the N.C. Museum of History. 

Y~) "\ 

Pictured above is the 10" clay sculpture accompanying the first place 
winner in the Group Literary category of the Tar Heel Junior Historian 
contest entered by the Columbus Junior Historian Club, Whiteville 
Elementary School. Under the leadership of Mrs. Beulah Martin, North 
Carolina history teacher, the club researched Columbus County's famous 
Siamese twins, Mille-Christine. Their entry was a scrapbook of all available 
data on the twins. A historic marker near Barefoot Curve on Highway 
74-76 marks the spot where the twins were born in 1851. The twins were 
buried in Columbus County five miles from the spot where they were born. 

"It only goes to show what is second in North Carolina is still 
first in the nation," said Governor Bob Scott. And Wavely 
Brinkley of Hawkins High School in Warrenton proved the point. 
Brinkley was runner-up in the State bricklaying contest last spring 
and he later took first place honors at the National Leadership 
Conference of the Vocational Industrial Clubs of America. He 
received his training under W. E. Exum. 

Brinkley entered the national contest after North Carolina's 
top winner, Dennis Reaves of Dudley High School in Greensboro, 
was unable to attend. After winning the national contest, 
Brinkley was presented a trophy by the Governor at ceremonies 
held in Raleigh. Accompanying Brinkley to the award presenta- 
tion was his employer, Richard Robertson, a Burlington masonry 

Robertson noted that in North Carolina apprentice bricklayers 
make from $4.50 to $4.75 an hour and that journeymen brick 
masons make from $7 to $8 an hour. Robertson employs several 
high school brick masons on commercial structures he is building. 

Other North Carolina students receiving top honors at the 
national contest were Gail Mize of Cary High School, first place 
in job interview; Gary Moss of A. L. Brown High School in 
Kannapolis, third place in public speaking; and Charles Brunson of 
Shallotte High School, third place in welding. 

State Has National DECA Officer 

Sharon Davis, a student at Seventy First High School, 
Fayetteville, was elected Secretary-Treasurer of the Distributive 
Education Clubs of America (DECA) at the National Leadership 
Conference held in Atlantic City, N.J. She also holds the office of 
Secretary-Treasurer for the North Carolina chapter. DECA is a 
professional youth organization for students enrolled in distri- 
butive education. North Carolina's 1969 membership, 19,907, is 
the nation's second highest. 

Myers Park Scores Again 

Myers Park High School, Charlotte, is one of ten secondary 
schools in the country that was cited for their "outstanding 
programs in physics for 1968-69" by the American Association of 
Physics Teachers (AAPT). The Myers Park program also received 
the honor in 1964. 

In charge of both programs cited by the AAPT was Charles S. 
Fulcher, a former physicist with the U.S. Naval Research 
Laboratory. According to John F. Smith, director of science and 
mathematics for the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, Fulcher has 
special talent for stimulating his students to think creatively. 

Myers Park was selected along with Wayne County High 
School in Jesup, Ga., from a region including Florida, Georgia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. 


King Picked 


Sanford Award 

Stacy King, principal of the newly opened Eastern Wayne High 
School (Wayne County), was 1969 winner of the Terry Sanford 
award for creative teaching. He was recognized for administrative 
leadership in working with faculty and students to implement 
new ideas in instruction: a student-centered school, curriculum 
innovations in the language arts and social studies, and the 
development of independent study and individualized instruction. 
King has been an educator for 16 years, 6 at New Hope School 
(Wayne County) where he served as principal until last year. 

A native Tar Heel, King attended Campbell College, received 
his B.A. degree from Atlantic Christian College and his master's 
degree from East Carolina University. His father, J. W. King of 
Belfast, is a former principal, and his late mother was a teacher. 
King is married to the former Mary Louise Powell, who was a 
teacher at Fair Bluff. 

King began his teaching career at Seaboard in Northampton 
County. After two years of active duty in the Navy Reserve, he 
was a teacher-coach at Brogden High School for three years. He 
served in the same capacity at Maury School in Greene County 
for one year. Later King became dean of students at Charles B. 
Aycock High School in Pikeville. 

Mrs. Helen R. Culp and Mrs. Ylia P. Walsh, professors at 
Gaston College, Gastonia, were joint honorable mention winners. 
They were cited for efforts in the field of team teaching. 

The award was established from funds donated by members of 
the teaching profession for Governor Terry Sanford in recogni- 
tion of his contributions to education. The former Governor 
requested that the funds be awarded to persons in the education 
field who contributed outstanding innovative ideas. The program 
is administered by the North Carolina Education Association and 
the North Carolina Teachers Association in cooperation with the 
Learning Institute of North Carolina. Judges are selected from the 
teaching profession. The winner receives a plaque and a $400 cash 
prize. The honorable mention winner receives a citation and 

Mrs. P. J. Weaver, wife of the late superintendent of 
Greensboro Public Schools received a special posthumous award 
on behalf of her husband. The honorary award was given for 
dedication to the problems of public education in Greensboro 
and in North Carolina. Weaver served as assistant superintendent 
in Greensboro from 1951 to 1958 and was superintendent from 
1958 until his death in March 1969. 

The awards were presented at ceremonies held at Quail Roost 
Conference Center, Rougemont, by State Superintendent Craig 

Statewide Youth Council Established 

North Carolina's high school students demanded, and were 
granted by the 1969 General Assembly, an opportunity to 
develop leadership, learn about government, and plan and 
participate in community service projects. The vehicle for 
this chance was a bill establishing the Youth Council of North 
Carolina — an act for which many educators, students, and 
legislators went to bat. 

The idea for a Statewide youth council began in 1966 with the 
incorporation of several local councils: Asheville, Fayetteville, 
Greensboro, High Point, Raleigh, and Wilmington. Each of these 
councils was organized by local government to serve as a junior 
city council to advise the adult government on the matters 
relating to youth. But youth council members didn't stop there — 
each council sponsored many civic projects (over a hundred) 
ranging from after-school employment operations to traffic safety 
programs and social activities called "Be-lns" that were designed 
to get students from varying backgrounds aquainted. The councils 
were so successful that plans were made to expand them into a 
Statewide organization. 

With the aid of a Smith Richardson Foundation grant and 
under the direction of an adult project director, the organization 
decided to take as its 1969-70 major project the establishment of 
a youth council under the State government. Developing a master 
plan, writing a bill, and selling it to the General Assembly 
acquainted many youth council members with government at the 
State level. 

Under the new act, councils will be created at both local and 
State levels. The State youth council will be composed of youth 

elected on a representative basis from local councils. Local 
councils will be organized to cooperate with one or more units of 
local government or community agencies. They will be composed 
of students enrolled in public and nonpublic high schools (grades 
10, 11, and 12) and other youth between the ages of 16 and 18 
living within a council district. Providing leadership at the State 
level will be an advisory board appointed by the Governor. 

The new organization, the Youth Council of North Carolina, 
will be dedicated to promoting activities to contribute to the 
local community, the State, and youth. The objective of the 
council is to encourage as many students as possible to become 
involved in council activities. They will have an opportunity to 
take part in local government — boards of education and human 
relations commissions, for example. Council members will 
attempt to encourage interest and participation by youth in civic 
affairs — projects for city beautification, employment services, 
tutorial programs, etc. The councils will also participate in various 
programs designed to develop leadership and citizenship among 
youth as well as work with existing programs in order to prevent 
duplication of services. 

Among those advocating creation of the Statewide council was 
State Superintendent Craig Phillips who said that the council's 
leadership might help with the solution of problems of school 
drop-outs and social change. "This holds much promise in trying 
to solve the problems of youth," he said. 


How many teachers consider giving 
students- in their classes the freedom 
and responsibility of grading them- 
selves? The results were gratifying for 
Mrs. Claudette Brownley, a mathe- 
matics teacher at Rockingham High 
School, Rockingham. 

'Mrs. Brown ley's experiment began 
with her concern over the low grades 
in one of her three eleventh-grade 
Algebra 1 1 -Trigonometry classes. She 
hit on the idea of letting the students 
grade themselves. No grades were re- 
corded by the teacher, and students 
kept all their work in a folder at the 
back of the room. When grades were 
due, all papers were returned to the 
students, and they determined their 
own grades on the basis of the papers 
and evaluation of their understanding 

of the material covered. 

Standardized tests were given on 
the material covered during the experi- 
ment. The standardized test percentile 
for the experimental class was 1 1 
points higher than that of one control 
class and 8 points higher than the 
percentile of the other. The experi- 
mental class percentile on previous 
standardized mathematics tests had 
been between 12 and 38 points below 
those of the other two classes. 

The average IQ of the experimental 
class was 106 while those of the other 
two classes were 1 1 8 and 1 1 4. Could it 
be that some students will learn more 
if they are given the independence to 
pursue their studies without the stress 
and strain associated with the usual 
grading system? Mrs. Brownley thinks 

attorney fjcncnil i* 

Excerpts of rulings from the State 
Attorney General's office are pre- 
sented here as an information service. 
Complete copies of the rulings may be 
obtained by writing Division of Publi- 
cations and Public Information, State 
Department of Public Instruction, 
Education Building, Raleigh 27602. 

Public Schools; Regulatory Power 
of School Board; Authority to Prohi- 
bit Student from Participation in Ath- 
letics Because of Marriage of Student, 
June 13, 1969 

'The question is presented as to 
whether a school board, superin- 
tendent or proper administrative offi- 
cials may bar or prohibit a student 
from participation in athletics or in 
athletic competition because the stu- 
dent has married. It is assumed that 
the student was regularly enrolled in a 
public school, and while having the 
status of such a pupil he married .... 

"Pupils in public schools may not 

be prohibited from entering into the 
marriage relationship, nor may such 
pupils be refused admission or ex- 
pelled or excluded from public 
schools. A pupil who marries still has a 
right to receive a public education if 
otherwise eligible. School authorities, 
however, do not look with much favor 
upon juvenile marriages of their pupils. 
It has been found that on the whole, 
and as a general rule, marriages more 
often result in dropouts and the sta- 
tistics show that the rate of dropouts 
is much greater among the married 
pupils than it is among the regular 
single pupils. The public schools also 
find that leaders in athletics and other 
extra curricular activities tend to 
occupy a 'hero' status among their 
fellow students, and this leads to the 
fact that other pupils tend to emulate 
their conduct. School boards and ad- 
ministrative officials, therefore, in 
general, have found it wise to prohibit 
students who marry from participating 
in extra curricular activities, and this 
includes all types of such activities, 
including athletics. It has been found 
by educators that the juvenile marriage 

is better preserved if the student de- 
votes his extra time to family affairs 
rather than to school activities. 

"It has, therefore, been held by 
several courts that a board of educa- 
tion or high administrative officers of 
the public schools may provide and 
enforce a regulation that married stu- 
dents or previously married students 
be restricted wholly to classroom work 
and that they be barred from partici- 
pating in athletics or other exhibitions 
and not be permitted to hold class 
offices or other positions of honor 
except academic honors ... In Utah a 
married high school senior who was a 
member of the Wrestling Team and 
who expected to be a baseball member 
was excluded from athletic activities, 
and this was held to be proper . . . The 
Michigan courts upheld a regulation 
excluding married students from vari- 
ous extra curricular activities. Many 
other opinions can be cited but by the 
great weight of legal authority school 
boards and administrative officials 
may exclude married students from 
athletics and, for that matter, from all 
other extra curricular activities." 



7 .' 3 V/a- 





Volume 34 / Number 2 / October 1969 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director, Publications & Public Information: Almetta (Cookie) Brooks 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Editorial Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July, and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is required 
for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public Schools, Division 
of Publications and Public Information, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N. C. 27602. 


Involvement: Key Issue at Principals Conference 3 

Getting Students Into the Act 6 

Chatham County's Brand of Student Involvement 7 

Teacher Involvement: A Two-Way Street 8 

". . . there must be teacher participation in the 

formulation of educational policies ..." 9 

How to Tackle a Problem - Ask Everybody 10 

Citizen Effort Leads to Consolidation 12 

School - A Bore? 14 

News Briefs 15 

Attorney General Rules 16 

Prom the 

State Superintendent 

Involvement — the drawing in of others as participants — holds 
promise of a communications breakthrough for our schools. 

This issue of North Carolina Public Schools describes how 
some of our school systems are involving students, parents, and 
the community - as well as faculty and administrators — in the 
educational process. They are but a few of many examples which 
have come to our attention during recent months. All are 
evidence that we educators are more and more realizing that 
communicating is a two-way street. We are learning that it is as 
important to listen as it is to tell. 

The school systems having the fewest problems today — a 
minimum of misunderstandings and racial tensions as well as 
adequate support for new educational needs — are the ones who 
got into this "involvement business" early. Desegregation plans 
involved the entire professional staff of the system, students, and 
the community. Channels were opened for concerns and griev- 
ances to be aired before they spilled over into confrontation or 
conflict. The school family listened to its students and to its 
communities. Problems facing the schools were frankly discussed; 
citizens and student advisory groups were organized to help solve 

These school systems have found that involvement creates 
interest, leads to understanding, and fosters cooperation and 
support. And in most instances, the involvement started with a 
positive attitude on the part of just one, or a few individuals. 

I was impressed with what one secondary school principal said 
during a human relations workshop last summer. He pointed out 
that most school systems and boards of education have an "open 
door" policy. Many times, he added, this has meant only that the 
public is not refused entry, or an audience. Little effort has been 
made to "entice" laymen inside the educational establishment. 
"Well, the door opens in both directions," the principal con- 
tinued. "We must go out into the community." 

How right he is! For too long we have considered proprietor- 
ship of public education and the right of prescription the natural 
inheritance of the professional educator. Actually, we are only a 
partner in the holdings and our prerogative to prescribe depends 
upon our knowledge of the society public education serves. 

** V*V*V ^ V V S V !e V 

\*° x\^V* \^V <&*st '^ *^« 


S^ V ^^^M \S^ \\~^ ^ 

^k. ^ ,/ c5b^ o^ C^ N o^ 



heart and the core of the problem: 
"You've got two cultures in your 
schools. Try not only to listen to 
them both, but to understand," he 

In group meetings on student involve- 
ment, the principals were given concrete 
means to involve their students- recom- 
mendations made by the Task Force on 
Student Involvement from studies they 
conducted during the summer. "These 
recommendations don't just come from 
10 or 20 kids, but from kids all across 
the State," said Joe Loveland, a stu- 
dent from High Point. He noted that 
the scientific validity of the report 
has been questioned. "These are the 
kids' emotions and feelings. We concen- 
trated on what President Nixon would 
call the forgotten high school student, 
the ones who are disinterested." He 
said that student councils are not al- 
ways representative of the entire stu- 
dent body. 

"Yes," agreed one principal, "you've 
got to get the leader of the motorcycle 
gang." Another said that the real pro- 
blem was getting students involved in 
the "life blood" of the school, not 
just the social activities. And Lonnie 
Merrick of Wilmington added, "Get 
those who are potential problems in on 
your problems." The students explained 
that all of the recommendations would 
not, of course, be appropriate for all 

In discussions of staff problems 

brought about by school integration, 
one principal said, "You have to scrap 
both old schools and begin with a new 
structure, a new feeling, and a new 
tradition." Many complained about the 
teacher who resisted change, the one 
who might have occupied the same room 
for 20 years. "Sometimes all you can 
do is wait for her to die," someone 
joked. Another suggested arranging 
teachers, as well as students, in alpha- 
betical order. "Everybody can under- 
stand that," he said. 

"You can't change people, their 
prejudices, and their feelings," said 
one participant. "But the principal 
can and should set the tone of the new 
school," answered another. They agreed 
that many of the methods used at the 
conference, role playing and group dis- 
cussion, for example, could be used at 
teacher and parent meetings to bring 
people closer to understanding school 
problems and one another. 

Most of the principals did not con- 
sider integration to be the cause of 
problems in instruction. But ability 
grouping was seen as a possible source 
of conflict in a newly integrated 
school. Many asked for additional vo- 
cational offerings in their schools, and 
Anita Hayes, a student from Wilming- 
ton, urged principals to involve their 
students in curriculum planning. Princi- 
pals agreed that such efforts would 
lead to more individualized programs, 
but would require much time for plan- 

She also suggested a regularly sche- 
duled activity period as one means of 
getting everyone involved in something. 
One principal, from a rural area, 
seconded the idea. He said that regular 
activity periods held during school 
hours will involve students who are 
unable, for one reason or another, to 
be present at after-school or evening 

As for black studies, many agreed 
that a separate course on the subject 
encourages further polarization of 
the two cultures. "But we've got to 
put it in the regular course," said 
one principal. "It's time we gave 
them the whole picture." 

"As for cultural gaps," said 

another principal, "how many of you 
still have pictures of Robert E. Lee 
on your walls?" Another said, "Maybe 
we should leave them up, but add some 
of Sojourner Truth." Talk of ethnic 
misunderstandings threaded its way 
through all of the meetings. "I've 
learned a lot of things," said one 
principal. "I never knew whether to 
call people blacks or Negroes." Another 
suggested that maybe "people" was fine. 

"Misunderstanding isn't just con- 
fined to black and white," said one 
principal. He related that he'd had 
BOYS removed from the rest rooms at 
his school. "I thought maybe it was 
time we called them MEN," he said. 

In discussions on ethnic sensitivity, 
participants brought up false images 
held by both blacks and whites. They 
agreed that teachers can help destroy 
such myths. "But how can I gain the 
respect of black students?" asked one 
white principal. 

"You've got to be fair and honest 
with both blacks and whites," said a 
student. "They will see it," he con- 

As for community relations, they 
agreed that students are the best public 
relations men the schools have. "If 
they think you're right, they'll go 
home and argue the point with Mom and 
Dad," said one principal. Many noted 
that their schools had active human 
relations or guidance committees made 
of parents and laymen. In one school 
this committee has provided interest 
courses for parents, built tennis 
courts, and held yearly workshops on 
issues of particular interest to 
parents - alcohol, the use of drugs, 
and sex education was the topic of one 
workshop. But regardless of the means, 
the principals agreed that it is 
necessary for the schools to open chan- 
nels for grievances to be registered 
before they spill into the newspapers 
and become "hot issues." 

Many noted the difficulty in identi- 
fying their community's Negro leadership, 
and agreed that principals must get out 
into the community themselves. Com- 
munity organizers who spoke at several 
of the meetings noted that outside 
agitators are totally ineffective un- 

less there is an issue already burning. 
While one man spoke, he poured lighter 
fluid into a nearby ashtray. "There 
can be no flame unless there's some 
fluid there," he said as he tossed a 

Conference involvement wasn't always 
that vivid. Although most participants 
were positive, a few were negative and 
some were apathetic. But questionnaires 
filled out after the meetings seemed to 
indicate that for the most part they 
were indeed involved. "This is the 
finest professional experience I've had 
in 20 years," wrote one man. 

For the 20 State Department staff 
members who planned and participated in 
the conferences, involvement had to be 
"total" - more than 200 separate 
meetings were held during the eight 
conferences. Harold Webb, associate 
director of the Division of Human 
Relations was conference chairman. 


Editor's Note: (The following recom- 
mendations are among those compiled by 
the teenage Task Force on Student Involve- 
ment to deal with the problems of student 
unrest and to obtain positive student in- 
volvement. Complete copies were distri- 
buted at the Secondary School Principals 

Achieving Positive Student Attitudes 
and Involvement 

• Distribute students alphabetically 
in homeroom assignments rather than 
by the tracking system. This will give 
students a wider perspective on the 
entire student body and will foster 
better understanding between students 
of different backgrounds. 

• Provide dialog or seminar sessions 
for all students. These should be held 
on a regularly scheduled basis. They 
should be used for discussion of cur- 
rent school problems, communications 
among students of different back- 
grounds, or discussion of current 

•Allow students to formulate and 
organize emergency committees with 
the power to investigate and find 
solutions to problems of student 

• Encourage students to take on 
greater responsibilities in areas where 
they play a primary role: 

• Establish a student court for 
ADVISING on student discipline. 

• Establish advisory committees 
for each academic department. 

• Encourage student-administered 
tutorial programs with teacher 

• Use student-administered study 
halls during lunch period. 

• Appoint student monitor sys- 
tems, when needed. 

• Encourage cultural exchange 

• Encourage the development of 
service-oriented clubs and inter- 
est groups. 

• Tell the entire truth about any 
and all incidents. Rumors are 
found to be a major stumbling 
block to unity and communica- 
tion within the high school. 

• Use suspensions and expulsions 
as punishments of the last resort. 
It is strongly recommended that 
offenders involving even major 
infractions should not be pun- 
ished by having to lose valuable 
and often crucial academic time. 

• Guidelines should be established 
and disseminated to all students 
explaining the grounds on which 
a student will be disciplined, 
suspended, or expelled. The 
principal should make known to 
students and parents the proce- 
dures he will follow if any major 
disciplinary action is necessary. 

Strengthening Student Councils 

The "student council" concept of 
student representation should be 
changed. Student councils presently 
act as a communication link between 
the administration and the student 
body. This is usually only a theory, 
however, for many students do not 
feel compelled to support an organi- 
zation which can do little more than 
run social events and help with an- 
nouncements. Student councils should 
become student governments, capable 
of making final decisions on many 
student policies. 

Matters such as hall monitors and 
school dress codes could and should be 
dealt with by students. Disciplinary 
action should be decided by adminis- 
trators. Even in the area of discipline, 
however, advisory boards of students 
and student guidelines will encourage 
students to become more aware, re- 
sponsible, and involved in their school. 

Election procedures should be al- 
tered to gain optimum representation 
of all student groups. The homeroom 
is becoming an inadequate voting dis- 
trict. Since most student councils or 
student representatives are chosen 
from homerooms, many students or 
student groups have little chance of 
getting involved. Homeroom represen- 
tatives are usually chosen on a popu- 
larity basis. A means of election reflec- 
ting more responsibility is necessary. 
Although several methods are possible, 
voting by precinct or ward is suggested. 

Existing adult municipal or county 
voting precincts could be utilized. The 
procedure might not be applicable in 
some rural areas. In others, precincts 
might be drawn by an impartial body 
of administrators, teachers, and stu- 

Students should file or run for 
office in his or her voting district only. 
No qualifications should be required 
of a student beyond his school regis- 
tration. No requirements should be 
made concerning grades, club activi- 
ties, activities outside the school, or 
previous conduct. This will eliminate a 
"prestructured" student council or dis- 
crimination by qualifications. The rea- 
soning that the more activities a stu- 
dent undertakes reduces his effective- 
ness should be applied on an individual 
basis only. The student council should, 
in turn, be responsible for helping its 
members maintain his or her ability to 
be responsible and representative. 


Some high school seniors in Chatham County will be exempt 
from final exams this year. Those with a 93 average or above can 
thank the Chatham County Student Council, a group representing 
all the high school students in the Chatham school system, for 
attacking the problem as a special project and working out an 
exam plan with the administration. 

The Council is made up of five delegates from each of the 
County's four high schools. Delegates are appointed by their local 
student council, and each must be eligible for student council 
membership in his home school. 

The Council was a student-initiated idea, according to Super- 
intendent Perry Harrison. "The idea just sort of grew," he said. 
But he added that one student, Eddie Harris of Chatham Central 
High in Goldston, "offered the push and initiative necessary to 
get it off the ground," as is often the case with student 
involvement projects. 

Chatham County students believed they needed such a group 
to exchange ideas, learn more about student council work, solve 
student problems, promote good will, and to act as a link 
between the students and the superintendent. Organization was 
planned by a steering committee with Harrison's help. "I worked 
with them to clarify ideas," said Harrison. "I acted as a catalyst, 
which is how I think we ought to act," he said. 

After a constitution was agreed upon, noting that the activities 
of the organization would at all times be subject to the approval 
of the appropriate "responsible officials," it was approved by the 
system's principals and the board of education. 

The students presented their constitution and ideas to the 
board themselves — Harrison arranges for the group to meet with 
the board periodically. 'They find out what problems the board 
has, and they learn that some things can't be changed overnight," 
he said. Students are also acquainted with school finance, an 
eye-opener for the uninitiated. 

Last year was the Council's first official year of operation. 
From the many suggestions submitted by delegates, they chose as 
their first two projects promotion of law enforcement and exam 
exemption. The exam exemption plan was approved by the board 
with only one minor change. The law enforcement project grew 
into a county-wide "law and order week" involving laymen as 
well as students. 

Each school took a different phase of the law and order 
project — contacting the press, television, and radio or putting up 
posters, etc. Law enforcement officers spoke to the students, and 
at each school several students were cited for exceptionally good 
behavior. Each school, with the Council's leadership, carried out a 
slightly different program to promote the idea. 

The opportunity to exchange ideas is as important to the 
council as the success of concrete projects. Their ideas are put on 
record with the superintendent and the meat of these discussions 
filters down to the member schools. Dress codes were discussed at 
one meeting. At another, students decided that relationships 
would be improved if copies of their newspapers were exchanged 
between schools. At another meeting Harrison explained the 
importance of a proposed bond issue. 

"This is a way of communicating at all levels," said Harrison. 
He feels that the students have the assurance that they will be 
heard. "They don't have the assurance that everything they say 
will be acted upon, but it will be heard," he said. Harrison serves 
as sponsor to the group and tries to be present at each meeting. 

The meetings are at a different high school each month. As 
another student involvement effort. Council members encourage 
students to attend. 

"What we've got here might not work in other places," said 
Harrison. "It's a thing you have to develop according to local 
needs," he said. He feels that student involvement in Chatham 
County is working. 

Involved? Teachers always have 
been. Even before it became fashion- 
able. But now there are new areas of 
involvement — policy making areas 
where teachers were not allowed to 
venture a few years ago. Now teachers 
are asking and being asked to help 
administrators and boards of educa- 
tion make decisions on matters other 
than curriculum — on facilities, per- 
sonnel policies, and student rules. 

In Roanoke Rapids this brand of 
teacher involvement began in the 
spring of 1967 when the board of 
education gave a go-ahead for the 
establishment of a lay-professional Li- 
aison Committee. The body is com- 
posed of 10 members: two from the 
board, appointed by the chairman; 
two elementary teachers, elected by 
the elementary staff; two secondary 
teachers, elected by their staff; one 
elementary school principal and the 

Teacher lauohrement : A Two-Way Street 

unit's only high school principal or his 
assistant; the superintendent; and the 
president of the local NCEA unit. 

The committee was charged with 
two functions. Their first task was to 
communicate directly with the board 
of education, bringing to the board 
suggestions, staff sentiments, and 
recommendations. They were also 
asked to communicate directly with 
the staff, explaining board decisions. 

The committee meets once each 
month shortly before the board meet- 
ing, which a member of the committee 
attends. In addition, one member of 
the faculty at large is also invited to 
attend board meetings. To facilitate 
communication with all the teachers, 
the committee's secretary distributes a 
monthly newsletter to the entire staff. 
The publication gives the gist of the 
board's agenda and business along with 
the reaction of the visiting staff 

"The committee serves as a com- 
munication clearing house," said 
superintendent J. W. Talley. "Not only 
do the teachers have a voice in policy 
making, but now the entire staff un- 
derstands actions taken by the board 
much better," he said. 

Since its beginning, the Liaison 
Committee has taken on several speci- 
fic projects or policy studies prompted 
by either the board or by suggestions 
from members of the teaching staff at 
large. One issue seriously concerning 
staff members was a local "extra" 

salary supplement. The committee 
worked for a year to compile, from 
job descriptions written by the teach- 
ers, a list of staff assignments they 
considered beyond the normal assign- 
ment and therefore meriting a special 
supplement. They came up with about 
25 specific jobs. The board then 
worked on the list, and according to 
Talley, had the funds necessary to act 
on the suggestions of the committee. 
A "grandfather clause" assured that 
those already receiving supplements 
would not be undercut, while all 
future supplements would be made 
strictly on the basis of job demands. 
("Extra" supplements had previously 
been given to many male teachers on 
the sole basis of their sex.) 

Other projects included considera- 
tion of and recommendations on the 
school calendar which was adopted by 
the board without serious debate. 
They were also requested to write a 
proposed policy on curriculum and 
instruction for the board's policy 
handbook, not yet published. 

It had been school policy to excuse 
pupils from school for private piano 
lessons. The committee felt the prac- 
tice should be stopped — the board 
followed their advice. The committee 
was asked to consider whether or not 
advertising materials should be used in 
the schools. The policy had been to 
ban all such materials. As a result of 
committee suggestions, such materials 
are now previewed by the teachers 

who will use them to determine their 
educational vaFue. Those considered 
valid teaching aids may be used. The 
committee has also studied the school 
budget in an effort to convey infor- 
mation about money matters to the 

"The committee discusses anything 
staff members, administrators, or the 
board have asked them to study," said 
Talley. He noted that the committee 
has been received enthusiastically by 
most staff members. At first, some 
staff members had a "wait and see" 
attitude. The board has been particu- 
larly enthusiastic. "They're getting a 
revelation," said Talley, who added, 
"What we've got now is two-way street 
communication." ■ 

" there must be teacher parti- 
cipation in the formulation of educa- 
tional policies " 

They said it last March when they 
met in Charlotte. NCEA's Classroom 
Teachers Association, in resolutions 
adopted by the delegate assembly, 
emphasized that teacher involvement 
in educational policy making is 
necessary to reach the objective of 
securing and maintaining "high stand- 
ards of proficiency within the pro- 
fession which will guarantee adequate 
educational opportunities for all 
children . . . ." 

The following recommendations 
and areas of concern were included in 
the first resolution, improving instruc- 
tion and educational opportunities: 

•Year-round operation of public schools 

• 10-month employment for teachers 

• Participation of teachers in plan- 
ning the school calendar 

• Summer enrichment and remedial 

• Open library facilities 180 days 
during the school term and open to 
students and the public during 

•Teacher allotments based on current 

•Employment of auxiliary personnel to 

free teachers from noninstructional 


• Inclusion of classroom teachers in the 
planning of instructional programs 
and facilities and in the selection of 
materials and equipment 

• Better methods of evaluation and 

• Kindergartens, with properly certified 
personnel, during the summer months 
where none are now operated under 

federal funds 
•Prevention of dropouts 

• Screening and remedial procedures 
— preschool and at all levels 

• Kindergarten for all immature be- 

• Reading specialists 

• Flexible curriculum planning of a 
comprehensive program of instruc- 
tion to insure maximum develop- 
ment of all students 


• Textbook commission members 
appointed by the Governor upon 
recommendation of the State Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction 

• Separate Commission for each ma- 
jor subject or area (elementary: 
arithmetic, social studies, language 
arts, music, science, and health and 
physical education; grades 7-12: 
English, mathematics, science, and 
other departments of comprehen- 
sive high schools.) 

• Each commission to be composed 
of eight classroom teachers and 
three nonteaching professional 
members and to elect its own 

• One teacher selected for special 
interest in each grade level when 
selection is to be made for a con- 
tinuing series of textbooks 

• One teacher in each commission to 
be selected for the slow learner and 
one for the gifted child 

• Each newly-selected text to be pro- 
vided to every teacher who will be 
using it at least one month before it 
is to be used in the classroom 

• Local curriculum and textbook 
commission to select from recom- 
mendations of the State Textbook 
Commissions' texts for local 

• Revision of records and reports re- 
quired of teachers 

• Flexible methods of evaluating and 
reporting pupil progress 

•Programs and activities to promote 
good citizenship 

•Opposition to copyright law changes 
which prohibit use of copyrighted 
materials necessary for instruction 

• Flexible entrance requirements in 
publicly-supported institutions of 
higher learning to insure educational 
opportunities for students who show 
potential for improvement 

•Use of State-owned school buses for 
local field trips with only principal's 

(For a complete list of resolutions, 
including setting and maintaining high 
standards in the teaching profession, 
improving training conditions of stu- 
dent teachers, attracting and retaining 
an adequate number of competent 
teachers, and improving retirement 
provisions, see NCEA's North Carolina 
Classroom Teachers Bulletin, Spring 
and Summer, 1969.) 

teacher participation 
in the formulation of 
educational policies... 

How "to 7acfe£e/ cu Rtob(Wc - AaIc Evett^bock/ 

Small human relations bull sessions brought problems and misunderstandings to the surface and 
parents and teachers closer together in Goldsboro. 

It wouldn't seem strange to hear "Dixie" and "We Shall 
Overcome" on the same program at Goldsboro High School this 
year. This attitude of coexistence wasn't brought about over- 
night. Two years ago the system began a massive human relations 
effort directed toward a smooth consolidation this fall of the 
city's four upper level schools: Dillard High School and the junior 
high adjoining it (all black) became a two-building middle school; 
Goldsboro Senior High School and its nearby junior high 
(integrated) are a senior high campus. 

The man behind the movement was Jerry Paschal, a youngish 
superintendent who combines an open attitude with the energy 
of six men — he throws out ideas like a computer. A ten-minute 
conversation will convince anyone that his positive approach isn't 
just another brand of Dale Carnegie self-help. The key to the 
consolidation plan, he insists, was not compliance but educational 

Two years ago the board of education appointed the 50- 
member Goldsboro School Patrons Study Commission, a group of 
parents who are a cross section of the city's racial, economic, and 
cultural structure. They were asked to find the best plan for a 
unified school system, and they came up with the same idea 
previously reached by the board: consolidating the city's four 
upper level schools into two multi-building campuses. Fall of 
1969 was set as the target date for opening. 

At about the same time, Paschal kicked off his plan to involve 
everybody — principals, teachers, students, parents, and the 
public — in the consolidation. "It was my feeling that we ought 
to start by teaching the importance of good human relations," he 
said. Beginning at home. Paschal organized workshops for the 
central office staff and the city's principals on the importance of 
good interpersonal relationships. The workshops, which featured 
role playing and discussion groups, were conducted by the Wayne 
County and N.C. Mental Health Associations. 

During the same period (1967-68) the principals held meetings 
aimed at working out better human relations among themselves 
and their staffs. Along with the plan was an eight-part, city-wide 
human relations workshop for teachers, financed by ESEA. 
Speakers came from across the country. Other teachers were sent 
to human relations workshops sponsored by the State Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction during the summer of 1968. 

Meanwhile, the principals had begun a series of informal 
meetings with their teachers. They discussed things like the 
importance of positive self concepts, acting with consistency and 
truthfulness, etc. "The worst thing a teacher can do is make a 
statement that she's not prejudiced and then act just the 
opposite," said Paschal. Teachers were given a chance to express 
their opinions on the consolidation, ask questions, and raise 
issues. They then met with their counterparts in the opposite 
school to discuss instructional programs, plans, etc. Visitations 
were held to acquaint teachers with the school they would be 
moving into and the doors were opened for intermingling of staff 
members. The list of human relations workshops goes on and on. 
But to Paschal, it was just the beginning. 

Last fall the principals and central office staff began making 
lists of problems to be solved and areas to be covered before this 
September. A teachers committee was formed to represent all the 
teachers in the city. The plan was presented to them and they 
were then asked for suggestions, questions, comments. At the 
same time, committees of students were formed to study 
problems and come up with solutions. The questions were 
numerous: the name of the new high school, for example. Dillard 
had long been a traditional name to the city's black community. 
Teachers and students together decided that with only one high 
school the name was obvious: Goldsboro High School. As for 
school colors, they compromised on a tricolor selection with 
hues from each of the schools. "No reason we couldn't have 
three," said Paschal. 

"And we didn't want to get into a hassle over a nickname 
either," he added. The solution sounds simple: students from 
both schools submitted new names which were then run in a 
newspaper article. Townspeople and students voted on a nick- 
name thus eliminating block voting in either high school. The new 
names were established almost a year before the actual merging of 
the schools. 

Student council elections were another issue handled well 
ahead of time. A group of ten students from each school (grade 
representation) were asked for election suggestions. They first 
compared constitutions and settled differences over the total 
number of officers and other matters. They decided to hold a 
spring election rather than waiting until fall, and they felt that 
during the first year the new high school should have two 
presidents, one from each of the former schools. The total 
number of officers was cut with some coming from each school. 
The duties of the two presidents were split. One president would 
preside over the student council while the other presided over the 
student body; they would alternate each six weeks. The ratio of 
black and white in the new school is roughly 50-50, and Paschal is 
confident that future elections will be representative. He noted, 
however, that if block voting does occur at some future date, a 
method would be devised to assure that the student council is 
representing both races. As for grade officers, they, too, are dual 
this year. 

Cheerleaders could have been another problem, but they were 
allowed to settle their own future. In joint meetings they decided 
that the ratio would be 50-50 with five cheerleaders from each 
school. The schools' boosters clubs began to merge a year ago, 
and by spring they, too, had joint constitutions and new officers. 

Another plan to involve students was a two-day athletic event 
staged with the consolidation in mind. The two teams played one 
another on the first night, but on the second night they opposed 
Wilson teams. "When the going got rough with Goldsboro against 
Wilson, the Dillard cheerleaders joined the Goldsboro squad and 
really got things going," said Paschal. 

Paschal didn't leave anybody out of involvement plans. For 
two years he met with Dillard's alumni association, a group with 
chapters all over the country and strong allegiance to the school. 


Their assistance has been great: scholarships ($3,500 last year), a 
new organ, scoreboard, and trophy case. Most important, alumni 
are quick to help Dillard graduates find jobs and get established in 
other cities — Philadelphia, New York, and Washington, for 
example. Paschal feels this group will continue to show support. 

As for public relations, the plan was fully explained to the pub- 
lic in the local papers last year — they got a full-page spread. 'This 
caused much discussion among townspeople and students. They 
had a full year to raise questions and get used to the idea," said 
Paschal. The civic clubs were covered also. Paschal spoke time 
after time to present the idea and get reactions. 

In the midst of all this activity, the Patrons Study Commission 
recommended that Paschal give parents equal attention. He began 
with small groups, contacted various individuals and asked them 

disciplinary action. 'There is still leeway for individual decisions, 
because we don't want anybody saying 'the book says this'," he 
said. The handbooks give both students and parents a basis for 
action and decision. "Students will rationalize," said Paschal. 
"And we don't want them to say 'this was a race issue' when the 
situation is a matter of school rules being violated." 

Most student questions and fears centered around activities. 
"They just didn't want any eliminated," he said. "And none will 
be until the students tell us they're no longer interested or are 
unable to control the situation," he added. 

Everything was set for consolidation by last summer. Teachers 
had been assigned to new rooms, pupils registered, and classes 
assigned. "All along I tried to identify areas where gossip mongers 
could have a field day," he said. As one result of such thinking. 

to invite 10 or 12 people to their homes for informal gatherings. 
The principals did the same, inviting people to their schools for 
coffee and conversation. "We felt we could get the word out into 
the neighborhood by working through small, interested groups," 
he said. "I also asked the principals to get out into the new 
neighborhoods they would be serving and meet the people," he 
said. One principal became so involved he was asked to be the 
spokesman for a group seeking changes in street conditions. 

Even the elementary school children and their parents were 
involved. (Fifth and sixth graders moved into the middle schools 
this fall.) Small groups of students visited the new school, held 
conferences, asked questions, and were even provided a box for 
"secret questions." According to Paschal the questions were 
revealing: Will we have gym suits? What bus should I get on? etc. 
"Not one word about race," he smiled. 

Continuing the involvement effort, the schools held "open 
house" last spring during a three-month period. "A tremendous 
number of people came," said Paschal. But he still felt there 
might be some parents with questions not answered, so he staged 
an additional series of human relations workshops last summer. 
After the plan was again presented, parents broke into small 
discussion groups and additional questions were raised. 

"Of all the questions asked by any group, I can sum it up 
pretty simply," said Paschal. "The parents were interested in 
discipline. They wanted to be assured that there would not be a 
chaotic situation next year." To prevent chaos. Paschal devel- 
oped a series of handbooks for students and parents outlining 
school offerings, services, rules and regulations, dress codes, and 

registration was held last March. "Teachers and students knew 
exactly what they'd be teaching or studying and in what rooms. 
They had a whole summer to size up the buildings and get 
adjusted," he said. 

Although Paschal admits that "the whole thing could blow up 
in our faces," just about everything that could be done was done. 
How and why are the leading questions. Goldsboro principals give 
the credit to the superintendent: "He's farseeing," one said. "To 
think that some units have gone through the same thing in just 
one summer," she added. 

"The plan we developed was educationally sound," said 
Paschal. "That's the key thing. We're not just doing something to 
comply with civil rights. We all believe in what we're doing," he 

"This has not been a hastily evolved plan. Everybody has been 
heard," he said. As an afterthought, he mentioned a few more 
efforts: "The lay communications committee — they help us keep 
up with the pulse of the community," he explained. Then there's 
the student human relations committee: five black students and 
five white students. They meet with the superintendent sepa- 
rately, as racial groups. "That way they can say anything they 
like without insulting anybody," Paschal said. These groups will 
continue to meet with him this year. "Over dinner," he 

In another effort to get personally involved with the black 
students, Paschal played ball on weekends in Dillard's gym. "We 
run a six-day school here," he said. They keep the gyms open on 
Saturdays, and teachers get paid for supervising the activity. 





Southern Nash County High School, a possibility that became a reality through 
citizen involvement. 

Too often the citizens of a com- 
munity become actively interested in 
their schools only when an issue has 
become a problem, hit the daily 
papers, and caused alarm. Citizens 
committees, appointed to assist with 
forming policy and developing educa- 
tional goals, can involve the commun- 
ity before issues become problems. 
Such committees serve not only to 
help formulate goals, they are an 
invaluable public relations network 
with the community. Nash County's 


Citizens Committee for Better Schools 
is a case in point. 

Ten years ago Nash County had 11 
high schools, many of them union 
schools. A move to consolidate them 
into a large comprehensive high school 
was defeated by a 10 to 1 vote. 
According to Suerpintendent C. H. 
Fries, Jr., the county was committed 
to a policy of small high schools. And 
these small high schools were not 
meeting the county's needs. 

"For every 100 Negro students who 
entered the first grade, 9.5 were gradu- 
ating from high school 10 years ago," 
he said. Only twenty-six percent of the 
white students were graduating. The 
county had other problems as well. Its 
growth was dependent on income 
from agricultural products, and the 
population was shrinking as advance- 
ments in production and mechani- 
zation caused many farmers to leave. 
Local business, however, was attempt- 
ing to attract industry to the county. 
As a result, both agricultural and 
industrial education needed new goals. 
And the impact of the changing econ- 
omy on the schools made long-range 
educational planning a necessity. 

Ten years ago there were 10 school 
districts in the county and 10 school 
committees. "No one was looking at 
the educational needs of the county as 
a whole," said Fries. To get an overall 
picture, the Board of Education in 
1961 selected a central advisory com- 
mittee, the Citizens Committee for 
Better Schools. The committee was 
composed of 10 members, one repre- 
sentative from each of the 10 school 

Their first task was a survey of the 
schools and the community. They 
visited each school in the county and 
some in other counties. They held 
conferences with local PTA officers, 
civic groups, teachers, administrators, 
and leaders in agriculture and industry. 
All ten men recommended consolida- 
tion of the high schools. "But they 
knew that the move was impossible at 
that time," said Fries. Their next step 
was to involve more members of the 

Every organization in the county 
existing to serve the community, civic 
clubs, etc., was asked to send one 
representative to a meeting to or- 
ganize a larger citizens committee. 
Eventually some 400 people were 
involved — approximately 200 white 
and 200 Negro. The committee mem- 
bers were put to work gathering more 
information on present and future 
educational needs of the county, sup- 

plying that information to the public, 
and keeping the public informed on 
modern trends in education and how 
these trends might affect youngsters in 
Nash County. Curriculum study 
groups were appointed. They were 
composed of professional educators 
along with civic group representatives. 
These committees made a complete 
analysis of the policy, program, and 
services of the schools. 

After 18 months of study, long and 
specific lists of recommendations were 
presented to the board — most of the 
recommendations were accepted. They 
included merging some schools, con- 
structing new schools, and closing 
others. Detailed recommendations for 
the reorganization of the instructional 
program were also given. To finance 
needed capital improvements, the 
committee recommended that the 
County Commissioners set aside 
$500,000 a year for three years. This 
gave the system one year for study, 
one year for planning, and one year 
for building before the comprehensive 
high school system became a reality. 

The concept was realized last fall 
when the last of three new schools 
(Southern Nash County High School) 
was completed. At the end of the first 
"comprehensive year," Nash County 
graduated 710 high school students — 
only 395 students were graduated 10 
years ago. The number of Negro grad- 
uates doubled. About 300 students, 
who had studied vocational education, 
went right to work — a figure that also 
doubled in 10 years, as the population 
continued to decrease. Such progress, 
according to Fries, would not have 
been possible without the citizens 



Is school boring? About 150 
teachers, parents, and students who 
attended a two-day "Institute of En- 
vironmental Response" in Chapel Hill 
last summer are still asking themselves. 
At the institute they were asked if 
media methods — especially TV meth- 
ods — could be used to turn on the 
classroom. The happening-like confer- 
ence was staged by Bill Kuhns, a 
young Chicago author and lecturer and 
an authority on the subject of environ- 
mental response. Kuhns' message is a 
little closer to earth than McCluhan's. 
He not only shows how television gets 
information across to youngsters with- 
out their being aware that they are 
learning, he also insists that what they 
learn on TV can be used in the 

Conference participants were shown 
how TV gains the attention of the 
viewer and imparts information. 
Kuhns used multi-screen presentations, 
reruns of TV shows and commercials, 
role playing, perception experiments, 
demonstrations by students, group dis- 
cussions, as well as lectures to make 
his point. Although the institute was 
planned primarily as a teacher-training 
program, parents, townspeople, and 
students were invited to attend. 

"People have complained about a 
lack of communication between the 
schools and the community," ex- 
plained Don Hayes, assistant super- 
intendent, at the opening session. We 
need to tell people what we are doing 
— get it on a sharing basis and make it 
a two-way street," he said. Parents and 
students not only attended the con- 
ference, they became active parti- 
cipants and a handy resource for their 
reactions to media. 

According to Kuhns, television is 
bombarding children with new learn- 
ing experiences. Youngsters under age 
12 watch an average of 46.1 hours of 
television per week, he said, and high 
school students have seen about 5,000 
more hours of programming than their 
teachers. "What are they learning?" he 
asked. And when some facial expres- 

sions answered "nothing," Kuhns was 

He cited various levels of television 
learning, demonstrating them and ways 
to approach them in the classroom. 
Consumer training, for example: "the 
schools ought to be challenging what's 
said on television — or at least pointing 
out that TV is training people as 
consumers," Kuhns said. In a rerun of 
current television commercials, the 
group found that they saw how things 
work, incidental bits about places and 
things, (the Parliament ads show some- 
thing of the English character), moral 
alternatives posed, and changes in 

According to Kuhns, who cited 
studies made in connection with the 
production of "Sesame Street," an 
upcoming TV series for preschoolers, 
children who gain the most from 
television are those who interact with 
it. "The ones who chant the commer- 
cials and talk back to the cartoon 
characters are learning the most," he 
said. It follows that all children would 
learn more from reinforcement, discus- 
sion, criticism, dialog, or at least some 
type of acknowledgement of the med- 
ium as a learning tool. 

"The important thing," he said, 
"isn't what we're saying about televi- 
sion, but drawing from all the resourc- 
es in students' lives. And television, 
is, without doubt, an everpresent, if 
maligned, resource." The institute par- 
ticpants proved that — even the most 
reticent were quick to make a com- 
ment or ask a question about their 
favorite show or least-liked commer- 

As for the classroom, Kuhns said, 
"You're not competing with the med- 
ium, but you want to get at the 
learning processes being fomented by 
it." As an example of these processes, 
an episode of Mission Impossible was 
rerun and followed by a student dis- 
cussion of the show. Students were 
quick to dissect character, plot, and the 
technology used in the program. One 
parent, particularly fascinated with the 

discussion, said, "this will really help 
me discuss television with my chil- 

Kuhns feels that the schools are too 
programmed and too controlled. "En- 
vironmental learning, on the other 
hand, is about as unprogrammed as 
you can get," he said, adding that the 
schools could use not only the meth- 
ods of the medium — but the pro- 
gramming itself as a vast educational 
pit to be mined. 

"But it's a vast brainwashing ma- 
chine selling the system," put in one 
teacher. Kuhns retorted that he could 
well be correct, but that it's important 
to stay away from presenting a com- 
pletely negative attitude to students. 

The instant bull session was seen as 
one quick and unstructured approach 
to television in the classroom. "Just 
come in and talk about it. You can 
open up attitudes, interpretations, and 
feelings," he said. "You can also bomb 
out," said one teacher. "But that can 
happen sometimes with any method," 
said Kuhns, who admitted that televi- 
sion per se and the curriculum don't 
always mix well. "But certain shows 
fit into various disciplines — social 
studies, English, and history, for ex- 
ample," he said. In explanation he 
suggested genre study — showing vari- 
ous television genres: the situation 
comedy, the variety show, etc. — and 
the techniques of each. 

Teachers agreed that the institute 
was a "different" kind of in-service 
activity. Some took exception to 
many ideas presented and argued vig- 
orously, getting involved in spite of 
themselves. The parents appeared to 
be fascinated, and the students were 
too busy raising their hands and volun- 
teering information to look bored. 



Education-Industry Seminar Slated 

North Carolina businessmen and industrial leaders will meet 
with many of the State's guidance counselors this month in an 
effort to share ideas. The meeting, to be held October 29 at East 
Carolina University, is being sponsored by the N.C. Department 
of Conservation and Development, the Capital Association 
Industries, and the Division of Pupil Personnel Services of the 
State Department of Public Instruction. More than 500 people 
are expected to attend the seminar; their purpose will be 
increased communication and cooperation between guidance 
counselors and business and industry. 

"The seminar will provide a chance for school counselors to 
find out about the opportunities that are available to high school 
students in industry as well as to tell industrial leaders about 
school guidance programs," said State Superintendent Craig 

Invitations to attend the seminar have been extended to 
superintendents, principals, and school counselors in 50 eastern 
North Carolina counties. Businessmen, plant managers, and 
personnel directors from industries or businesses located in these 
counties have also been invited. The seminar will be the first of its 
kind to be held in the eastern part of the State; similar meetings 
have been held in the west. 

Speaking at the meeting will be State Superintendent Craig 
Phillips and Dan Stewart, former director for the Department of 
Conservation and Development. Other outstanding educators and 
industrial leaders will also take part in the program. 

"Hopefully," said Dr. Phillips, "this seminar will lead to 
smaller conferences between personnel managers and guidance 
counselors, held on a county or regional basis." 

Librarian Fills SBE Vacancy 

Mrs. W. B. Strickland of Smithfield was appointed in August 
by Governor Bob Scott as a member of the State Board of 
Education. Mrs. Strickland, named to an eight-year term, replaces 
Bill Williams of Middlesex. Williams was appointed to the State 
Highway Commission in July. 

Mrs. Strickland is librarian at Smithfield-Selma Senior High 
School. She and her husband, a Smithfield businessman, have 
three sons. 

Kahdy Heads Special Education 

George A. Kahdy, for the past three years assistant super- 
intendent of the Raleigh City Schools in charge of personnel, was 
named director of special education for the State Department of 
Public Instruction in August. He now directs the State's public 
school programs for mentally and physically handicapped chil- 
dren and for the exceptionally talented. 

In making the announcement. State Superintendent Craig 
Phillips pointed out that the post had been vacant since the 
retirement of Felix S. Barker last winter and that the growth and 

recent emphasis on special education programs had resulted in an 
upgrading of the position. As a part of his responsibility, Kahdy 
also directs the programs for gifted and talented children which 
were formerly under the supervision of the late Dr. Eugene 

Kahdy holds the M. Ed. degree in school administration from 
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Additional 
graduate work (at UNC, N.C. State University, East Carolina 
University, and Duke University) has included special education. 

Magazine for Lettermen 

A national magazine to deal exclusively with high school 
sports, Letterman, is being published for the first time this year. 
The magazine features a varied content designed to let athletes 
know what's happening in high school sports on a nationwide 
basis. Letterman will be published quarterly this year; monthly 
publication is the goal for 1971. 

The magazine includes highlights of interscholastic sports 
activities in high schools throughout the nation; special features 
on athletes, teams, and coaches who have achieved outstanding 
success; up-to-date training techniques; and profiles of pro and 
college athletes. 

The magazine is available free of charge to any athlete who is a 
member of an interscholastic team. Coaches are also eligible for 
subscription. The magazine will be mailed to subscribers' homes. 
Coaches may give athletes in their school an opportunity to sign 
up for the magazine by requesting a team roster form from 
Letterman, Box 804, Wheaton, Illinois 60187. 

Alamance Task Force 

The Alamance County school system will spend the next 15 
months developing, with the aid of a special task force from the 
State education agency, an "all-inclusive plan" for educational 
change. The Alamance Task Force is comprised of 17 staff 
members of the State Department of Public Instruction, repre- 
senting every phase of school operations and curriculum. Assist- 
ing will be several consultants from the schools of education at 
the University of North Carolina and Duke University as well as 
researchers from the Learning Institute of North Carolina. 

As explained by Alamance Supt. John Deason, who requested 
the assistance on behalf of his board, "the professional employees 
of the Alamance County Board of Education will join hands with 
this special task force to massively reorganize and establish 
improved coordination and articulation in order to fulfill indi- 
vidual pupil needs without regard to program walls." He said the 
Alamance board requested the "long-range offensive in order to 
avoid ineffectual detours as we plan for educational changes." 

The Task Force work began on September 14-15 when its 
members met with key Alamance school personnel at LINC 
headquarters to review together a comprehensive survey of the 
system made by the State agency in 1968 and to discuss priorities 
and procedures. Assistant State Supt. Jerome Melton, who heads 
program services in the State agency, said the Alamance effort is 
typical of coordinated services from the State staff being made 
available to North Carolina's school systems. 

New Superintendents 

George R. Brinson, former principal of Pamlico High School in 
Bayboro, has replaced James A. Vinci as superintendent of 
Pamlico County Schools. William F. Davis, superintendent of 
North Wilkesboro Public Schools, was omitted in the September 
Hsting of new superintendents. Formerly principal of Scotland 
High School in Laurinburg, he replaced J. Floyd Woodard, who 


;if tor iic y general r 

Excerpts of rulings from the State 
Attorney General's office are pre- 
sented here as an information service. 
Complete copies of the rulings may be 
obtained by writing Division of Publi- 
cations and Public Information, State 
Department of Public Instruction, 
Education Building, Raleigh 27602. 

Public schools; Compulsory Attend- 
ance Law; G.S. 115-166; Necessity of 
a parent to send a child of proper age 
to a public or private school; Sched- 
uled home instruction of child by 
tutor in lieu of attending public or 
private school, July 3, 1969 .... 

"G.S. 115-166 states in pertinent 
part the following: 

Every parent, guardian or other per- 
son in this State having charge or control 
of a child between the ages of seven and 
sixteen years shall cause such child to 
attend school continuously for a period 
equal to the time which the public 
school to which the child is assigned and 
in which he is enrolled shall be in 
session; .... The term 'school' as used 
herein is defined to embrace all public 
schools and such non-public schools as 
have teachers and curricula that are 
approved by the county or city super- 
intendent of schools or the State Board 
of Education. 

All non-public schools receiving and 
instructing children of a compulsory 
school age shall be required to keep such 
records of attendance and render such 
reports of the attendance of such chil- 
dren and maintain such minimum curric- 
ulum standards as are required of public 
schools; and attendance upon such 
schools, if the school refuses or neglects 
to keep such records or to render such 
reports, shall not be accepted in lieu of 
attendance upon the public school of the 
district to which the child shall be 
assigned: Provided, that instruction in a 
non-public school shall not be regarded 
as meeting the requirements of the law 
unless the courses of instruction run 
concurrently with the term of the public 
school in the district and extend for at 
least as long a term. 

"It is well recognized that the State 
can require that all children of proper 
age attend some school .... Parents, 
however, do have the right to educate 
their children elsewhere than in the 
public schools, provided the State's 
minimum educational requirements 
are met .... 

"The question to be determined is 
what constitutes a 'private school' 
within the Compulsory Attendance 

Law, quoted in pertinent part herein- 

"There are few cases which have 
defined the term 'private school' as 
used in the statute making attendance 
at such a place compliance with the 
Compulsory School Attendance Law. 
Neither the North Carolina Court of 
Appeals nor the Supreme Court of 
North Carolina has spoken on this 
issue. Therefore, we must look to 
other jurisdictions. 

"The contention that instruction in 
the home by a qualified parent or 
other person is instruction in a 'private 
school' has been rejected in several 
cases. The main reasons for rejection 
being the difficulty of governmental 
supervision and for the reason that the 
place of instruction must be a duly 
organized and existing educational 

"In STATE v COUNORT, 69 Wash. 
361, 124 P. 910, 41 LRA N.S. 95, the 
Court rejected the claim of the defend- 
ant that, if he was a competent and 
qualified teacher and gave instruction 
to his children at home, he was main- 
taining a private school within the 
meaning of a statute which provided 
that a child must attend 'the public 
school may be in session, or . . . at- 
child resides for the full time such 
school may be in session, or . . . at- 
tend a private school for the same 
time.' As the Court states 

We have no doubt many parents are 
capable of instructing their own chil- 
dren, but to permit such parents to 
withdraw their children from the public 
schools without permission from the 
superintendent of schools, and to in- 
struct them at home, would be to 
disrupt our common school system and 
destroy its value to the state. This 
statute recognizes that adequate private 
schools may be maintained in any dis- 
trict to which parents may send their 
children without any violation of the 
law, and it would be a good defense to 
show attendance at such private school 
for the required time. We do not think 
that the giving of instruction by a parent 
to a child, conceding the competency of 
the parent to fully instruct the child in 
all that is taught in the public schools, is 
within the meaning of the law 'to attend 
a private school.' Such a requirement 
means more than home instruction; it 
means the same character of school as 
the public school, a regular, organized 
and existing institution making a busi- 
ness of instructing children of school age 
in the required studies and for the full 
time required by the laws of this state. 

The only difference between the two 
schools is the nature of the institution. 
One is a public institution, organized and 
maintained as one of the institutions of 
the state. The other is a private institu- 
tion, organized and maintained by pri- 
vate individuals or corporations. There 
may be a difference in institution and 
government, but the purpose and end of 
both public and private schools must be 
the same — the education of children of 
school age. The parent who teaches his 
children at home, whatever be his reason 
for desiring to do so, does not maintain 
such a school. Undoubtedly a private 
school may be maintained in a private 
home in which the children of the 
instructor may be pupils. This provision 
of the law is not to be determined by the 
place where the school is maintained, 
nor the individuality or number of the 
pupils who attend it. It is to be deter- 
mined by the purpose, intent and char- 
acter of the endeavor. 

"In STATE v HOYT, 84 N.H. 38, 
146 A. 170, the difficulty of super- 
vision of a private tutor at home was 
held to be a valid reason for rejecting 
the defendant's claim that his child 
was instructed and taught by a private 
tutor in his own home in the studies 
required to be taught in the public 
schools. As the Supreme Court of New 
Hampshire said . . 

In the adjustment of the parent's right to 
choose the manner of his children's 
education, and the impinging right of the 
state to insist that certain education be 
furnished and supervised, the rule of 
reasonable conduct upon the part of 
each towards the other is to be applied. 
The state must bear the burden of 
reasonable supervision, and the parent 
must offer educational facilities which 
do not require unreasonable supervision. 
If the parent undertakes to make use of 
units of education so small, or facilities 
of such doubtful quality, that supervi- 
sion thereof would impose an unreason- 
able burden upon the state, he offends 
against the reasonable provisions for 
schools which can be supervised without 
unreasonable expense. The state may 
require, not only that educational facili- 
ties be supplied, but also that they be so 
supplied that the facts in relation thereto 
can be ascertained, and proper direction 
thereof maintained, without unreason- 
able cost to the state. Anything less than 
this would take from the state all effi- 
cient authority to regulate the education 
of the prospective voting population. 

"For the reasons stated above, 
scheduled home instruction does not 
excuse nonattendance in public or 
private schools and such instruction 
would not come within the definition 
of a 'private school' as contemplated 
in the Compulsory Attendance Law." 



7 : 5Y/3 

North Carolina State Library; 

N. C. 







Volume 34 / Number 3 / November 1969 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director of Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is required 
for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public Schools, Division 
of Publications and Public Information, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 


No Passing Stopped Schoolboat 

Preschool Minds Open on "Sesame Street" 

Junior Education Work Training Program: A Way Out 

It's a Mod, Mod World 
by George Hearn 

Pinecrest High School, Moore County's New Attraction 

by Nancy Jolly 

State Leaders Hit the Trail 
by Jim Jackman 

EPDA: New Route to the Classroom 
by Vester Mulholland 

News Briefs 

Transportation Ruling Affects Thousands 

Attorney General Rules 







From the 

State Superintendent 

Relevance is the vitalizing factor in education — the drawing 
forth of the student's understanding and the flowering of his 
skills. Socrates, the master teacher, was concerned with relevance. 
He always started by capturing the interest of his students — 
meeting them where they were, discussing things that aroused 
their curiosity and caused them to react and to think. He took 
pains to figure out what would "turn on" the youths who 
gathered about him. 

This is one aspect of relevance — touching the student's 
specific interest and individual motivations. Another aspect is 
meeting the demands and interests of society, preparing the 
student to select his role in his world, nation, and community — 
helping him see how his own best interests are served by actively 
contributing in the ways he is most fitted to contribute to 
humanity and the social order. 

Relevance in education demands far more of the teacher and 
administrator than technical competency, procedural proficiency, 
or mastery of a subject. It requires psychological insight, a sense 
of the value of the individual, and the more indefinable qualities 
of imagination and inspiration. It requires the peculiar ability to 
get beyond one's own subjective biases and prejudices and to 
empathize with the student. 

In our time, more than ever in history, determining what is 
relevant is a crucial process. Faced with complex and rapid social 
and technological changes, many people appear bewildered and 
without a sense of social purpose. "New occasions teach new 
duties, time makes ancient good uncouth" is an epigram that 
most of us find hard to digest. Perceiving what is relevant is an 
unending quest in confused times and there is bound to be 
disagreement and even controversy in the process. That is where 
perspective and a sense of humor are most needed — making it 
possible to achieve working agreements and allowing controlled 

Perceiving what is relevant is only the first stage in the 
unending educational task. Then comes the problem of deter- 
mining the most effective ways and means, in a given situation, of 
communicating relevancy to the student. Unless we are careful, 
relevance may be lost at any point when we become preoccupied 
with methods, instruments, and facilities as ends in themselves. 

What a task we have! What an exciting task we have! If we 
make education truly meaningful, we shall realize that long- 
sought-for goal of the "child well taught" and a society well 
served by education. 

For about 20 students living on 
Knotts Island, getting to and from 
school is a minor adventure. They go 
by boat. 

Knotts Island juts into Currituck 
Sound close to the Virginia border. 
The only road to and from the com- 
munity — a causeway leading across 
the coastal marshland — goes to Vir- 
ginia. The most direct route to the 
North Carolina mainland lies across 
seven miles of water. 

Knotts Island is a small community 
— two stores, two churches, a tiny 
post office, and one elementary 
school. Many of its residents commute 
to Virginia to work; secondary stu- 
dents used to attend school there. 
When it was decided in 1956 that 
these students should attend Currituck 
schools, they went by bus, a tortuous, 
96-mile round trip through Virginia. 

In 1962 the island's small ferry, 
which holds seven cars and makes five 
round trips a day, began taking the 
students to Currituck across the 
sound. First the students are picked up 
by Mrs. Bessie Cason, who cranks up 
her small, snub-nosed school bus at 
6:30 a.m. The ferry ride begins about 
an hour later, and during the trip, 
students study or chatter in the snug 
ferry cabin while Mrs. Cason keeps 
busy with her crocheting. 

After the ferry docks at Currituck 
and the students have been delivered 
to school, Mrs. Cason heads for her job 
in Moyack. The return begins around 3 
p.m. and ends, for students who live 
farthest from the dock, as late as 5:30 
p.m. It is still a long ride, but at least 
there's no staying after school for the 
Knotts Island crew. 

(Photographs courtesy of Greensboro 
Daily News) 

"Once upon a time a guy named Joe 

Noticed a June bug on his toe 

Put it in a jar and started to go . . ." 

The children were entranced. They 
crowded around the television screen 
as the bouncy cartoon continued, and 
many of them began chanting and 
waving their fists. Next came the 
Muppets, who looked and sounded for 
all the world just like soft furry 
puppets should. And of course, there 
was the human touch — the man who 
runs the candy store, the neighbors, 
and the boys and girls. And if it wasn't 
exactly like home, it was close enough 
and fun enough to keep the pre- 
schoolers drawn to the screen and 
learning at the same time. 

The children were watching a pre- 
view of "Sesame Street," a new televi- 
sion series designed to instruct while 
entertaining the preschooler. They're 
among thousands of preschool child- 
ren who'll become involved in an 
unprecedented experiment in educa- 
tional television when the new series 
goes on the air. 

Beginning November 10, the pro- 
gram will be broadcast to 163 televi- 
sion stations across the nation by the 
National Educational Television (NET) 
network. The 26-week series, 130 
hour-long color telecasts, is meant to 
prepare young children for school. The 
show will determine if the techniques 
and approaches effective in commer- 
cial television can be successfully 
adapted to teaching. 

Produced by NET's Children's Tele- 
vision Workshop, the series will be 
aired in North Carolina on the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Educational 
Television Network (UNCET). It will 
be shown daily, Monday through Fri- 
day, at 10 a.m., with the exception of 
the Charlotte area where the program 
will be rerun at 4:30 p.m. each day. 

A year in the making, the new 
series was created as the result of $8 
million in grants from the Carnegie 
Corporation, the Ford Foundation, 
and the U.S. Office of Education. The 
Children's Television Workshop is 
headed by executive director Joan 
Ganz Cooney, an award-winning pro- 
ducer of documentaries who directed a 
study of television's potential in pre- 
school education for the Carnegie 
Corporation. Staff and board members 
for the show include teachers, infor- 
mation specialists, research analysts, 
and cognitive psychologists. 

To assure the validity of the series' 
content, the producers are also work- 
ing in close cooperation with a number 
of advisers and consultants who are 
experts in the fields of child psycho- 
logy, curriculum, educational theory, 
early childhood development, and 

other areas of psychological research. 

"Sesame Street" will be the first 
show in the history of television to 
have its content shaped by a target 
audience before it goes on the air. "We 
believe 'Sesame Street' will be the 
most researched, tested, and studied 
program in television history," said 
Mrs. Cooney. 

The show is designed to help teach 
a variety of skills that children need 
when they reach school age: recogni- 
tion of letters of the alphabet, words, 
numbers, and geometric shapes, as well 
as counting and reasoning skills. The 
series will also attempt to teach the 
child how to get along with others and 
to increase his awareness of himself 
and the world around him. 

Techniques that have proven suc- 
cessful in commercial television will be 
used to hold the child's attention 
while teaching him. According to Mrs. 
Cooney, many preschoolers have al- 
ready learned to recognize letters and 

words from seeing them repeated on 
commercials designed to sell soap, 
toothpaste, and other items. "Sesame 
Street" will use short, highly entertain- 
ing cartoons on individual letters, 
numbers, and words. Specially-created 
films taking the children on trips to 
explore the outside world will also be 
featured along with puppets, music, 
and story readings. 

Much of the material intended for 
use on the program has already been 
tested on preschoolers with positive 
results. The J spot, for example, uses 
simple cartooning and a catchy jingle 
to teach the letter J. When tested on 
children with varying backgrounds, it 
was found that as few as four or five 
repetitions an hour, during regular 
children's programming, established 
100 percent recognition of the letter. 
And the children weren't bored by the 
repetition. Staff members found that 
children tend to repeat the jingle after 
hearing it for the second or third time. 


Further research revealed that children 
who participated by repeating the 
jingle tended to learn more. 

In addition to prebroadcast re- 
search, a separate phase of research 
and evaluation will be undertaken by 
Educational Testing Service of Prince- 
ton, N.J. The agency is testing a 
nationwide sample of preschoolers — 
before the series begins and after the 
programming - to determine how 
much the children learned. 

The set of "Sesame Street" con- 
tains a replica of a two-story apart- 
ment house, a candy store, a fenced 
excavation site, and a vacant lot that 
doubles as a playground for the neigh- 
borhood children. Several hosts, the 
leading citizens of "Sesame Street," 
will appear each day; they are students 
and teachers, shopkeepers and house- 
wives, black and white. Regular visits 
will also be made by the puppet 
troupe, neighborhood children, and 
from time to time guest stars in cameo 

roles — Harry Belafonte, James Earl 
Jones, Carol Burnett, Lou Rawls, Burt 
Lancaster, and Dick Van Dyke. 

Various types of preplanning and 
follow-up activities can be used with 
the programs to increase their effec- 
tiveness, according to the show's pro- 
ducers. Small groups of preschool 
children could watch the programs 
together with a volunteer mother in 
charge, for example. Various organiza- 
tions across the country, including the 
National Council of Jewish Women 
and the California Teachers Associa- 
tion/Southern Section, are actively 
promoting the program and related 

Materials produced to increase utili- 
zation of the show include the Parents 
Guide, a monthly publication giving 
advance notice of each day's program 
as well as suggested follow-up activi- 
ties. The Guide, which comes with a 
colorful poster for the children, is 
available for $2. Stations carrying the 

program have received quantities of 
the publication for free distribution to 
poor families. Also available to sta- 
tions are more detailed descriptions of 
the series, prepared especially for 
teachers of preschoolers in the form of 
a fact sheet entitled "Memo to Teach- 

The series is not intended to replace 
kindergartens or nursery schools. But 
it is hoped that it will reach the large 
numbers of children unable to attend. 
The new series can, however, be of 
great value to existing early childhood 
development programs. 

With such a large potential audience 
— even 90 percent of American house- 
holds with incomes of less than $5,000 
a year own at least one television set — 
the new series could prove a tremen- 
dous boon to preschool education. As 
for the harried mother with no kinder- 
garten facilities available, the new pro- 
gram can be the next best thing to a 
built-in teacher. 

DEL LA: Delia Is now repeating the eighth grade. Prior to entering 
the program she was well known as a fighter, scratcher, and hair 
puller. Her hair was constantly tangled, her appearance was 
disheveled, and she snorted through her nostrils like an angry 

RAYMOND: Raymond entered the program directly from a 
juvenile training school. Mentally, he was capable of fifth grade 
work, but he couldn't read. He lost interest in school and sought 
acceptance from a gang. 

DA VI D: David never liked school and was frequently absent His 
father has a fourth grade education and works as a cab driver. The 
family is on relief. There are two younger sisters, both of whom 
are sick and frequently absent from school. 

Junior Education Work Training Program: 

A Way Out 

Chef Gary Kay demonstrates food chopper to students enrolled in Durham food services course. 

Many of the case histories are de 
pressingly familiar. The children repeat 
first one grade and then another. They 
become disinterested. Truancy rises. 
Many get into serious trouble and a 
training school term is added to their 
already poor records. And finally, 
most of them drop out. 

For these students in Durham, 
there's another way out — the Junior 
Education Work Training Program 
(JEWT) begun last year. The JEWT 
program combines occupational train- 
ing with academic work and catches 
students at the junior high school level 
before they are eligible for high school 
vocational courses. "It was designed," 
said Director of Career and Occupa- 
tional Education James L. Turner, "to 
assist students who are unmotivated 
and underachieving, or students who 
have financial, emotional, and home 

For half the day — morning or 
afternoon — students are grouped into 
self-contained classes for academic 
subjects. They are carefully tested to 
find their academic level, and from 
there the instruction is heavily ori- 
ented toward practical application of 
knowledge. 'These kids have to have 
the specifics of seeing, hearing, smell- 
ing, and touching to learn," said Ed 
Alderman who heads the JEWT 

English, for example, might be 
taught by writing job applications and 
job descriptions. Newspapers are much 
used. Math is taught in terms of 
figuring out costs; science, by relating 
material to the moon shot; and social 
studies becomes learning about the 
mayor or local government in terms of 
specifics rather than abstractions. 

Interdisciplinary approaches are 
also used for continuity. A class might 
pick up some grammar from writing 
themes on "How to Bake Biscuits," 
some math from calculating how to 
divide ingredients, and science from a 
discussion of heat and its action on the 
ingredients. Throw in how the oven 
works and they've learned something 
about electricity to boot. And that 
doesn't even touch such things as how 
the flour is produced, the biscuits 
marketed, or their nutritional value. 

Through it all, Alderman noted, 
work training is emphasized. "Industry 
continuously asks us for people with 
good work attitudes — people who 
know what is required of them to fill a 
job and who are willing to work." The 
JEWT teachers, Alderman said, try to 
show the dignity of work. All kinds of 
work — not just professional occupa- 

These students are hyperactive. 
They fidget and their attention span is 
limited. "One of our main problems is 
their inability to communicate effec- 
tively," said one teacher. "Over the 

years they've developed the ability to 
turn a teacher off. Sometimes they 
just don't understand what's going on. 
Other times they're just plain bored," 
he continued. Teachers must change 
pace frequently. Short breaks are a 

Along with academic instruction at 
their own level, the JEWT students get 
actual work experience. Many leave 
school at noon for regular jobs at 
regular wages. Bagging at grocery 
stores, serving as cashiers or helpers in 
restaurants, service station work, clerk- 
ing in drug and variety stores, and 
dishwashing are just a few of their 
jobs. Many are placed in jobs by 
teachers or the system's occupational 
education coordinators who work 
closely with the employers, visiting the 
places of employment, and checking 
into student difficulties, etc. 

If it weren't for the JEWT program, 
formal schooling would be over for 
most of these students. They need 
their jobs. One boy pays the family 
light bill, boosts the grocery budget, 
and pays for his own clothes. Another 
had a telephone installed in his home 
— for the first time. One said, "I just 
don't like bumming from my Mom." 
Most have checking accounts. 

For students not ready for actual 
work, the flexibility of the program is 
amazing. Some take two sections of 
JEWT classes, others can pick up a 
regular class in math or English if they 
need it. They can take electives and 
participate in extracurricular activities. 
The older students, who've decided 
what career they'd like to pursue, can 
take regular vocational education labs 
along with JEWT classes. These range 
from cosmetology to carpentry and 
give the students a saleable trade. 

For students interested in food 
service and its related occupations, 
another opportunity has been added: a 
real restaurant-tea room at Carr Junior 
High School. This phase of the pro- 
gram is called Food Education and 
Service Training (FEAST). It's a 
three-room complex with an in-school 
restaurant complete with thousands of 
dollars worth of commercial equip- 
ment (ESEA Title III) and chef- 
teacher Gary Kay. After their JEWT 
class, students in FEAST head for the 
restaurant, don aprons, and prepare a 
first-class luncheon. They've got the 
equipment to teach everything from 
hotel cooking to short order prepara- 
tion, and students are also exposed to 
other aspects of food services such as 
waiting on customers, acting as cash- 
iers, cleaning up, and maintaining 
equipment and supplies. In addition to 
running the restaurant they receive an 
hour of food service theory from Kay. 
Instruction ranges from the opportuni- 
ties available in food service to explan- 
ations of terms like "fromage," "soup 

de jour," and "a la carte." 

Kay hopes to make a little profit by 
serving the public and teachers (stu 
dents not in vocational courses are 
required to patronize the school cafe- 
teria) and doing a little weekend cater- 
ing. The profits will make token wages 
possible, as well as offsetting the cost 
of supplies. 

Last year there were only 54 stu- 
dents enrolled in JEWT or some phase 
of it. This year a tenth grade section 
has been added to the program 
further help in moving students into 
regular high school vocational subjects, 
and 180 students, grades 7-10 are 
enrolled. There are 85 more on the 
waiting list. 

Most are enticed into the program 
and back to school with the hope of 
work and wages. Some enter the pro- 
gram, however, because they've been 
lost in regular classes. "They under- 
stand me here," said one girl of JEWT. 
The reasons are varied, but the pro- 
gram seems to be an unqualified suc- 
cess. "It showed him that if he didn't 
have an education and training, he 
couldn't make good," wrote one grate- 
ful mother. 

Attendance and discipline problems 
have been reduced significantly ac- 
cording to one principal. He also 
thought it important that friendships 
and group identities have been de- 
veloped. "They are no longer 'loners,' 
and they seem to enjoy coming to 
school," he said. 

As for DELLA, she wants to be- 
come a nurse and has signed up as a 
volunteer at a nearby hospital. RAY- 
MOND likes his JEWT class and is 
taking a special remedial reading 
course in the afternoon. And DAVID 
gives his sisters spending money and 
helps with the family grocery bill. 




George Hearn 

Editor's Note: George Hearn, a student at 
UNC-Chapel Hill, worked last summer as a 
journalism intern for the Southern Pines 
Pilot. "It's a Mod, Mod World" was written 
for a special issue of the Pilot about 
Pinecrest High School. Much of the pub- 
licity the school has received is due to the 
efforts of Cy Lynn, the school's information 
officer. His position is supported by ESEA 
Title III and his duties include presenting 
the school's program to both public and 
professional groups through all media. One 
project was a school press conference com- 
plete with free lunch and bulging press kits 
for the newsmen. 

"Well, Johnny, what did you do at 
school today?" 

"Oh, I spent a couple of mods in the 
Resource Center before interrelating with 
my team teachers in a small discussion 

"You did what?" 

"Yeah, and then I grabbed a snack at the 
vending area before taking a self-test on my 

third LAP in History." 

"You studied History 
around the track?" 

"Of course not. You know I only have 
physical education mods on Tuesdays and 
Thursdays immediately before my class in 
Graphics and Industrial Communications." 

"Now let me get this straight: you 
interrelated during physical education by 
taking a mod to study History?" 

"Not exactly, but I did listen to a panel 
discussion on the merits of Chaucer before 
devising a new library coding system in my 
data processing course." 

"Well, did you learn anything?" 

"Sure, during my directed independent 
study, I learned how Einstein arrived at E 
equals MC squared." 

''Well, you go wash your hands while I 
interrelate with the pots and pans and fix 
your supper. Whatever happened to the 
little red school house . . .?" 

Pinecrest is an all-electric school located 
in a 120 acre campus on U.S. Highway 
15-501 near Southern Pines. An enrollment 
of 1,700 is expected this fall. 

A mild climate makes outdoor corridors possible at Pinecrest. The wide ramp was built with handicapped students in mind. (Photos by 
Charles L. Wright, SDPI photographer.) 

wre County's New Attraction 

Nancy Jolly 

Moore County used to be known 
for its steeplechases, millionaires, golf 
courses, and mild climate. Now the 
county has another drawing card — 
Pinecrest High School. 

The result of consolidating seven 
high schools in three administrative 
units into one new structure, Pinecrest 
opened last fall with a list of innova- 
tions assured to entice any educator: 
team teaching, flexible scheduling, 
independent study, data processing, 
dial access information retrieval, and 
on and on. 

Innovations began with the school's 
three-building complex — stark and 
modern but not shocking — the kind 
of structure that wears well because 
it's based on utility. Everything in the 
school, from outside corridors that 
don't require lighting or heating to the 
startling use of space, is functional. 

These buildings were planned to 
house new teaching techniques — there 
isn't a single 30-student traditional 
classroom in the layout. Instead, each 
discipline has a suite of rooms. The 
English suite, for example, spreads 
around a huge conference room where 
over 1 50 students can gather for a 
lecture. Around it are small conference 
rooms, teacher's offices, and a re- 
source center or laboratory where stu- 
dents can study, pursue independent 
projects, seek help from the teacher on 
duty, view films, or find resource 

Even the furniture was designed for 
new uses. Instead of the usual school 
desk that is hard to fit into and almost 
impossible to store or move about, 
Pinecrest students use separate light- 
weight desks and chairs. The desks can 
be fitted together to form a perfect 
circle for small group work, or lined 
up for lectures. Chairs are so easy to 
move they can be taken outside to the 
central garden-like courtyard for 

The use of space and the new 
furniture was planned with the team 
approach in mind, and planning is the 
first step in team teaching at Pinecrest. 
Teachers in each subject area work as a 
team — many have taken two years of 
in-service education in preparation and 
most were on hand for a trial run last 
summer. Instead of textbooks, Pine- 
crest students use Learning Acti- 
vity Packages (LAP's), planned by the 
teams and including a wide variety of 
related materials, self tests, and, some- 
times, a textbook. The packages build 
during a course and change each year. 

Team members are able to concen- 

trate on specialties and teach those 
areas in which they feel most secure or 
split duties so that one member can 
give lectures while others work with 
small groups. Evaluation is also a team 
effort — grades come from the team, 
not a single teacher. According to 
Principal J. R. Brendell, team teaching 
at Pinecrest is designed "to give stu- 
dents the best possible presentation of 
materials through group planning, 
group instruction, and group evalu- 

Flexible scheduling is used to dis- 
tribute time according to the needs of 
each class with the day is divided into 
17 "mods" of 20 minutes each. Each 
course is allotted time on a weekly 
basis, but the schedule varies from day 
to day depending on activities. Teach- 
ers evaluate the schedule on a weekly 
basis, and, through use of the school 
computer, they can change the time 
allotments from week to week. 

The school's 10-piece IBM com- 
puter isn't finished when classes are 
scheduled. It handles county-wide 
records and frees teachers from stacks 
of paper work. The machines can also 
store information on Pinecrest pro- 
grams and students and compare them 
statistically with other students. Data 
processing has been added to the 
curriculum, and students who have 
taken the course will help with pro- 
cessing tasks. 

When completed, the Pinecrest 
audiovisual program will be as integral 
to Pinecrest as computer scheduling. 
The program is the pride of the 1 2,000 
volume library, a communications cen- 
ter rather than a traditional book 
room. Foundation funds will make a 
dial access information program 
possible so that students in the re- 
source centers or the library can dial a 
number for a tape and hear it over 
their headphones. The school is built 


with a television studio which includes 
a raised floor to hide cables. Even- 
tually the studio will be used to 
telecast programs to all the schools in 
the county. The equipment will also 
be used to tape teacher performances 
for replay or evaluation — by the team 
approach, of course. 

Even administration is a team effort 
at Pinecrest. Assistant principals in 
charge of in-service training and cur- 
riculum development, student affairs, 
finance, and scheduling work closely 
with Principal Brendell. Each has his 
office in a different building so that a 
principal is within a few feet of any- 
one. The school also has an administra- 
tive intern program for interested 
teachers. They are assigned to each 
assistant principal, in turn, to learn the 
full range of administrative duties. 

There are no homerooms and no 
lockers at Pinecrest. Open wooden 
cubicles are used instead of lockers to 
cut down on noise and secrecy. "Why, 
they used to keep everything from 
whiskey bottles to snakes in the 
locked ones," said an intern. As for 
homerooms, they just aren't necessary 
when attendance is taken every mod 
and there are numerous teacher con- 
sultants. Groups of about 15 students 
meet weekly with their consultant for 
group discussion of problems and com- 
mon interests. The school also has 
three guidance counselors. 

Although the food service at Pine- 
crest is automated, it, too, has the 
personal touch. The three vending 
machine areas, complete with modern 
tables and chairs, also serve as small 
student lounges. Students eat lunch 
during free mods — and breakfast 
foods are included for those who want 
them. The menu ranges from hot 
entrees and salads to sandwiches and 
candy bars. The food is freshly pre- 
pared each day, and the machines lock 
automatically during a power failure. 

Some Pinecrest students, however, 
will get real specialties to eat — at least 
those fortunate enough to taste the 
experiments in the cooking classes, 
which include short order cooking as 
well as the full complement required 
of a hotel chef. The vocational pro- 
gram at Pinecrest may well be the 
most comprehensive in the State, ac- 
cording to Charles Bates, trade and 
industrial education consultant for the 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion. Over two years of planning went 
into the $100,000 program, and the 
courses offered are the result of a 
citizen study committee's research. 
Many will lead to careers that are in 
high demand in the Sandhills area: 
horticulture, greenskeeping, cooking, 
and many other vocations associated 
with resort areas. 

With the exception of the voca- 
tional and science laboratories, the 

entire school is carpeted. It cuts down 
noise and makes holding several small 
group discussions in one large room 
feasible. The inside of each building, 
including the carpeting, is color keyed. 
A big chart in the lobby shows stu- 
dents and visitors where to go by 
heading for the right color. 

Two more buildings are planned for 
the near future. One will house a 
gymnasium (a field house is now being 
used) and the other will hold student 
activities such as band. The entire 
complex was made possible by in- 
tensive study, planning, and citizen 

The school's history actually begins 
with the much-contested Moore Coun- 
ty school merger in 1965. The General 
Assembly's decision was contested as 
far as the Supreme Court, but, once it 
was upheld, the citizens of the county 

pulled together for quality education. 
Working with local, State, and national 
educators, citizen committees were 
formed to study everything from fine 
arts to financial problems. Even fund- 
ing was a group effort — the nearly 
$3,000,000 investment came from 
local, State, national, and foundation 

'The citizens of Moore County 
tapped every possible resource to create 
Pinecrest High School and develop a 
relevant curriculum as well as a truly 
modern facility for their children. 
Their efforts have excited citizens 
throughout the State," said State 
Superintendent Craig Phillips. But 
most excited over the new school are 
its 1,700 students. 

"We've had students speaking up — 
actually getting involved — who 
haven't said a word in class for years," 
said Mr. Brendell proudly. ■ 

The library at Pinecrest is no traditional book room. The 12,000 volume facility also features 
extensive audiovisual equipment; learning laboratories; and small, intimate study carrels. 

Jim Jackman 


Practicing what they are preaching. State Supt. Craig Phillips 
and his top administrative aides have been hitting the trail to 
explain the new orientation of State agency activities to groups of 
educators and laymen across the State. 

Again and again, in talks to teachers at NCEA District 
Conventions and in small group meetings of superintendents, 
board members, and local administrative staff members, Dr. 
Phillips summarized the emerging concerns of the new State 

(1) More effective and extensive involvement of teachers, 
students, and the lay public in planning and evaluating 
educational programs 

(2) Attentiveness to relevancy in all program planning and 

(3) Greater flexibility in requirements, services, and funding 

(4) Total program planning as opposed to promoting various 

All these efforts, Phillips asserted, must be pursued together to 
assure the designing of curricula, activities, and facilities that 
come closer to attaining the primary goals: arousing the interest 
and serving the needs of many types of students. 

Speaking to teachers and principals. Dr. Phillips stressed the 
commitment of the State Department of Public Instruction, in 
the name of the State Board of Education, to placing more 
responsibility with local school staffs in selection of instructional 
materials and in allocation of staff positions, noting that several 
moves in this direction had already been made, with legislative 

Regarding supplementary textbooks, Phillips said, "We hope 
that this means that teachers, who know best the kinds of 
materials the children need and must have, will be involved in the 
selection of these materials." 

At each meeting, he introduced the staff aides who accom- 
panied him for part or most of the visits: Dr. Jerome H. Melton, 
assistant superintendent for program services; Dr. Max Abbott, 
assistant superintendent for special services; Dr. H. T. Conner, 
assistant superintendent for research, planning, and development; 
State Board of Education Controller A. C. Davis; and William W. 
Peek, special assistant to the State superintendent. 

Funding problems and the redirection of occupational educa- 
tion services were the topics which generated the most discussion 
in these meetings. The local school leaders were obviously much 
distressed about the thicket of regulations, guidelines, policies, 
and other requirements they are required to negotiate in setting 
up their programs. 

The lags between necessary planning at the local level, 
appropriations, and authorization of federal funds in particular, 
were subjects of lamentation on the part of many local school 
leaders. One superintendent remarked wrily, "Over and over again 
we have been required to operate on faith, and too frequently it 
turned out to be hope and charity." 

A. C. Davis, State Board of Education controller, fielded most 
of the questions about financing procedures. Allocation practices 
that have grown up over the years have indeed hampered planning 
total school programs, he said. "Categorical aid, both Federal and 
State, creates some of this segmentation in program planning," 
but changing these longstanding procedures would be a slow 
matter, he maintained, even with concerted public support for 
the changes. 

Supt. Phillips and Dr. Melton both pointed out that this is just 
one of the urgent reasons for intensifying and improving public 
relations efforts, as well as for increasing local financial support. 
Melton noted that it is necessary also to carefully scrutinize every 
guideline and regulation to assure that every permissible alterna- 



tive is considered. 

Reviewing some of the main changes in the organizational 
structure at the State level. Dr. Phillips observed that new 
assistant superintendencies had been created with special concern 
for total program planning, lay and professional relationships, and 
research and development. These new positions signal the 
commitment to step up departmental assistance to local person- 
nel in these areas, he said. 

"At the management level, we are attempting to develop a 
team approach to help you do your job," he emphasized. "We are 
trying to redirect the resources and efforts of the State 
Department staff into consulting capacity rather than a technical, 
regulatory capacity. 

"On your side of it, we would hope that you will be more 
concerned than ever about the relationships that exist in your 
classroom, your school, and your community. We would hope 
that you are in a position to make what goes on in your 
classroom much more relevant than it's ever been in the past. 

"And unless you become a part of a team of community 
people who are taking a look at what we're doing and what we're 
not doing and what we must support, then we're not going to get 
the kinds of resources that we need to do our job. 

"Finally," he concluded, "the summer has brought to me a 
strong conviction that unless we find a way to sit around the 
table with young people and let them become involved with what 
you and I do, then we are not going to find that relevancy we are 
so desperately seeking." 

At the small group meetings with superintendents and local 
board members, Phillips and the State staff members expanded 
upon some of these concepts. These meetings, usually breakfast, 
luncheon, or supper affairs, were informal give-and-take sessions, 
with no set format, but following the lines of inquiry of each 

Returning to the "community team" concept, the State 
agency team reiterated that public relations should not be 
considered in terms of "selling" education to the people, but 
rather as "involving as much of the public as possible in helping 
solve the many problems which impede development of truly 
relevant programs." Phillips remarked that it is a pure waste of 
resources not to enlist the expertise and leadership ability of 
businessmen, industrialists, and representatives of various profes- 
sions. Melton asked the local officials whether they had really 
made an effort to inform community leaders of such problems as 
were being discussed in these group meetings. 

Optimism is essential in these community relations efforts. Dr. 
Phillips pointed out. A local board chairman confirmed that he 
had found business and industrial leaders more than willing to 
help if the problems and possibilities were presented to them 
forthrightly and concisely. 

Dr. Abbott requested the local school leaders to share with 
him any approaches they developed that were especially success- 
ful in improving relationships with the public between profes- 
sional educators, and between educational agencies. He noted 
that he would be working in the area of all these relationships, in 
the effort to bring State services closer to people, all along the 

Dr. Melton outlined the steps already taken by the State Board 
of Education to encourage more comprehensive program planning 
in occupational education and special education. He called 
attention to the change from allotments of specific types of 
positions in these areas to the "man-months" approach, which 
allows more initiative to local school officials in staffing. 

He stressed that there has been a distinct shift in philosophy at 
the State level, reflected in the reorganization of staff, especially 
in occupational education. "We are working at developing a staff 
of consultants who will work with you on developing your total 

occupational education program, across the board, rather than 
pushing any one area at the expense of others," he told the 
group. "Our plans call for placing these consultants in regional 
offices, so they will be more readily accessible to meet with your 
people for orientation, planning, evaluation, and trouble- 
shooting, when this is needed." 

"What we're saying to you in all this," Dr. Phillips explained, 
"is you decide about staffing and course offerings, in light of 
your team's appraisal of needs in your communities, which most 
likely are changing considerably. 

"We're saying to you, try to involve all who have a stake in 
occupational education, and this means the general public as well 
as business and industrial leaders, for after all, most of our 
youngsters are not going to be completing a college education. 

"We're saying, coordinate your efforts with those of your area 
technical institutes, community colleges, and satellite centers. 
Employ all the expertise you can muster!" 

At the State level, Dr. Melton observed, there will be 
continuing efforts to coordinate the various types of programs 
being offered for the handicapped, emotionally disturbed, and 
disadvantaged, through interagency consultation, and this should 
apply also to local planning. 

Another area of concern, the State superintendent noted, should 
be more effective and year-round use of school facilities, with the 
constant recognition that the schools belong to the public. 

Dr. Conner, pointing to the importance of his administrative 
area, remarked that it is to be hoped that decisions regarding 
what is to be promoted in State and local programs will not be 
based simply on "group dynamics" of planning bodies, but upon 
the most solid and objective evidence that can be secured. We 
need more than educated opinions about solutions to problems 
before we channel resources and make choices, as we must within 
limited budgetary, personnel, and facilities resources, he said. 

"What people want and what they need are not necessarily 
identical, in educational programs, as well as in other aspects of 
life," Dr. Conner remarked. "Evaluation of our programs and 
policies must be guided in large part by research findings, by the 
evidence of the degree of effectiveness of various approaches and 
methods. Often, this is the biggest gap in program planning. We 
cannot afford to continue this way, with the increasing com- 
plexity and expenses of educational materials and facilities." 

William Peek, special assistant to Dr. Phillips, made several 
observations about communications with the legislature and local 
governing bodies. "Our representatives really do want to know 
what the people back home are asking for, more than they want 
the opinions of educational experts. Even the recommendations 
of study commissions will not receive more attention from 
legislators and county commissioners than decided indications of 
public opinion, in most cases. The point is to keep the public well 
informed about our problems and goals, so public opinion is 
based on maximum understanding rather than simply upon 

Dr. Phillips picked up the theme: "Never before in our history 
has the public been so dissatisfied about the performance of our 
public schools in various areas. Again and again, in talking with 
legislators, mass media people, and others whose business it is to 
gauge public opinion, we have come up against this statement: 
The people do not want just more of the same.' Opinions as to 
the remedies or improvements required differ widely, but the 
main message comes through loud and strong. 

"Yet with this mounting reaction, we find that our people's 
faith in education is not declining; the disagreement is about ways 
and means. 

"It's up to us to get the message across, to inform and involve 
the public so that our decisions will be guided by enlightenment 
and full discussion. ■ 



^ if ' 

Above, McDowell County Assistant Super- 
intendent James Johnson points out to 
State school officials unusual features of the 
site for the county's new consolidated high 
school. From left, the spectators are Mc- 
Dowell Superintendent Culver Dale; State 
Superintendent Craig Phillips; his special 
assistant, W. W. Peek (behind Phillips), Dr. 
H. T. Conner, Dr. Jerome Melton, A. C. 
Davis, and Dr. R. Max Abbott. Right, Dr. 
Phillips got a good chance to observe shop 
activities at Pleasant Gardens School near 
Marion, a 12-grade McDowell County school 
which is slated to become an elementary 
school when the new consolidated school 
opens. (Photos by Charles L. Wright, SDPI) 

Left, Exactly what Dr. Melton said to this student is Mrs. Veo Gibbs's 
ninth-grade civics class at Pleasant Gardens School was audible only to a 
few amused classmates. Above, at dinner meeting in Boone, Dr. Max 
Abbott talks with school officials. Seated across the table, from left, are 
Dr. Abbott, Superintendent Eugene M. White of Caldwell County, and his 
Board of Education Chairman, M. R. Corpening. On this side of the table 
are W. W. Peek, special assistant to the State Superintendent, and Brown 
Ferguson, Chairman of the Mitchell County Board of Education. 


EPDA: New Route to the Classroom 

Vester Mulholland, Special Assistant, Research and Planning, State Department of Public Instruction 


A few said they had avoided teacher education in college 
because they wanted to concentrate more heavily in their major 
fields. Others were housewives and mothers who wanted to brush 
up on old skills before returning to the classroom. Some chose 
their majors too late to take any education courses. But despite 
their certification differences, they all wanted to be teachers. 
"Because I feel I should become involved with people," said one 
girl. "And teaching is the way to do it," answered another 
would-be teacher, participating in one of the Education Profes- 
sions Development Act's (EPDA) teacher preparation centers last 

The eight experimental EPDA (Subsection B-2) programs 
located in North Carolina drew approximately 160 prospective 
teachers and 20 individuals planning to be teacher aides. Federal 
subsidies and per diem allowances did much to attract them into 
the classrooms. Blitzkrieg training techniques were developed to 
qualify the new teachers or teacher aides needed to meet the 
continuing teacher shortage. 

The EPDA programs were conceived as one way to identify 
and recruit college graduates with few or no professional courses 
in education who might desire to teach, those already prepared to 
teach but who were not in the profession during the past year, 
and prospective teacher aides. 

When schools opened in September, approximately 90 percent 
of the EPDA trainees had been assigned (on B certification) to 
classrooms across the State. Some are primary and elementary 
teachers, others are assigned to high school subject matter, a few 
are special education teachers, and some are vocational teachers. 
The Cleveland County project was unique in that it was planned 
exclusively for teacher aides. 

Whether teachers or teacher aides, the trainees' preparation 
didn't stop when they went into the classroom. It's still going on. 
During the school year they are assigned to teachers who are 
responsible for the continuing awareness and growth of each new 
teacher or teacher aide. Each buddy teacher receives enumera- 
tion for the work from federal funds. The assignees may receive 
certification credit for student teaching through this phase of the 

Buddy teachers have daily contact with the new recruits. They 
are on hand for clarification of immediate concerns; interpreta- 
tion of policies and regulations; and continuing orientation to 
facilities, services, and community resources. Along with listening 
and reassuring the new teachers, their mentors are invaluable 
when it comes to planning and evaluating duties. 

During the current school year, the summer participants are 
also attending seminars, workshops, and conferences designed 
especially for their benefit — and for certification credit where 
possible. Topics touched in the summer — use of audiovisual 
aids, teaching techniques, etc. — can be treated in depth during 
the in-school conferences. 

Teacher aides are also engaging in special in-service programs. 
These workshops deal with developing skills in the areas of 
instructional support and clerical support, housekeeping and 

monitoring tasks, as well as the aide's position as a member of the 
teaching team. 

Participants were recruited by various means. Newspaper 
articles announcing the new program were used, and in one area 
an advertisement was carried in the local newspapers. Civic club, 
radio, and television announcements were common techniques, as 
were the personal contacts of all the project coordinators. In 
addition, placement bureaus in nearby colleges were utilized, and 
applications on file in school offices were unearthed to find 

The realities of the classroom were kept in mind as orientation 
activities and seminars were planned for the trainees. Most of the 
summer sessions stressed basic skills. All prospective teachers and 
teacher aides, for example, worked for some period of time in the 
schools where they would be assigned. The participants, usually 
in cooperation with local teachers, supervisors, or administrators, 
became familiar with record systems, marking systems, audio- 
visual aides, instructional materials, bus regulations, physical 
facilities, and school policies. 

Flexibility was perhaps one of the most significant characteris- 
tics of the eight summer programs. Since hours, courses, and 
credits — according to the guidelines and contractual agreements 
of B-2 — were to be minimized in each of the programs, it seemed 
natural to focus attention on the specific needs of each 
prospective teacher or teacher aide. But common needs, it turned 
out, outweighed specific needs. As a result, much of the planning 
in each center emphasized the broad and practical aspects of 

Observations of classroom situations, though limited in some 
programs where summer sessions weren't in progress, were 
stressed in all eight preparation centers. Coordinators and 
participants alike said that additional time for classroom observa- 
tion and participation would improve future EPDA programs. In 
some centers simulated teaching followed by critiques served as a 
valuable substitute for actual classroom responsibilities. 

As part of each project, seminars, workshops, and discussions 
were also held. Such topics ranged from awareness of objectives, 
methods, and techniques of teaching, to testing as a way of 
learning. Motivation, conditions under which learning best takes 
place, developing study skills, planning for classroom effective- 
ness, and the teacher and the law were also discussed. 

The eight North Carolina programs used a wide variety of 
consultants: local teachers, supervisors, and administrators; col- 
lege and university personnel; individuals from business, industry, 
and the other components of the community; and members from 
the State Department of Public Instruction. Utilization of 
resource personnel — no one of whom was responsible for a 
comprehensive study of any one topic — along with the limited 
time allotted the exploration of topics, are areas which will be 
evaluated for their potential effectiveness during the current year. 

Individual evaluations of the eight summer projects — ranging 
from three to six weeks in length and involving a total of 27 
administrative units — are now being analyzed for use in planning 
future projects. ■ 

Charles H. Jourdan Retires 

Charles H. Jourdan retired as director of the Division of 
School Plant Operations for the State Board of Education on 
October 1. He served the schools of North Carolina for 20 years. 

Jourdan joined the plant operations division as a mechanical 
engineer in 1949. Previously he served in the U.S. Army Air 
Corps, the Worthington Pump and Machine Corp. of Washington, 
D.C., and the New York Telephone Co. in Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Following Jourdan's retirement, Carsie K. Denning became 
director of the division. He has been a consultant engineer for 
school plant operations since September 1962. Previously he 
worked as a field engineer with the North Carolina Prison 
Department, and at one time he operated his own plumbing and 
heating company. 

Television Programs Suggested for Student Viewing 

Each semester, in conjunction with an advisory panel of 
distinguished educators, 12 or more outstanding programs from 
the three commercial television networks are selected for student 
viewing by Teachers Guides to Television and the Television 
Information Office. Teaching aids for the programs are included 
in Teachers Guides to Television, published each semester under 
the direction of Edward Stanley, former director of public affairs 
for NBC. 

In addition to teaching guides for each of the selected 
programs, the publication includes a "Related Film List" giving 
titles and descriptions of films available for use as learning 
resources before and after the television programs. The film list is 
a project of the Department of Audiovisual Instruction of the 
NEA and the Indiana University Audiovisual Center. A biblio- 
graphy prepared by the American Library Association with 
suggested reading assignments at various grade levels is also 

Teachers Guides to Television is published at the beginning of 
the fall and spring semesters. The publication is available until 
January 1, 1970, at $1 per semester and $2 for the school year, 
from Teachers Guides to Television, P.O. Box 564, Lenox Hill 
Station, New York, N.Y. 10021. After January 1, the price is $2 
per semester and $3 per year. Orders for fewer than 10 copies 
must be accompanied by payment and a 25-cent handling charge 
per magazine. 

Ten remain to be aired: 

"Room 222" (ABC) 

"The Wolf Men" (NBC) 

"Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates" 

"Sahara" (NBC) 
"How the Grinch Stole Christmas" 

"A Day in the Life of the U. S." 

"Mission Impossible" (ABC) 
"The West of Charles Russell" 

"The Golden Age of the Automobile" 

"Wild Rivers" (CBS) 

*To Be Announced 

Every Wednesday 
November 18 

December 14 
December 19 

December 21 


January 7 

January 13 
February 10 

Dr. Law Heads Occupational Education Division 

Dr. Charles J. Law, formerly an assistant professor in the adult 
education department at N.C. State University became director of 
the Division of Occupational Education in the State Department 
of Public Instruction in October. 

Dr. Law replaced A. G. Bullard, who remains with the division 
as associate director in charge of planning, a newly created 
position. "The rapid expansion of more comprehensive programs 
in occupational education throughout the public schools of North 
Carolina requires additional leadership," State Superintendent 
Craig Phillips said. "A thorough study of the needs, in consulta- 
tion with Mr. Bullard, has led to the decision that he co.i atist 
serve occupational education in the State by concentrating on 
long-range planning and program development," he said. 

Dr. Law joined the Department in 1963 and assisted with the 
planning and coordination of experimental courses in vocational 
education made possible by the General Assembly's Clark-Long 
Act. He left that position in October 1965 to complete graduate 
work for the Ph.D. degree in educational administration at Duke 

Director of Federal Relations Named 

Carlton T. Fleetwood was named director of the Division of 
Federal Relations for the State Department of Public Instruction 
in September. He will direct State administration of all federally 
funded public school programs. 

Prior to the appointment Fleetwood served as State coor- 
dinator of the National Defense Education Act. He has been 
connected with federal programs since the passage of that act in 
1957. Fleetwood joined the Department of Public Instruction as 
a supervisor of driver training and safety education in 1954 after 
teaching and serving as a school principal in the Robeson County 
and St. Pauls City school systems. 

Dr. Joseph M. Johnston, State coordinator of Title I of the 
Elementary and Secondary Education Act, had served as 
acting director of Federal Relations. He will leave the Department 
in February to become executive secretary of the Southern 
Association of Schools and Colleges. He is now the president of 
the association. 

Training for Substitute Teachers 

Substitute teachers in Mt. Airy are entering the classroom well 
prepared. They come equipped with a special handbook for 
substitutes prepared by local Director of Instruction Anne Clark. 

At a two-day September workshop, designed specifically for 
substitutes, the booklet was distributed and discussed. It contains 
descriptions of special resources available (audiovisual coor- 
dinator, speech therapist, music teacher, etc.), lists of substitute 
teacher regulations, general directions, helpful hints on discipline, 
and tips on classroom techniques. 

At a second workshop session the duties and problems of the 
substitute teacher were discussed from the viewpoints of the 
principal and teachers, as well as the substitute. A third session, 
including classroom visitation and demonstrations of audiovisual 
equipment, was offered on an optional basis. 

State Textbook Commission 

Twelve new State Textbook Commission members were sworn 
in by Secretary of State Thad Eure in September. Appointed by 
Governor Bob Scott, upon recommendation of State Supt. Craig 
Phillips, the members hold their offices for four years. 

In accord with amendments made by the 1969 General 
Assembly, six are elementary teachers or principals, five are high 
school teachers or principals, and one is a superintendent. 
Elementary division: Mrs. Mary Sharpe Owens, Kinston; Robert 
M. W. Gammon, Forest City; Mrs. Dorothy Steele, Charlotte; Mrs. 
Louise Worthy, Wilmington; Mrs. Texie Fleming, Winston-Salem; 
and Mrs. Gale Lucas, Plymouth. High school division: Dr. Robert 
Nelson, Morganton; Dudley Flood, Bethel; Mrs. Iris Hunsinger, 
Greensboro; Dr. N. A. Miller, Boone; Mrs. Ruby Smith, Ashe- 
boro; and M. W. Weaver, Nashville. 


Transportation Ruling Affects Thousands 

More than 95,000 North Carolina 
students are involved in the recent 
federal court ruling that declared it 
unconstitutional to bus some but not 
all city school children who live a mile 
and a half or more from school. 

The state law which was declared 
invalid had entitled city students living 
in areas annexed by municipalities 
since February 6, 1957, to bus trans- 
portation if they live a mile and a half 
or more from school. There are 41,614 
Tar Heel students living in such areas. 
Another 54,008 would be entitled to 
bus transportation if the mile and a 
half rule were applied uniformly to all 
city youngsters. 

"The only fair and equitable way to 
solve this problem is to provide uni- 
form transportation. It's going to cost 

money, but we have to say every child 
residing at least a mile and a half from 
school is entitled to transportation," 
said Chairman of the State Board of 
Education Dallas Herring at the 
September meeting of the Board. 
March 1 is the date set to either halt 
bussing for the city students who 
receive it or to extend the privilege to 
all qualified city students. The court in 
its ruling said that the State could 
provide bus transportation for county 
pupils and not for city pupils, but that 
it could not discriminate among city 

Approximately 589 new school 
buses would be required to bus the 
additional 54,008 students. School 
buses are purchased by local units at 
about $5,000 per bus. It is estimated 

that the State will pay approximately 
$27 per child this year to operate 
buses. State funds of about $1.5 mil- 
lion per year would be necessary to 
extend transportation to all city stu- 
dents living a mile and a half or more 
from school. 

Students not affected by the ruling 
include those who live inside a city 
and are bused to a county school, 
students who live in the county and 
are bused to a city school, those who 
live in one city and are bused to school 
in another city, and special education 
students who are bused from one 
school to another. 



al I 

Excerpts of rulings from the State 
Attorney General's office are pre- 
sented here as an information service. 
Complete copies of the rulings may be 
obtained by writing Division of Pub- 
lications and Public Information, State 
Department of Public Instruction, 
Education Building, Raleigh 27602. 

September 4, 1969 . . . you asked 
to be advised whether your board of 
education could promulgate parking 
regulations and charge the student for 
use of parking facilities. 

"Without doubt, the board of edu- 
cation may not legally adopt any such 
regulation whereby the individual stu- 
dent is charged a fee in order to park. 

There is no authority for such action 
contained in Chapter 115 of the 
General Statutes. On this point, it is 
interesting to note that our State 
supported Colleges and Universities are 
entitled to charge for parking on cam- 
pus but this is provided for specifically 
by statute. We think that the same 
type of permissive legislation would be 
necessary to allow boards of education 
to charge for parking facilities. 

"The board of education may, how- 
ever, in the interest of safety, limit the 
number of cars that may be parked. 
Furthermore, the board may authorize 
you and its other principals to mark 
off designated parking areas and pro- 
hibit student parking in any other 
areas of school owned property . . . . " 

irolirva Stat« 

&5 I 


I 1 





V *,v ., ,, , * ;- .' '..■•14 *sf • ;> 





Volume 34 / Number 4 / December 1969 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director of Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is required 
for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public Schools, Division 
of Publications and Public Information, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 



Help for Those at Home 

Teddy Bears, a Milk Cow, and a Long-Legged 

Ostrich Lead Students to Self-Expression 

By Thurba G. Fuller 

Cosmetic Arts No Put-On 

Sweeping Up Soggy Apple Cores— All in 

a Day's Work for Student School Bus Drivers 

Precinct Experiment at 71st High School 

Mobile Materials Center Designed 

Size of School Districts Tops List of Reforms 

Urged by National Academy of Education 

New Planetarium Schedule 

Kids Earn-a-Book by Reading 

By Woody Bo wen 

News Briefs 

Circus Dogs Teach Safety 






From the 

State Superintendent 

There's a parable by Olive Schreiner that's a real favorite of 
mine. I've used it many times recently because it expresses for 
you and for me as educators the exact situation in which we find 

"There's an old mother duck who, having for years led her 
ducklings to the same pond, still persists in bringing her 
younglings down to it, even though the pond has been drained 
and nothing is left but baked mud. And she walks about with 
flapping wings and anxious quack, trying to induce them to enter 
it. But the ducklings, with fresh young instincts, hear far off the 
delicious drippings from the new dam which has been built higher 
up to catch the water, and they smell the chickweed and the long 
grass growing up beside the dam, and they absolutely refuse to 
disport themselves on the baked mud and to pretend to seek for 
worms where no worms are. 

"So they leave the ancient mother, quacking beside her pond, 
and set out to seek new pastures — perhaps to lose themselves 
along the way, but much more important, perhaps to find 
themselves for the first time." 

To the old mother — and I'm addressing you and me — one is 
inclined to say, "Ah, good old mother duck, can you not see that 
the world has changed? You cannot bring the water back to the 
dried up mud. Perhaps it was better and pleasanter when it was 
there. But it has gone forever; and would you and yours swim 
again, it must be in other waters." 

I hope we all are aware of the fact that we must swim again, 
and that to do so we must move into new waters. Recognizing 
this, I would put to us the question, "What are we doing as 
teachers, principals, school leaders, and parents to make this 
move?" Nostalgia for old approaches, rallying around dead issues, 
giving answers to questions that our youngsters are not asking, 
and evading answers to those they are asking, will inevitably fail 
to engage fresh young minds in developing the new skills and 
understanding they need. 

I can report to you that we are diligently trying in the State 
Department of Public Instruction, with the approval of the State 
Board of Education, to recognize the fact that we must swim in 
new waters. We are committed to placing more responsibility on 
you for planning your total educational program. The State 
Board in recent days has, with legislative support, put the 
responsibility for selection of supplementary material back on 
local school systems, and hopefully this means that teachers, who 
know best the kinds of materials that youngsters need and must 
have, will be involved in the selection processes. 

Furthermore, we have changed the allotment procedures with 
legislative support, in effect saying to local superintendents, "You 
and your team make the decisions about how occupational 
education positions shall be used, about how special education 
positions will be used." We are committed to the involvement of 
as many professional and lay people as possible in decision- 
making at the State level, and to reorganization of the State 
Department. In all this, we are saying to you that this is the 
direction we think educational planning should be taking, and we 
hope you will agree and put these opportunities to good use. Let 
us hear how you feel we might accomplish these important 


You couldn't find anybody at Cen- 
tral High School — teachers or stu- 
dents — who didn't like Jim Franklin. 
It was plain impossible not to like him. 
You'd look at Jim and see a big, 
friendly sheepdog standing there wag- 
ging at you. He could ask more ques- 
tions than four smart students trying 
to find out what's on their next test. 
But Jim wasn't smart. 

Oh, he always did his work. Maybe 
it wasn't on time, and maybe it was 
sloppy, but he did it. Every year he'd 
managed to slip from one low ability 
class to another with D's that were 
stretched and stretched. 

But in football Jim was the best. 
"Mack Truck!" they'd scream when he 
came on the field because Jim could 
block just about anything. But one 
night he was trampled to the bottom 
of a pileup and ended up with a bro- 
ken collarbone. Complications made 
the setting a nightmare and infection 

Jim stayed in the hospital for 
months, and a long recuperation at 
home followed. Football, of course, 
was over, and with it his plans. Jim 
had always thought he'd go to col- 
lege — play ball on a scholarship. 
Maybe end up a coach someday. But 
without football, what did he have to 

School didn't stop. He hadn't been 
in the hospital for a week when a soft. 

motherly woman came into his room 
and said she was the hospitalized- 
homebound teacher. Jim was lucky. 
His school system was one of the few 
that employed teachers for hospital- 
ized and homebound students in the 
early 60's. The program has grown 
since then. In 1965 State funds were 
appropriated to make such teachers 
available to many units, and by the 
1968-69 school year there were 50 
State allotted homebound and hos- 
pitalized teachers. This year 10 new 
positions have been added. 

Jim's hospitalized-homebound teach- 
er told him she'd talked with his 
doctor who said he could continue his 
schoolwork although writing would be 
difficult. She'd also discussed Jim with 
his principal and tenth-grade teachers 
who felt that remedial work would be 
needed. His parents hoped that the 
work might take his mind away from 
the football field. 

So she gave him some work, and 
said she'd be back later in the week. 
Hospitalized and homebound teachers 
usually average two sessions per week 
with each student. The sessions vary 
from an hour to two hours. 

In larger school units there are 
often several hospitalized and home- 
bound teachers. The programs may be 
split so that some teachers handle the 
hospitalized students while others 
teach those confined to their homes. 
Jim's was a smaller unit, so there was 

ceive homebound instruction if their 
psychiatrist feels the program is a 
necessary part of their therapy. 

Instructional supplies, textbooks, li- 
brary books, and other instructional 
materials and aids are provided as 
needed by the school where the stu- 
dent would ordinarily be enrolled. 
Records for the hospitalized and 
homebound students are maintained 
by their home schools. The intention 
of the program is to keep the conva- 
lescing student at his normal grade 
level and thus facilitate his return to 
the regular classroom. But in some 
instances the instruction goes beyond 
this intention. 

With Jim Franklin it was almost 
impossible to maintain a grade level 
since he was already far behind. In 
addition, he soon became bored and 
further behind than ever. His home- 
bound teacher soon found that Jim's 
problem was far deeper than a broken 
collarbone. He just couldn't read. 
Apart from his classmates and the 
enthusiasm he had expressed at school, 
his poor reading ability was readily 
apparent. When it came to working 
things out for himself, Jim simply 
couldn't function. 

Since he was in for a lengthy 
recuperation period, his homebound 
teacher, with the guidance of his doc- 
tor, parents, and regular teachers de- 
cided to begin again with the rudi- 
ments of reading. He was given much 

Jielp for t/iose at /tome 

just one teacher for everybody. And 
her schedule was a hectic one. "It's 
not all that complicated," she laughed, 
"not if you can learn half a dozen 
different subjects at 12 different grade 

The program is designed for stu- 
dents with a physical disability, usual- 
ly temporary, that makes it impossible 
or impractical for them to attend 
school even with special classes or 
special transportation. In many of the 
hospital programs, however, small 
classrooms are set up for students who 
are able to leave their rooms. Home- 
bound and hospitalized teachers are 
also assigned to mental hospitals and 
other facilities. All disabled students 
are not eligible. Those who have com- 
municable diseases, for example, can- 
not be served. Students who are men- 
tally retarded or defective in hearing 
or vision are usually enrolled in other 
special education classes. Pregnant stu- 
dents do not come under the home- 
bound program. Children with emo- 
tional disturbances, however, can re- 

encouragement and numerous high in- 
terest, low vocabulary books. And 
they weren't all on the subject of 
athletics. By the time Jim was dis- 
charged from the hospital and sent 
home, he had learned enough to enjoy 
reading for the first time. Suddenly he 
was talking about the things he'd read 
and thought about. 

At home he began working on his 
schoolwork — with much support 
from his parents. He had a lot to 
relearn, and he wasn't content until he 
actually understood what he was do- 
ing. Jim began to attack words and 
ideas, and when he wasn't able to 
figure something out, he discovered 
the dictionary. It sent him racing from 
one entry to another. 

Jim's a senior in college now. It 
isn't the best one in the State, but he 
got in, and not on a football scholar- 
ship. He's no longer a school person- 
ality, of course. But, still, he's very 

Thurba G. Fuller 
William H. Blount School, Wilmington 

A little love can work miracles with 
students. When art supplies and some 
extra attention are available, for ex- 
ample, the results can be amazing. 
Creativity takes over and discipline 
problems just about disappear. 

Last year my fifth grade class — 
Room 32 at Gregory School — became 
a large animal-making workshop as the 
result of correlating art and science 
studies during the year. The students' 
reaction was overwhelming: those who 
had been shy or withdrawn became so 
interested they even asked to stay 
after school. 

The students were studying 
"Groups of Living Things" in science, 
and they decided to make some of 
their own "living things." The class 
was divided into different groups un- 
der the science classifications they 
were studying — mammals, reptiles, 
amphibians, birds, and fish. Each 
group had a chairman, and, before the 
actual construction of the animals 
began, the groups conducted research 
in the city and school libraries. Each 
group then reported their findings to 
the class. 

Soon everyone was sharing experi- 
ences, planning construction projects, 
and locating materials. No extra ma- 
terials were bought for the project — 
the only resources were those on hand 
at the school or things gathered from 
the students' homes. 

When the Bird Group began to 
make ducks as their first "living 
thing," the whole class became so 
excited that they decided to let each 
student make his own duck. Ostrichs 
followed the ducks. The long-legged, 
long-necked creatures were covered 
with flowers taken from Easter bon- 
nets or made from plastic bags. 

As the animals were being made, 
the children wrote stories and poems 
about their creations, and made oral 
and written reports on every fish, 
mammal, bird, reptile, and amphibian 
made by the class. The poems and 
reports soon dotted the walls of the 
class as the room became filled with 
sometimes wobbly, but always loving- 
ly constructed, animals. 

Making the milk cow was really 
fun! Only one-third of the class had 
actually touched or been near enough 
to touch a real cow, so making one 
was exciting — and research came in 
handy. The poor cow was almost torn 
to pieces twice before she was com- 
pleted. Someone would invariably lean 
on her soft, wet paper body and leave 
her one-sided. A giraffe, tiger, dog, pig, 
and an elephant followed. But the 
children were the most excited about 
their wax man. They completed him 
with human hair and false teeth. 

Most of the animals were easy to 
make. The most difficult part was 
getting them to stand without using 

wood or wire. Most of the animals 
were made with papier mache over 
pasteboard bases, letting the students' 
imagination take them where it would. 
Clorox bottles, for example, served as 
the bases for the teddy bears and 
poodle dogs. The rest of the body was 
then made of papier mache and cov- 
ered with material given to the class by 
parents and friends. When dry, the 
animals were so light that the children 
could easily lift them. 

When the students got to seahorses, 
they were astounded to learn that the 
female lays the eggs and the male 
hatches them. They must have wanted 
the male to be able to watch his brood 
well — they brought marbles to class 
to make his prominent eyes. 

In this project the children's inter- 
est served as a spur to learning. When 
work in the classroom is related to a 
student's interests, he sees good reason 
for learning new material. Such a 
project also lets a student accomplish a 
goal — he feels that he's done some- 
thing by working with his hands. The 
objects he makes give him a feeling of 
achievement because he can see, feel, 
and touch the results of his labor. 

If the project is broad enough, the 
children can learn to work and plan 
together by sharing the accomplish- 
ment as a group. The construction of 
our seven-foot giant, Paul Bunyan, was 
carried out by the whole class. Each 
student had a part in the making of 
the giant, and each child was com- 
mended for his work. Students many 
times get little praise to help them 
develop a feeling of success. Praise 
them — for what limited success they 
have achieved — and they will take on 
even more challenges. 

When it comes to discipline, arts 
and crafts in the classroom means 
more than just an ounce of prevention. 
The busy pupil doesn't have time to 
get into mischief. Artwork becomes an 
outlet for his emotions. Each child, of 
course, has different needs. And these 
differences need recognition. It 
doesn't take a teacher long to find the 
classroom bully, the shy one, or the 
fighter — but it does take time and 
understanding to help each one. 

Artwork helps. It can play a major 
role in student expression. In shaping a 
duck, a rooster, or a turtle, the student 
forgets himself, his shyness, or his 
nervousness. And the bully takes out 
his emotions on his creation. You 
suddenly see new faces in the room. 
Contented, happy, excited faces wear- 
ing the smiles of success. ■ 




There's a lot more to cosmetology 
than shampooing and styling hair. Al- 
though the techniques — when profes- 
sional — require much training and 
practice, a little art, and lots of hard 
work. The cosmetic arts also, however, 
span subjects such as physiology, 
chemistry, public relations, sanitation, 
and a myriad of other topics. 

Cosmetology was first taught in 
North Carolina in 1943 at West Char- 
lotte High School. Offerings were slim 
throughout the State during the next 
decade. In the last few years, however, 
demand and enthusiasm for cosme- 
tology courses has grown. It was real- 
ized that vocational opportunities for 
girls needed to be broadened — cosme- 
tology was one answer. By the 
1968-69 school year, 14 cosmetology 
programs were offered in North Caro- 
lina high schools. This year the num- 
ber has grown to 18. 

Unlike other public school pro- 
grams, cosmetology courses are oper- 
ated in conjunction with a State 
agency other than the Department of 
Public Instruction. Cosmeticians must 
be licensed, of course, and their train- 
ing must be in keeping with regula- 
tions of the State Board of Cosmetic 
Art Examiners, whose rules are a 
matter of public law and public safety. 
Financially, the courses are a State- 
local venture: teachers are hired under 
vocational allotments; equipment is 
paid for on a percentage basis with 
State and local funds; and expendable 
materials — including textbooks — are 
left to local pocketbooks. 

The State Board of Cosmetic Arts 
requires a minimum of 1,200 hours of 
training before a student is eligible to 
take the licensing examination. To 
meet these and other requirements and 
to offer a first-class training program, 
many units have extended their cosme- 
tology programs to 10, 11, or 12 
months. At Olympic High School in 
the Charlotte/Mecklenburg system, 
cosmetology began operating on an 
eleven-month schedule this year. Stu- 
dents study for two years. Classes, 
taught in three-hour blocks, are lim- 
ited to 20 students each. 

Mrs. Henrietta Champion, who 
teaches the course at Olympic, looks 
more like a Vogue model than a 
teacher. Her lab, or "clinic" as the 
students call it, matches — it's gleam- 
ing, spotless, and modern. The clinic is 
split into two sections, one for ad- 
vanced students and one for beginners. 
Both are equipped just like a "salon" 
with rows of wash basins, hair dryers, 
manicure stands, and customer "sta- 
tions," or booths, where the real work 
takes place. A dispensary stocked with 
shelves of various coloring chemicals 
and other beautifying supplies divides 
the room. A small classroom adjoins it. 

Dotting the clinic are small, imita- 

Cosmetic Arts No Put-On 

tion alligator suitcases — student kits. 
"It's their only expense," said Mrs. 
Champion, who explained that stu- 
dents must purchase their own equip- 
ment - cutting instruments, rollers, 
clips, cosmetics, manicure equipment, 
brushes, and combs, etc. "The cost," 
she said, "varies with the quality." At 
Olympic it's only $30 since Mrs. 
Champion buys in bulk. Students will 
use these kits indefinitely; they'll be 
required to supply their own working 
tools once employed in a salon. 

Practice is the most important part 
of a cosmetology course. "The pri- 
mary thing," according to Mrs. Cham- 
pion. But students must learn a good 
deal of theory to understand what 
they are doing and why. "They have 
to know why a pin curl is used a 
certain way, for example," she said. 
The theory, however, goes deeper than 
pin curls. The text used by Mrs. 
Champion (there is no one State- 
adopted cosmetology text; most 
schools use the one approved by the 
State Board of Cosmetic Arts) includes 
hygiene, bacteriology, sanitation, anat- 
omy, physiology, and chemistry 
chapters along with explanations of 
how the knowledge is related to the 
field and why students must know it. 

"Safety is the primary reason, of 
course," said Mrs. Champion. Students 
are taught, for example, how and why 
all their equipment must be sterilized. 
Even the kits at Olympic High School 
become small sterilizers; a salt shaker 
with formaldehyde-soaked cotton is 
kept in them at all times. Safety in the 
salon also includes use of chemicals 
and even cleaning up procedures. 
"They're never allowed to leave hair 
on the floor, for example. It's not only 
dirty, but someone could slip on it and 
fall," she said. 

Students begin their practicing with 
mannequins — they even prop the 
bright-faced heads under the hair dry- 
ers - and then advance to working on 
each other. (Since Mrs. Champion dis- 
courages out-of-school practicing, their 

kits stay at Olympic.) By the second 
month of school, most students are 
styling one another. 

After about 300 hours of training, 
students begin working on real cus- 
tomers. Much of the work, however, is 
complimentary. "I ask them to invite 
their relatives and mothers, and many 
of the girls build up a clientele before 
the year is out," she said. Mrs. Cham- 
pion herself invites other groups: old 
ladies from a local church, teachers, 
and students with job interviews. "I 
think the girls should realize that they 
all need to do some service for their 
community," she said. "And the old 
people really enjoy the attention," she 

Other customers are taken at a 
small fee, no more than half of the 
regular salon charges. The money helps 
replenish supplies and add a few ex- 
tras. (Schools do not get a reduction 
for cosmetology supplies, according to 
Mrs. Champion.) Last year she was 
able to underwrite a trip to the New 
York International Beauty Show for a 
few of the students. "It was a wonder- 
ful experience for them professionally, 
but I think the trip itself was the best 
part. Many of them had never been 
anywhere," she said. 

Learning good customer relations is 
another reason for having paying pa- 
trons. "Even if you have to tell a 
customer she's got dandruff, you've 
got to do it nicely," said Mrs. Cham- 
pion. "Rudeness or intolerance has no 
place in a salon," she said. 

"The greatest reason for dissatisfac- 
tion in a salon is lack of communica- 
tion," she said. "Even if you've had 
Mrs. Smith at 3:30 on Thursdays for 
five years, you've got to think about 
her personally each week. The kind of 
person she is, the kind of life she leads. 
Getting her hair done may be the only 
thing she does for herself. And a busy 
woman needs to be pampered." 

Attitude isn't the only thing stu- 
dents must learn to handle. Their 
grooming has to be impeccable every 

day. They wear uniforms, of 
course, but hair, posture, and skin 
must also pass muster. They study 
make-up, manicuring, massage, and 
facial treatments. In addition, this year 
Mrs. Champion lured in a professional 
model to lecture and demonstrate. 

All the students seem genuinely 
interested in the course, and many ask 
to use study halls and after school 
time for extra work. Mrs. Champion 
feels that many of her students would 
have dropped out of school if they had 
not been headed toward the cosme- 
tology clinic: "We're very fortunate 
with our counselors here," she said. 

Once through the course, and past 
the State examination, the girls have a 
marketable skill that is much in de- 
mand. Salons pay their cosmeticians 
on a percentage basis — 45 to 65 
percent of what the customer is 
charged. "How well a girl does de- 
pends on her ability and willingness to 
work," Mrs. Champion said. All but 
one of her last crop of seniors are now 
employed, and one girl is averaging 
$100 a week. "Their future is un- 
limited," said Mrs. Champion. "They 
can go on to specialize, teach, run a 
salon, what-have-you," she said. A few 
of the girls plan to use their training to 
work their way through college. 

"There's always a great demand for 
a good hairdresser," she said. 


apple coi 
daij s wort 

school t 

The driver's work doesn't stop when chil- 
dren are delivered. Terry Moore finds a 
broom almost as necessary as a good driving 

Children clumped up the stairs of the long orange school bus 
and made for their seats just as usual — shouting, giggling, 
tugging, and tossing soggy apple cores and balled up homework 
papers. The long-haired schoolgirl watching them looked too 
timid to startle a rabbit. Suddenly she smiled and produced a 
loud "Quiet!" like a veteran drill sergeant. She got it. And then, 
staring ahead with determination, she climbed behind the 
outsized steering wheel and cranked the bus in relative peace. 

High school students, many of them only 16 and 17 years old, 
have been driving North Carolina school buses since the beginning 
of motorized transportation - 52 years ago. Last year alone more 
than 610,000 Tar Heel children were safely transported twice a 
day on the State's 9,300 school buses. Most were driven by 
students, whose safety record compares favorably with that of 
adult drivers, according to D. J. Dark, director of transportation 
for the State education agency. 

The driving jobs mean much-needed income for many students 
and a chance to develop maturity for all of them. "Many times 
being a bus driver can keep a boy from dropping out of school to 
get a job," said Dark. The growth of maturity — and the excellent 
safety record resulting — has saved the North Carolina student 
drivers from extinction. Congress, in 1966, amended the Fair 
Labor Act to include public school employees; bus drivers are 
named in Hazardous-Occupations Order No. 2 which states that 
no drivers under 18 years of age can be employed. Based on the 
State's fine training and safety record, the Governor has asked for 
an exemption for North Carolina's student drivers each year. He's 
received it. 

It takes hundreds of people to supervise the State's school bus 
drivers and to make the mammoth school bus network operate. 
Each county has its own bus garage with skilled mechanics who 
tend the buses. Drivers are supervised at their schools by the 
principal or a person appointed by him. In addition, there are 
county transportation supervisors — many times an assistant 
superintendent — who work with all the principals and the garage 

Keith Neighbors, a young math teacher, is in charge of 
transportation at Garner Senior High School. His teaching duties 
are half the normal load, giving him time to look after the 
school's 40 drivers and 6 alternates, plan the complicated bus 
routes, handle disgruntled parents, and occasionally pilot a bus 
when numbers of the drivers are sick — a seldom thing. Many 
schools, according to Dark, don't have Neighbors' kind of special 
transportation position; the duties fall to overloaded principals or 

Neighbors' chores begin each morning when student drivers 
sign a roster reporting any difficulties with children or buses and 
then head for him with multiple comments and questions. The 
buses, after a morning run during which students are dropped at 
the eight different schools served by the Garner drivers, come to 
rest in a parking lot next to Garner Senior High. They are lined 
up like so many giant piglets waiting for the gasoline truck, which 
arrives every other day to fill them up, check the oil and tires, 
etc. Mechanics, in their own special trucks equipped with small 
parts, visit the buses every day to fix minor breakdowns. The bus 
garage handles major repairs, monthly safety checks, and the 
extra buses that pinch hit when one is down. 

Supervision of the drivers is just as close although they require 
advice and instruction rather than gas and oil. Some 240 students 
enrolled in the Department of Motor Vehicles school bus drivers 
course at Garner High School last year. The first part consisted of 
two days of class instruction, and those enrolled had to have 
completed driver education and, of course, were required to 
produce spotless driving records. Before the on-the-road portion 
of the course — two days of bus driving instruction - Neighbors 
chose his drivers: 30 out of 240 enrolled. 

Careful selection is the first element in Neighbors' formula for 
a good bus driver. Character and attitude are at the top of his list 
of considerations; he checks student records along with getting to 
know the candidates personally. The location of a student's home 
is also considered; the buses are left there at night so the home 
must be located near the beginning of a bus route. Surprisingly, 

£-all in a 
for student 
\s drivers 

Tiny Cathy Messier may look small behind 
the wheel, but she handles the huge bus 
(capacity 90) like a veteran. One-third of 
the Garner Senior High School drivers are 

more than one third of the students selected are girls. 

"They make better drivers on the whole," said Neighbors, who 
explained that his "women drivers" are less apt to change gears 
too fast or get heavy footed with the accelerator. Regardless of 
the sex of the driver, however, school bus accelerators won't go 
too far. The speed limit for the buses is 35; and they're equipped 
with governors that limit them to 27 or 32 miles an hour. 
Although it's slow, driving a school bus is strenuous. "It's harder 
to judge distances with that long bus behind you," said 
Neighbors. The large steering wheels are a little unwieldy too — 
no power steering. But the girls still line up to drive. 

"All these kids love it," said Neighbors. "They consider the 
bus a personal thing — they have an identity with it," he said. 
That's obvious — they refer to their buses as "Old 147" or "That 
Tub" and clamor for visitors to see "The Big One." (Buses come 
in different sizes varying in maximum capacity from 45 to 96.) 

Two categories of students, according to Neighbors, apply for 
positions: those who really need the money (they get slightly 
more than the minimum wage of $1.43 an hour) and those who 
drive for the prestige of it. The status tag doesn't come attached 
to the job in all schools — some have trouble getting enough 
drivers to fill their routes let alone become alternates. But there 
are no problems in Garner. Students said that the screening and 
extra attention given by Neighbors might have done it. "We used 
to have some real characters driving buses," said one boy. That 
was before Neighbors' position became possible. He thinks the 
prestige may come because the younger students tend to look up 
to the drivers. "They idolize them — bring them little Christmas 
presents and things like that," he said. Elementary and secondary 
students served by Garner High School drivers are put on separate 
buses, a "dual system" used to lessen disciplinary problems. 

But it doesn't end all disorder. When asked what some of the 
students are prone to do on a bus, one driver answered, "Yell, 
scream, and holler, that's what!" 

"Yeh, and they want to hang their heads out the window," 
said another. 

"And we can't hit 'em, and we can't curse at 'em either," said 
yet another, president of the junior class, by the way. There are 
few monitors on the Garner High School buses — they are 
assigned by the principals only when a driver has reported 
difficulty. Drivers must, therefore, develop subtle methods of 
control — respect, for one — because they can't drive and 
maintain order at the same time. "Driving really teaches them 
responsibility, how to handle problems," said Neighbors. A few, 
of course, who can't handle the frustrating situations quit or are 

For those who stick it out, the experience is telling. "You can 
see a great difference in their maturity after they've driven for a 
few months," said Neighbors. That maturity can pay off: 
Neighbors has written college recommendations for many of his 
drivers. "And I've never known one who was turned down," he 

"These boys and girls have the opportunity to handle 
responsibility that the average student doesn't get. They are 
careful and dependable and they have to be," said Transportation 
Director Dark. 

"Many become leading citizens," he said. The most immediate 
example is Governor Robert Scott, who once drove a school bus 
in Alamance County for Alexander Wilson School. ■ 

Student Council Advisor Jimmy Beck, 
right, helped students draw precincts 
for new election procedures at 71st 
High School in Cumberland County. 



AT 71 ST 

hiqh school 

Student Council election based on 
precinct or ward representation is an 
accomplished fact at 71st High School 
in Cumberland County. The precincts 
were drawn, conventions held, and the 
election carried out — all in one week. 
The school, totally integrated this year 
with a 15 percent black population, 
has three Negro class representatives 
and one Negro class officer — 20 
percent representation. 

R. C. Lewis, principal of 71st High 
School, began considering experimen- 
tation with election procedures last 
year when plans for the school's inte- 
gration were formed. "I felt there 
should be some method whereby Ne- 
gro students could have better repre- 
sentation on the student council," he 
said. Besides that, he felt that the 
existing method of electing 71st's stu- 
dent council — homeroom representa- 
tion — was inadequate, a popularity 
contest resulting in a student council 
too large to work effectively. 

Lewis first became interested in 
precinct elections at the Secondary 
School Principals Conference spon- 
sored by the State Department of 
Public Instruction last summer. Mem- 
bers of the Task Force on Student 
Involvement — students from across 
the State — presented the idea to 
principals as part of their recommen- 
dations to involve more students in 
campus activity and thus avoid unrest. 
The idea struck a responsive chord in 
Lewis: "I feel that the problems come 
from shutting the door in the Negro's 
face, and this is one way of opening 
it." Lewis was also interested in find- 
ing a system of representation that 
would preserve the democratic pro- 
cess. "In elections all over the country 
you have precincts. If it works with 
adults, it ought to work with stu- 
dents," he said. 


Returning from the August confer- 
ence, Lewis assigned Jimmy Beck, 
71st's student council advisor, to the 
task of putting the new procedure into 
practice. Beck was a good man to pick 

— energetic, young, and articulate. 
Several other North Carolina high 
schools are experimenting with intro- 
ducing precinct elections, and many 
are being slowed by student constitu- 
tions that must be rewritten, a time- 
consuming process. Not so in Cumber- 
land County. They just shelved it. 

"We're revolutionaries," laughed 
Beck. Lewis agreed. Although he 
didn't like the term revolutionary, he 
felt that the constitution wasn't as 
important as the situation and its 
problems. (The new student council 
has a committee now writing a new 

From the start students were in- 
volved in working out the plans and 
deciding if it would work. "We could- 
n't have done without the student 
leadership we had," said Beck. He was 
talking about four top student council 
officers elected by the school last 
spring. (The remainder of the council 
is always elected in the fall at 71st 
High School since the school popula- 
tion is largely transient with Ft. Bragg 
nearby — one third of the student 
body is replaced each year.) 

The first task was an orientation 
program held on the third day of 
school when the floor was open for 
questions and answers. The next step 
was to determine if a balanced repre- 
sentation would be possible with pre- 
cincts. On a Friday of one week early 
in September, large city maps were put 
up in each homeroom. Each of the 
school's 1,689 students put a dot at 
his home address. Forty minutes of 
extra time was scheduled for the pro- 

On Saturday morning the four 
school officers and Beck met at the 
school with the maps and went to 
work. The dots for each class were put 
on larger maps. Precincts were then 
drawn, and redrawn — on a class basis 

— a process that lasted until 1 1 p.m. 
that night. When the group had fin- 
ished, there were five precincts for 
each class (10, 11, and 12), and each 
was drawn a bit differently to allow 
for the population distribution of each 
class. If there was any gerrymandering 
it was done to insure equal representa- 
tion — students had been advised 
beforehand that the whole process was 
supposed to unify the Negro vote, not 
split it. Each class has one black 
precinct. Lewis is quick to note that 
the success of precinct representation 
depends on local housing patterns. 

On Monday precinct maps were put 
back in the homerooms so that stu- 
dents would know their precincts. 
Precinct lists were drawn and distri- 

buted giving the name, address, and 
telephone number of each student. 
Later in the week nominations were 
held. There were no requirements for 
candidates with the exception that 
students were allowed to hold only 
one office in the school. "Why push 
the requirements beyond those of Con- 
gressmen, for example," said Lewis. 

"We tried to get as close to the 
national model as possible," added 
Beck. Each precinct then held a con- 
vention. "We didn't force anyone to 
participate," said Beck. An assembly 
was held for those not attending con- 
ventions. Two students were then 
nominated from each precinct for pre- 
cinct representative and one for each 
class office. 

"We were surprised to find that the 
most popular students didn't get nomi- 
nated," said Beck. And he added that 
there were no selling jobs on what 
kind of student should or shouldn't be 

Nominated students were then 
given the election ground rules. Each 
of the 90 nominated were allowed one 
poster. And on Wednesday — of that 
same week — class meetings were held 
during which the presidential and 
vice-presidential candidates were al- 
lowed three minutes for speeches. In 
some of the assemblies time was allot- 
ted for questions and answers. 

The election was held on Thursday. 
One student said it was all to fast. "It 
was so new that some of us didn't have 
time to digest it," he said. And Beck 
admits that it might have been better 
to extend the timing. 

Students voted at their precinct 
spot during lunch period. The voting 
booths were separated so that no more 
than 135 students voted at each spot. 
The precincts, by the way, didn't 
exactly work out to a one-man, one- 
vote representation. Senior precincts 
averaged 75 students each, junior pre- 
cincts 110, and sophomores 135. Beck 
feels that this might have been a 
mistake, and it's a bone of contention 
in any school election procedure. The 
number of seniors in any school is, of 
course, always less than the number of 
juniors, and the number of juniors less 
than the number of sophomores. "So 
it's a matter of one-man, one-vote with 
the seniors outnumbered or equal re- 
presentation for each class," said Beck. 
At 71st each class gets equal repre- 
sentation on the council. The council 
is made up of one representative from 
each of the 15 precincts, class officers, 
and student body officers. 

The election did work: one black 
representative was elected from each 
black precinct. In addition, a black 
class officer was elected. Another pay- 
off from the new election procedure 
was the broadened base of student 
involvement. More students were in- 

volved in the election itself even 
though the elected body was smaller 
than previously. It is, however, a more 
workable body, according to' adminis- 
trators. The new council members, 
they feel, are a different breed. One 
representative has called every member 
of his precinct. 

Efforts like those at 71st High 
School, to ease the problems that cause 
unrest, are rarely reported. But stories 
of student unrest itself fill too many 
papers. In fact, they are old news. 
Between November 1968 and Feb- 
ruary 1969 there were 239 "episodes 
of disorder" and 348 "disruptions" 
reported in American high schools. 
The National Association of Second- 
ary School Principals notes that 3 out 
of 5 principals say they have had some 
form of active protest in their schools. 

One basis of the problem, according 
to Gene Causby, associate director of 
the Division of Human Relations of 
the State Department of Public In- 
struction, is a genuine feeling of lack 
of representation. "This is true not 
only of student associations but of 
boards of education, administration, 
teachers, department heads, etc.," he 
said. The best way to avoid trouble 
stemming from lack of representation, 
according to Causby, is to try to solve 
problems before emotions erupt and 
concerns become demands. 


Mobile Materials 
Center Designed 

"What do you do with the materials?" is a constant question 
asked when individualized instruction programs are initiated. 
Such programs can use hundreds, if not thousands, of separate 
lesson sheets, pamphlets, and all kinds of other learning materials. 
Victor Stevens, program associate at the Regional Education 
Laboratory for the Carolinas and Virginia, has designed a solution 
he calls the Mobile Materials Center. The center, which looks like 
a compartmentalized bookcase on wheels, can store as many as 
8,000 lesson sheets in up to 800 sections with additional storage 
space for test-scoring keys, flash cards, counting sticks, and other 
learning devices. 

With the center, students in grades three and above can select 
their materials without assistance. The center can be located 
centrally and used for more than one grade, or it can be moved 
from room to room. Since the unit weighs approximately 50 
pounds and has rubberized wheels, students themselves can move 
it. A real space saver, it can eliminate the need for a special 
materials room. The center may be modified to transport 
multi-sensory devices and learning games. 

It can be constructed commercially for about $350, but the 
unit could be made in a school shop for considerably less. 
Information about blue prints and materials lists may be obtained 
from the Regional Education Laboratory for the Carolinas and 
Virginia, Mutual Plaza, Chapel Hill and Duke Streets, Durham, 
N.C. 27701. 

Yeah, I voted against the school bonds. I'm not 
against schools, but I just got hit with a $400 
assessment from my country club. 

Size of School Districts 

Tops Lists of Reforms Urged 

by National Academy of Education 

School districts should contain no fewer than 5,000 and not 
more than 150,000 students, according to a special report, 
"Policy Making for American Public Schools," of the National 
Academy of Education. The Academy is an organization of 
educators headed by Ralph W. Tyler, director emeritus of the 
Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, 

The report argues that the limited revenue generally available 
to school districts with fewer than 5,000 students leads to 
problems, such as the inability to attract and hold a competent 
staff and the inability to build, equip, and maintain adequate 
facilities. Small districts may also lack the "adult civic talent" 
needed to insure leadership on local school boards, according to 
the report. Districts with more than 150,000 students, the report 
says, "are prone to bureaucratic rigidities and impersonalities." 
The number of school districts in the nation is also subject to 
comment: the current 20,000 should be reduced to no more than 

Other reforms sought by the Academy include the suggestion 

that boards of education tap manpower in business, industry, and 
other professions, as well as in education, for superintendents; 
that salaries for top school administrators be comparable to those 
for administrative positions of similar responsibility in other 
fields; that local school authorities become active in local and 
regional boards or commissions that are engaged in improving the 
human condition; that chief state school officers should be 
appointed by state boards of education; and that professional 
positions in state departments of education should be exempt 
from civil service requirements and standards that impose 
restrictive classifications and salary scales not related to profes- 
sional competency. 

Educators participating in formulating the report's recommen- 
dations included Roald F. Campbell, U. of Chicago; James E. 
Allen, now U.S. Commissioner of Education; Stephen K. Bailey, 
secretary-treasurer of the Academy; Lawrence A. Cremin, Colum- 
bia U.; John H. Fischer, Columbia U.; Robert J. Havighurst, U. 
of Chicago; H. Thomas James, Stanford U.; T. R. McConnell, U. 
of California; and Theodore W. Schultz, U. of Chicago. 


New Planetarium Schedule 

The Morehead Planetarium at the 
University of North Carolina in Chapel 
Hill is offering a completely new 
schedule of school programs this year. 
Three new graded programs and two 
nongraded enrichment programs are 
being offered at specific times every 
week throughout the school year. 

The programs are planned to con- 
form with new series of science text- 
books being used this year. They also 
provide broader offerings to allow 
more schools to take advantage of the 
multi-million dollar planetarium facil- 

Graded programs include "Mister 
Moon" - grades 1, 2, and 3 - offered 
every Wednesday at 1 1 a.m., Thursday 
at 3 p.m., and Friday at 1 p.m. 

Students will explore the cause of day 
and night, discover the earth's journey 
around the sun, and investigate the 
moon, its motions, phases, and ex- 
ploration by man. "All about Planets" 
— grades 4, 5, and 6 — is an introduc- 
tion to the family of the sun, empha- 
sizing how to find planets currently in 
view, along with recent discoveries and 
basic information about each. This 
program is offered each Wednesday at 
1 p.m., Thursday at 11 a.m., and 
Friday at 3 p.m. "The Earth in the 
Universe" — grades 7, 8, and 9 — is 
scheduled every Wednesday at 3 p.m., 
Thursday at 1 p.m. and Friday at 11 
a.m. The program deals with com- 
monly observed features of celestial 

New enrichment programs, suitable 
for all grade levels, include "Man in 
Space" each Wednesday at noon and 
"Exploring the Sky" each Thursday 
and Friday at noon. "Man in Space" 
concerns man's role in the heavens, 
and "Exploring the Sky" deals with 
objects currently visible in the "back- 
yard" sky. 

Reservations are required for all 
school groups. Further information, 
including an astronomy unit and sug- 
gested projects for students, may be 
obtained from Morehead Planetarium, 
University of North Carolina, Chapel 
Hill, N. C. 27514. 


Earn -A- Book 

by Reading 

Woody Bowen 

Public Information Officer, 

Robeson County 

Children in Robeson County are 
reading books to earn books. The 
unique program began last year when 
three Robeson County elementary 
schools, Purvis, Ashpole, and Rex Ren- 
nert, adopted project "Earn-a-Book" 
in an effort to get children to read 
more outside of class. 

Since many children from deprived 
areas have never owned a book, it was 
felt that the opportunity to earn and 
own personal books might be enough 
incentive to promote outside reading 
even among the most reluctant read- 
ers. The idea came from the St. Louis 
school system where Superintendent 
William Kottmeyer earmarked $4,000 
in Elementary and Secondary Educa- 

tion Act Title I funds to buy attractive 
soft-backed books that could be a- 
warded to children for reading two 
other books from the library. 

According to Howard Davis, Purvis 
Elementary School principal, the pro- 
gram works essentially the same in 
Robeson County. Assistant Super- 
intendent in charge of Federal Pro- 
grams Purnell Swett set aside $3,000 
in Title I funds to put earn-a-book into 
three schools for a two-year period. 
Davis said that since the program 
began last October Purvis School had 
awarded over 500 books, one for each 
two read outside class. And teachers 
say the results are remarkable! 


Tom I. Davis Fills Information Post 



James T. Burch Named An Assistant State Superintendent 

James T. Burch, assistant superintendent of Charlotte/Meck- 
lenburg schools, was named an assistant State superintendent in 
October. He fills the fourth such post created in the State 
Department of Public Instruction by State Superintendent Craig 

As assistant State superintendent for administrative services, 
Burch's major responsibilities will include staff development and 
teacher education. He will develop in-service programs for 
Department staff and local and regional continuous training and 
re-training for all types of school and school-related personnel. He 
will direct Statewide human relations programs and coordinate 
the efforts of the Division of Staff Development and the Division 
of Human Relations. Burch will also coordinate educational needs 
and programs with urban affairs programs. With the other 
assistant State superintendents, he will share administrative 
leadership tasks in overall Department activities. He will begin his 
new duties January 19. 

Reorganizational plans for the Department of Public Instruc- 
tion abolished the former post of associate State superintendent 
and established an executive cabinet of assistant State superinten- 
dents in different fields. Burch joins assistant State superinten- 
dents Dr. Jerome H. Melton, program services; Dr. R. Max 
Abbott, special services; and Dr. H. T. Conner, planning and 

For the past two years Burch has been assistant superintendent 
for Charlotte/Mecklenburg Schools where he directed Elementary 
and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) activities, the Neighbor- 
hood Youth Corps Inschool Project, Headstart, and the Charlotte 
Model Cities Educational Component. Prior to becoming assistant 
superintendent, he had served the Charlotte/Mecklenburg school 
system since 1957 as teacher, principal, director of the Neighbor- 
hood Youth Corps, and director of ESEA activities. Before going 
to Charlotte, he was a teacher-coach in Goldsboro for eight years. 

Burch received a B.S. degree in elementary education from 
Fayetteville State College and an M.S. degree from Indiana 
University. He is completing his doctoral program at UNC-Chapel 
Hill. Last summer he was one of three school administrators in 
the nation who received scholarships from the American Associa- 
tion of School Administrators. To accept his new position, he has 
asked to be released from the one-year Worth McClure scholar- 
ship for full-time study at UNC. 

Campaigners Get Help 

Recently published by the National School Public Relations 
Association is Campaign Planner, A Guide to Successful Finance 
Elections, designed to help local school districts with bond 
elections. The 108-page publication features campaign tools 
including a pre-campaign checklist, sample news releases, cam- 
paign timetable, prepared scripts for speeches, etc. Background 
information includes discussion of public attitudes and the 
components of successful campaigns. Campaign profiles of school 
districts across the U.S. are also included. 

The publication is available, at $14 per copy, from National 
School Public Relations Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, 
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. 

Tom I. Davis, editor-publisher of the Johnstonian-Sun, became 
director of public information for the State Department of Public 
Instruction Nov. 3. Davis filled the information post formerly 
held by Mrs. Almetta (Cookie) Brooks, now public relations 
director for Pilot Club International, with headquarters in Macon, 

Before his association with the Johnstonian-Sun in 1951, Davis 
was affiliated with newspapers in Ahoskie, Hillsborough, and 
Graham. He was manager of the successful state school bond 
campaign in 1964 and has been a consultant for the Office of 
Economic Opportunity. 

He attended Campbell College and received an A.B. degree 
from Wake Forest University. He was editor of the Young 
Democrat for four years and state vice-president of N.C. Young 
Democratic Clubs in 1956. He served as executive director of the 
N.C. Democratic Executive Committee from 1961 to 1964. 
Active in a number of civic efforts, he was appointed to the N.C. 
Better Schools Committee by Governor Luther Hodges. 

Creative Writing Contest 

All full-time students in grades 7 through 12 are eligible for 
creative writing awards in this year's National Scholastic Creative 
Writing Awards program. The contest is designed to encourage 
creative writing among young people and has been conducted 
annually by Scholastic Magazines, Inc., since 1925. This year's 
contest is sponsored by Royal Typewriter Company. 

There are ten classifications of entries embracing fiction, 
non-fiction, poetry, and drama. Awards include cash prizes and 
certificates of merit. New this year is a full scholarship through 
the American Institute for Foreign Study for a six-week summer 
program combining study and travel in Europe. In addition, a 
$1,000 scholarship grant from the A. D. Olliver-Scholastic 
Charitable Trust and a $100 Kenneth M. Gould Memorial Award 
will be available. 

All entries prepared in accordance with current rules and 
accompanied by official entry blanks will be judged by panels of 
nationally-known authors and educators. National closing date 
for entries is February 20, 1970; regional closing dates are earlier. 
Rule booklets and entry blanks are available from Scholastic 
Creative Writing Awards, 50 West 44th Street, New York, 
N.Y. 10036. 

Task Force Extended 

The Task Force on Student Involvement, created last summer 
by the State Department of Public Instruction to encourage 
better and more meaningful student involvement, has been 
extended through June 1970. Last summer Task Force members 
engaged in research to determine issues causing student unrest 
and formulate recommendations concerning positive involvement. 
Their findings were presented to school administrators at various 
meetings held throughout the State, and the group published a 
booklet of recommendations entitled "Student Involvement, A 
Bridge to Total Education," which was distributed to all 

The Task Force is composed of representatives of each of the 
State's eight educational districts. Student director is Walker 
Reagan of Enloe High School in Raleigh. Reagan has been active in 
student government affairs and serves the N.C. State Student 
Council as treasurer. Adult director of the group is Debbie Sweet, 
coordinator of youth activities with the State education agency's 
Division of Planning and Research. 

The Task Force serves as a liaison group with State adminis- 
trators and meets monthly in Raleigh where student problems, 
human relations, and involvement plans are discussed. In addi- 
tion, each representative is responsible for the organization of a 
smaller district task force. The Task Force members also serve as 
speakers to present student views to local groups.. 


Circus Dogs Teach Safety 

Youngsters in 30 North Carolina 
schools will be taught safety and enter- 
tained at the same time in January by 
Police Officer Ernest Pressley's Safety 
Circus. The circus performers are 
trained mongrel dogs that tour the 
country each year with the safety 
show. More than 5 million children in 
48 states have seen the Safety Circus. 

The performances encourage 
youngsters to play, walk, and ride 
bicycles safely. Respect for authority 
and good citizenship are also empha- 
sized. Officer Pressley's highly trained 

dogs perform a variety of tricks each 
of which illustrates a particular safety 
practice. The dogs ride scooters, push 
baby carriages, jump rope, and go 
through other stunts aimed at showing 
youngsters how to avoid accidents. 
Music and colorful stage equipment 
add to the excitement 

A native of Charlotte, Officer Press- 
ley is a special representative of the 
International Association of Chiefs of 
Police which, along with the American 
Trucking Association, sponsors the 
Safety Circus. Local sponsorship is 

given by the State Department of 
Public Instruction and the North Caro- 
lina Motor Carriers Association. James 
E. Hall, associate State supervisor of 
driver education, State Department of 
Public Instruction, is in charge of local 
scheduling and arrangements. 

Sometime after each show students 
are given a written safety quiz with a 
series of questions for each age level. 
Those with a perfect score are eligible 
for membership in Pressley's "Junior 
Traffic Safety Club." Three million 
youngsters are already members. 


7 134/5 

North Carolina State Library 

N. C. 












Volume 34 / Number 5 / January 1970 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director of Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is required 
for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public Schools, Division 
of Publications and Public Information, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 


Kids Learn by Doing in Elementary Industrial Arts Program 

by Nancy Jolly 

They Will Always Need Shelter 

Dollar Provides Incentive in Consumer Mathematics 

State Board of Education Actions 

Riding the School Buses 

News Briefs 

My One-Room School 
by Kate Brummitt 

Inquiry Motivates Washington Students 

Statewide Ceremonies Mark Opening of Public Kindergartens 








From the 

State Superintendent 

When public education began, it was successful because the 
idea was born in the tenacious minds of the early settlers. They 
desired the best possible for their children, and their interest did 
not stop with beginnings — these citizens had a deep interest in 
the school and its welfare. 

Gradually the running of the schools moved from laymen to 
professionals and the country came to have a "professionals 
only" attitude toward the schools. Once again the pendulum 
swings and citizens are again becoming interested in their schools. 

During the past year we have been restructuring our modus 
operandi in a three-prong approach toward involvement in the 
three areas concerned with public education in North Carolina. 
The State Department of Public Instruction is earnestly trying to 
establish relationships with professionals, the general public, and 
the students themselves by operating a service organization. 
Teachers and administrators are already very much involved 
through their dedication and professional organizations; but 
Statewide, there is very little involvement by the public and the 
youngsters. Unless we, in the profession, take the lead by working 
together to involve them in the decision making process, 
something or somebody will do it for us. We have seen it happen 
time and time again. 

Two methods of involvement have already been initiated by 
the State Department of Public Instruction. The Student Task 
Force is off the ground with a nucleus of students studying ways 
and means of communicating their hopes and dreams by being a 
major factor in influencing decisions which vitally affect their 
own generation. 

Citizens are becoming involved through non-professional 
groups. Last year a two-day conference of administrators, 
businessmen and students paved the way in what may well be a 
beginning point for a citizens group in every school in the State. 

If public schools in North Carolina are going to adequately 
prepare coming generations to think, plan, and cope with 
problems of the age — there must be an understanding of all three 
groups concerned: 

John Q. Public must be aware of what is needed and 
why it is needed. 

The student must be invited to take part in solving 

The professional must realize that he has a responsibility 
for involving the public. 

The interlocking ingredient of all three groups is simply 
communications. The best method to seek and maintain involve- 
ment is through the leadership of the educators. The success of 
failure of public schools desperately depends on involvement. 

Kids Learn by DoiNq 


hdusTRiAl Arts Program 

by Nancy Jolly 

The term "elementary industrial 
arts" doesn't convey much. And Larry 
Ivey, director of an elementary indus- 
trial arts project in Bertie County, is 
the first to admit it. "All too often, 
the term isn't explained satisfactorily, 
or if it is explained, it just plain 
doesn't make sense to the average 
classroom teacher or school adminis- 
trator," he said. 

Forget the words. Picture instead a 
roomful of fourth graders hammering 
and sawing and painting piles of wood. 
"It's a stop sign," answers one little 





girl when asked what it is she's paint- 
ing red — besides herself. The rest of 
the children are too intent to answer 
questions. Their faces shine with per- 
spiration, and their only sounds are 
squeals of triumph and "Gimme a 
hammer!" That's elementary industrial 
arts — or one aspect of it — in Bertie 

"The idea," said Ivey, "is to give 
each child an opportunity to become 
familiar with the technological pro- 
cesses all around him. We want the 
children to understand how the ice 
cream they eat, for example, is made, 
how the cloth they wear is woven, 
what makes the lights burn, and so 
on." To make this possible, the 
county-wide project (funded under 
ESEA Title III) provides a director, 
four curriculum coordinators, and 
piles of equipment and supplies suit- 
able for youngsters in grades K-8. 

Through the program (which has 
reached 40 percent of the elementary 
classrooms in Bertie County since 
initiated in 1968) children are involved 
in activities dealing with tools, 
materials, machines, and processes 
used every day in business and indus- 
try. "Take science, for example," said 
Ivey, "in the past all they could do 
was talk about it; now with a unit on 
electricity students have the supplies 
to make magnets, coils, and many 
other things." 

Classroom activities actually stem 
from textbook material. "Elementary 
textbooks contain numerous refer- 
ences to industry and technology," 
said Ivey. "But these are usually only 
touched on by most elementary teach- 
ers," he said. The Bertie County teach- 
ers involved with the program, along 
with the curriculum coordinators, have 
come up with five basic areas of 
industrial technology that might relate 
to subject matter — power, manufac- 
turing, communications, transpor- 
tation, and construction. 

Teachers also get on-the-spot help 
from the program's four curriculum 
coordinators who spend several hours 
a week with each teacher in the 
classroom. In addition, each of the 10 
elementary schools involved has at 
least one mobile equipment unit that 
can be moved from room to room. 
The units are equipped with an assort- 
ment of hand tools specifically de- 
signed for elementary students. Each 
school also has a mobile workbench 
unit with additional tools and a work 

But projects sometimes go beyond 
the carts. One class of sixth graders, 
for example, constructed a gigantic 
"walk-in" camera. The camera can be 
used to make negatives — a lens is 
mounted on one wall — or it can serve 
as a darkroom to develop negatives 
and make prints. The camera was built 

Kids Learn by DoiNq 


IncIustriaI Arts Program 

so that students might understand 
photographs from the inside out, ac- 
cording to one teacher. The same class 
is now using smaller cameras to take 
nature shots for use with other studies. 
The large camera was designed so that 
it can be dismantled and transported 
to other schools or classrooms. 

Students in another class, however, 
weren't as farsighted. "They made a 
house model that was too large to be 
taken out of their room," explained 
Ivey. "But I think they did it that way 
because they want to keep it," he 

Most of the items constructed in 
the program, however, are small and 
useful, according to Ivey. And their 
construction many times leads stu- 
dents to a study of production line 
methods. "Even second graders who've 
gained some experience with tools and 
materials can make things by the mass 
production method," he explained. 

In one second-grade class, students 
decided to make notepad holders and 
the notepads to go in them. Several 
production stations were set up to 
perform each operation of the manu- 
facturing. The design was traced on 
plywood at one station, cut at an- 
other, and sanded at a third. Other 
students painted the design on the 
wood, while the notepads were made 
on a different assembly line. Pads and 
holders finally arrived at the end 
assembly point for completion. 
"About the only thing we didn't do," 
laughed a coordinator, "was stamp 
'Made in Bertie' on them!" 

In an eighth grade class students 
learned the difference between mass 
and custom production by comparing 
the results of their own labors. The 
class mass produced flowerpot stands, 
using various stations for each oper- 
ation, and then compared the mass- 
produced versions with an individual 
production of the pot. "They found 
mass production was easier, faster, and 
more effective," said Ivey. A field trip 
to a power tool manufacturing plant 
followed so they could see the real 

Subject matter, field trips, and the 
industrial arts activities are combined 
to make the program more than just 
arts and crafts or busy work. While 

studying dairy products, for example, 
fourth-grade students first visited a 
nearby dairy for a tour. When they 
returned, they decided to compare 
homemade dairy products with the 
manufactured kind. They made ice 
cream, butter, and cottage cheese, and 
they decided that only the ice cream 
was better when homemade. "They 
found out for themselves how much 
work is involved in making the pro- 
ducts," said Ivey. 

Much of the instruction is also 
geared to job opportunities and job 
qualifications. "One of the most diffi- 
cult parts of education is showing 
students what kind of training and 
education is necessary for a future 
livelihood," said Ivey. He feels that 
students should be exposed to indus- 
try and technology before junior high 
school. "By that time, many have 
already formed many ideas about life 
and life's requirements," he said. 

"Psychologists now say that the 
early years of childhood are the years 
in which most learning takes place and 
many concepts are formed. Appar- 
ently there is no better place to teach 
about life and society — and the 
technology that's an integral part of it 
— than in the elementary grades," he 

To teachers, however, the physical 
activity built into the program is per- 
haps the best boon. "They're so easy 
to manage after they've had an indus- 
trial arts session," said one teacher. 
Ivey contends that the traditional 
classroom often restricts activity and 
can lead to confusion and frustration 
for many children. 

'Through industrial arts, we can 
take advantage of the natural curiosi- 
ties, activities, and interests of young 
children by providing realistic physi- 
cal activities of a technological na- 
ture," he said. The activities are essen- 
tially fun and they give the children 
the confidence they need to deal with 
their physical environment. 

Even the kindergarten students in 
Bertie County have gotten involved. 
And it's amazing how early they can 
learn to use tools. One kindergarten 
class, after learning to use hand tools 
by making jigsaw puzzles, designed 
and constructed a table and four chairs 

for their room. "Well, sometimes we 
had to hold the nails while they 
hammered," explained one coordi- 
nator. But the satisfaction was all 

"The unusual thing about the pro- 
gram, however," said Ivey, "is the use 
of classroom teachers." Each partici- 
pating teacher takes formal course 
work through the extension division of 
East Carolina University. They also 
attend in-service meetings for a year of 
further instruction and assistance. 

Ivey feels that the curriculum coor- 
dinators' classroom assistance has been 
the most useful part of the training 
program. "But as each teacher displays 
competency, he's weaned off the coor- 
dinator so that other teachers can be 
helped," said Ivey. Most of the teach- 
ers are able to conduct classes without 
assistance by the end of their second 
year of participation. Coordinators 
continue, however, to provide mate- 
rials, supplies, and advice after class- 
room assistance has been discontinued. 

Federal funding of the project and 
most of the staff that goes with it will 
end in 1971. But Ivey feels that after 
the initial three years of the project, 
teachers will have the training neces- 
sary to correlate industrial arts with 
other subjects. 'They will still need 
assistance occasionally, and there are 
plans for providing one or two super- 
visors when the initial project ceases," 
he said. 

Ted Guth, industrial arts consul- 
tant with the State Department of 
Public Instruction, called the project 
noteworthy and unique. The diversi- 
fication of the program — the fact that 
many children and grades are involved 
— and the use of the classroom teacher 
rather than the specialist are parti- 
cularly significant, he noted. "But the 
most important thing," he said, "is 
giving children an awareness of life — 
what's there for them and what's 
expected of them — that's relevant." 


A casual visitor to a class for the 
educable mentally retarded, whose in- 
telligence quotients range from 50 to 
75, might easily mistake the students 
for normal children. Educable students 
study the academics — on a limited 
basis - and their behavior would not 
ordinarily attract notice. The same 
mistake could not be made with a class 
of trainable mentally retarded child- 
ren. Their intelligence ranges from 25 
to 50 — one-fourth to one-half the 
normal mental ability expected for 
their chronological age. 

With such a marked degree of men- 
tal deficiency, trainable mentally re- 
tarded children have little ability in 
handling everyday situations like cross- 
ing streets, following all but the most 
simple directions, caring for them- 
selves, communicating, etc. In addi- 
tion, there are few trainable children 
without multiple handicaps. Vision, 
hearing, and coordination difficulties 
further complicate their problems. 

Yet with patient training most of 
these children can learn to cope with 
life under sheltered conditions. Many 
can learn to read, although the highest 
level of competency expected is the 
third grade. All trainable children, 
however, have the same desires for 
achievement, warmth, and under- 

standing as normal children. 

A little more than a decade ago, the 
training of such children was largely 
overlooked. Their education was left 
to local support, charitable groups, 
and volunteer endeavors. Many never 
attended school at all. State support 
for trainable classes was introduced 
during the 1957-58 school year - 22 
classes with 34 instructors and 34 
attendants for 400 children. Since 
then the number of classes for train- 
able children has grown significantly in 
North Carolina. 

In fact, the State's program has 
become "one of the finest in the 
nation," according to Fred Mc- 
Cutchen, special education consultant 
with the State Department of Public 
Instruction. "There are very few ad- 
ministrative units in the State without 
at least one class for the trainable this 
year," he said. 

State funding for trainable classes 
has also risen significantly, and is 
handled on a per pupil basis. The 1969 
General Assembly raised the figure 
from $40 per pupil per month to $75. 
But there are still too few trainable 
facilities to meet the needs, according 
to McCutchen. 

Providing training for these children 
presents special problems. Classes, by 
law, must be limited to 12, and aides 
are required for each class. Facilities 
for the younger children must include 
more than the usual number of bath- 
rooms, and outdoor play space must 
be fenced. The trainable are more apt 
than normal children to wander off 

A unique approach to these prob- 
lems is being carried out in Greensboro 
this year where an entire school has 
been outfitted to serve trainable child- 
ren of all ages. According to Principal 
Harold Evans, the former elementary 
school, Mclver, is the first public 
school in the State to be devoted 
entirely to the trainable child. In most 
systems the classes are scattered 
among various schools. Some systems, 
of course, do not have enough train- 
able children to fill a whole school — 
the instance of trainable mental retard- 
ation is one percent of the school 

But for Mclver School, the advan- 
tages are obvious: teachers are to- 
gether for mutual sharing of know- 
ledge and experience, bookkeeping is 
centralized, and facilities and special- 
ized staff may be shared. Some stu- 
dent advantages are a little less ob- 
vious: a child can remain at Mclver 
throughout his schooling, avoiding the 

confusion of learning new buildings, 
faces, and facilities — often a bewilder- 
ing experience for the trainable re- 

The 137 students enrolled at Mc- 
lver range in age from 4 to 21. They 
are referred by parents, teachers, and 
school psychologists. All, how- 
ever, must be tested by the system's 
psychometrists before being admitted 
to the school. Staff members total 30 
including 11 classroom teachers, a 
speech therapist, guidance counselor, 
part-time librarian, physical education 
teacher, and an equal number of aides. 

Students are classified into four 
groups: preschool, primary, inter- 
mediate, and young adult. The two 
preschool classes, made possible 
through ESEA Title Vl-A, are experi- 
mental. 'The idea," according to 
Evans, "is to identify the children as 
early as possible." With early training 
some children may be able to enter 
educable classes at a later date. Regu- 
lar classes may be possible in rare 

Training for the youngest students 
centers on personal care — dressing, 
eating, personal habits, etc. Bathrooms 
are necessary in each class of preschool 
and primary children since many are 
not toilet trained. Bathtubs were in- 
stalled for training and clean-up pur- 

Students in the primary group 
range in age from 7 to 10. They are 
divided into classes on the basis of 
chronological age and the number of 
years of student experience. Primary 
and preschool students share the first 
floor of the school which has been 
newly painted and brightened with 
pictures, many of them student art. 

The second floor of the building 
houses the intermediate (ages 10-14) 
and young adult (ages 14-21) groups. 
An elevator has been installed in the 
school, but student movement from 
one floor to another is limited to 
physical education and lunch periods. 

Young adult groups actually change 
classes to give them a feel of 
the high school they aren't able to 
attend. The students study home- 
making and daily living in a kitchen 
outfitted for cooking, cleaning, and 
the operation of household machines. 
A living room and bedroom are also 
included to give students practice in 
various elements of socialization. In 
the arts and crafts room students get a 
chance to work with their hands. 

Evans has three major educational 
goals for all the students at Mclver: 
basic health habits — self-help and 

care, socialization, and adjustment to 
daily living situations. 

All of the students at Mclver have 
an active physical education program. 
"It really helps them to express them- 
selves," said one teacher. The older 
students have a scheduled period in 
the gymnasium, and the young adults 
dress for gym. 'They learn to accept 
the responsibility of keeping their 
clothes straight, taking showers, etc." 
said Evans. An outdoor classroom is 
planned for the future and will contain 
balance beams and climbing apparatus 
to improve physical fitness and coordi- 
nation. Other plans include an indoor 
portable pool to teach water safety, a 
greenhouse, and a garden area. 

Eventually the school will serve as a 
community center of sorts for the 
trainable retarded, according to Evans. 
The Greensboro Sheltered Workshop is 
presently occupying office space in the 
basement of the school. Another sec- 
tion of the basement houses a Shel- 
tered Workshop group. Steve Wells, 
head of the Workshop, explained that 
the organization can offer a place to 
most ambulatory retarded persons. 

"And that's one of my worries," 
said Evans. "What happens to these 
children when they leave school?" The 
Workshop, sponsored by several State 
agencies, accepts subcontracts from 
manufacturing concerns for the pro- 
duction of various items. Retarded 
persons can be trained to work in the 
sheltered environment at jobs equal to 
their abilities. Much of the work is 
simple production line activity. 

'Those not capable of working at 
these jobs can join a nonproductive 
group like the one here," said Wells. 
The Mclver group Wells referred to has 
a small social and craft area where 
various projects and activities are 
supervised. "Members of the group are 
paid a token wage so that they will 
feel they are contributing," said Wells. 

This year a new workshop facility 
will be built in an area behind the 
school. Both Wells and Evans ex- 
pressed the hope that the entire com- 
plex when completed might also be 
used for recreational activities and 
summer programs for the trainable and 
their families. 

Such service is much needed. 
"There are 7.1 people affected by each 
retarded person, according to the 
American Association on Mental 
Deficiency," said McCutchen. They, 
too, need help and understanding. And 
the trainable themselves can never be 
entirely self-sufficient. 'They will al- 
ways need shelter," said McCutchen. 


Dear Sir: 

We take great pleasure in announcing that YOUR LICENSE 
NUMBER has been selected as this week's LUCKY NUMBER in 
our Lucky Tag Bonanza. 

You will receive at no additional cost a four (4) speed 
automatic Hi-Fi Stereo Console with built-in AM and FM radio. 
You will have a choice of several sets. 

As you can see, this type of advertising is quite expensive; 
therefore, to help offset some of the costs of freight and 
advertising you must agree to purchase the equivalent of one 
stereo record weekly for twelve months. 

Thousands of people are misled by letters like this one every 
year. And the offer, although misleading, is honest. The consumer 
market — even discounting the flim-flams and frauds — is growing 
more and more like a battlefield every day. Even the most astute 
buyer must arm himself with a calculator to figure out which 
brand of beans is the best buy. And he's losing the war: personal 

1. You can purchase a six-bottle carton of king-size Kool Kola for 49 cents a carton or the giant size for 
79 cents a carton. If the king-size bottle contains 12 ounces of Kool Kola and the giant size contains 16 
ounces, which is the more economical buy? 

uojjea azis-fjui>| "l 

2. Izzy Wise bought two shirts marked "reduced - two for $8.00." When he came out of the store, he 
met his friend, Willie B. Sharpe. Izzy showed Willie the shirts and Willie exclaimed: "Oh, I wish I had 
waited. Just last week I paid $11.85 for three shirts just like yours!" How much could Willie have saved 
if he had waited? 

■fiuiye/vi iou Aq sjuao gj, panes a| H!AA *6u;i|}0|\| 7 

3. Jim saw a surfboard for $40 which chould be purchased at a 10% discount if paid for by cash. He was 
told that for $10 down and $10 a month for 4 months, it could be his. How much could he save by 
paying cash instead of buying on the installment plan? 

00H$ £ 

4. Vera Stout estimates that she spends $5.65 each week for between-meal snacks. She decides to 
reduce this amount to $2.00 a week and save the difference. How much will she save in a year? 
08*681$ -fe 

5. Willie Wenn has $10.00 with which to buy his girl friend a birthday present What is the most 
expensive box of candy he can buy and have enough money to pay the tax? 

•%E S| xei saies |eioi aq; ji u~6$ g 

6. You have a four-year-old car and you now have the new car bug. One dealer offers you $495 in trade 
on a three-year-old car priced at $1,375. A second dealer offers you $375 on a similar car priced at 
$1,255. Which is the better buy and by how much? 

088$ "Anq aqi jsoa p|noM ipeg -g 

7. Why does it cost more to buy a loaf of bread at 10:30 p.m. from the quick market than from the 
supermarket at 1 0:30 a.m.? pajoejiqns 

jo pappe aq i,ueD ja/wsue aqi jaiunsuoo pooB e aq 01 jaded pue ipuad e ueqi ajoiu sa)|ei i| 7. 


bankruptcies are going up along with costs. Consumer protection 
has gained much ground in North Carolina — but the buyer must 
still beware. 

Education is his best weapon. The complexities facing the 
consumer are touched on in many public school courses — home 
economics, civics, basic math, to mention a few. But consumer 
mathematics is the only course devoted completely to the 
subject. Enrollment is growing: more than 20,000 students took 
the course last year; only 10,000 signed up during the 1965-66 
school year. 

Designed primarily for students not going on to college, the 
course touches on many topics besides math: civics, economics, 
sociology, etc. It has one of the best built-in potentials for 
motivation of any course: the dollar and how to hang onto it. 
Course curriculum, however, was catch-as-catch-can for many 
years. Business math texts, often outdated, were used in most 
consumer math classrooms. This year, however, the math 
education division of the State Department of Public Instruction 
has published a thick consumer mathematics curriculum guide 
that ties subject matter together, gives rich bibliographical 
information, and provides sample problems. 

The guide was published with ESEA Title V funding and 
written with the help of several North Carolina consumer 
mathematics teachers. It was tested last year in 17 North Carolina 
schools before being finalized for broad distribution this year. 
Units include banks, consumer credit, housing, insurance, proba- 
bility and statistics, money management, savings and investments, 
swindles and gyps, taxes, and transportation. All are written to 
interest students — puns are the rule — and the material is based 
on actual situations in North Carolina. "The tax structure in 
Michigan, for example, would be a bore to our students," said 
Bob Jones, math education director for the State Department of 
Public Instruction. (Jones explained that materials for consumer 
math education were very "sketchy" until the publication of the 
guide, and requests from other States for copies of the guide have 
been received.) 

Mrs. Margaret Perkins, head of the math department at 
Western Alamance High School, has found the guide's unit on 
gyps and swindles arouses a lot of student interest. One of the 
teachers who helped write the guide, she began her consumer 
math courses this year with the frauds unit. Her students combed 
the neighborhood to uncover local swindles, and they found a 
retired teacher who had been flim-flammed out of her life savings. 
"You'd be surprised how much of this goes on," she said. "I 
don't, of course, tell the students what is or isn't a fraud or a 
swindle. They have to decide for themselves," Mrs. Perkins said. 
'They've found that most businessmen are honest, but now they 
can tell the difference," she said. 

With units not quite as high in motivation as swindles and 
gyps, Mrs. Perkins has other methods to get students involved. 
She feels, for example, that there are two ways to introduce a 
unit: the mystery method in which students don't know a thing 
that's coming or laying all the cards on the table and telling them 
everything. Mrs. Perkins chooses the second method. She begins 
by distributing a unit outline — straight from the curriculum 
guide - which students discuss and amend, adding other topics 
they want to learn about. 

"After that I use everything we can find, including newspaper 
articles on the subject, magazine stories, free literature, filmstrips, 
field trips, and speakers," she said. The guide serves her as an 
outline, although much of the material can be duplicated for 
student use. 

In Mrs. Perkins' class, the students are the legmen. "I've got 60 
pairs of legs to run around and find things out," she said. They 
visit stores, for example, to discuss credit options. "They pick the 
stores they shop in and want to know about," she said. But 
before they go, Mrs. Perkins primes them with discussions of how 
to dress, what questions to ask (they write lists), and how to ask 
their questions. They also visit insurance salesmen and adjusters, 
used car dealers, and so on. 

When it comes to planning field trips, the students know what 
they're doing. While studying transportation, for example, her 
students said they'd like to visit a traffic court. Mrs. Perkins asked 
for a volunteer to arrange the trip. There were none. "All right," 
she said, "I guess we don't go." Hands suddenly waved. 

"I think students should become independent quickly," she 
said. Practice in dealing with businessmen and community 
agencies will be invaluable when the students are full-fledged 
consumers. They'll know who to consult about various problems 
and what to ask them. 

Group work is another Perkins approach. "Students learn so 
much from each other," she said. And their conversations aren't 
all froth. Many of Mrs. Perkins' students are permanently 
employed — about two-thirds are enrolled in distributive educa- 
tion or industrial cooperative training and have sizeable incomes 
to spend. In one class alone, ten students owned cars. Several 
volunteered to keep records of their car expenses to give the class 
concrete examples of car costs. 

All of the information studied is presented in terms of what is 
done locally. With tax structure, for example, they begin with the 
local taxes and work their way to federal spending. Students find 
their own part of the structure by filling out tax forms 
themselves. "So few of them know anything about taxes," said 
Mrs. Perkins. "And they are really interested to find out what 
comes back into their own county," she said. 

Students in consumer mathematics courses differ widely in 
ability and outlook. "There are all levels. Some have difficulty 
even adding," said Mrs. Perkins. But more and more college 
bound students are electing the course every year, according to 
Mrs. Perkins. She explained that those going on to college can 
take three years of formal math and elect the consumer course. 
"All of the students need this," she said. "In fact, there are 
countless adults who could benefit from it, too," she said. 

For those students with a weak math background, Mrs. Perkins 
takes time to work on basic operations: adding, subtracting, 
multiplying, etc. "But the students are delighted to learn that 
they don't have to be great in math to do well in class," she said. 
Math problems seem simpler when students are motivated to find 
solutions to situations they've found themselves. 

Mrs. Perkins' approach to the mathematical operations is as 
down to earth and relevant as the subject matter that brings them 
into play. "I tell the students there's nothing wrong with using 
their fingers, for example. They've all got a handy calculator built 
right in," she said, holding up her fingers to count. 

But she stumps even the brightest when she comes to 
estimating and puts "$2.95" on the overhead projector and asks 
"What's that?" with great mystery. "No, no, no," she says when 
they answer "two ninety-five." 

"For consumers, two ninety-five is the same thing as three 
dollars," Mrs. Perkins explains. 

"No, it's not," a student argued. "With tax it's even more than 
three dollars." 

"This is a fun course," said Mrs. Perkins. She's right. But even 
more than fun, it's useful. 



Approval of 21 "middle grades occupational exploratory 
programs" was announced at the December meeting of the State 
Board of Education. The 21 projects were chosen from 72 
submitted by local administrative units. The purpose of the 
programs is to provide students with a chance to explore many 
occupational opportunities before they select specific occupa- 
tional goals at the high school level. The programs, designed as an 
aid in preventing dropouts, are scheduled to begin second 

The 1969 General Assembly appropriated $3 million for the 
middle grade projects, Budgets for the individual projects 
recommended for funding vary from $30,000 to $125,000, 
averaging $100,000 each for the biennium. Approximately 
$900,000 of the total appropriation will remain for funding of 
new projects for the 1970-71 school year. 

Projects were approved from the following units: Washington 
County, Pitt County, Lenoir County, Wayne County, Sampson 
County, Nash County, Rocky Mount City, Cumberland County, 
Robeson County, Stokes County, Guilford County, Greensboro 
City, Eden City, Gaston County, Kannapolis City, Charlotte- 

Mecklenburg, Davie County, Watauga County, Newton-Conover 
City, Rutherford County, Madison County. 

The State Board of Education also approved a recommenda- 
tion that the State Superintendent of Public Instruction be given 
authority, under the teacher reciprocity legislation adopted by 
the 1969 General Assembly, to sign contracts with other states 
that have adopted reciprocity legislation. Under this legislation 
certificated teachers moving to a new state must still apply for 
that state's certification, but it is automatically granted, waiving 
the requirements of the new state. At present the following states 
are included: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, 
Idaho, Indiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New 
Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Rhode Island, South Dakota, 
Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

The December meeting was held in Charlotte — the fourth 
meeting to be held outside Raleigh in recent years. In addition to 
the regular session, Board members were guests of the Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg system and toured Independence High School and 
Albemarle Road Elementary School as well as Charlotte Tech- 
nical Institute. 

State Sponsored Student Transportation for 1968-69 




The average school bus transported 66 students each day during 
the 1968-69 school year; made 1.57 trips per day, 12.0 miles in 
length (one way); transported 48.5 students per bus trip, 
including students who were transported from elementary to high 

During the 1968-69 school year: 

■ 610,760 pupils were transported to public schools by 
the State 

• 54.9 percent of the total public school average daily 
attendance was transported 

■ 70.9 percent were elementary students 

• 29.1 percent were high school students 

■ 3.5 students were loaded (average) each mile of bus 

The total cost of school transportation was $14,293,272.80, 
including replacement of buses. The average cost, including the 
replacement of buses, was $1,541.05 per bus for the school year 
— 181 days; $8.51 per bus per day; $23.40 per student for the 
school year; $.1292 per student per day; and $.2243 per bus mile 
of operation. 





James L. Bray, an associate professor of education at Salem 
College, has been named resident director of the Governor's 
School of North Carolina. Bray served as co-director of the school 
last summer and has been associated with the institution since 
1966. He has been involved in education for over twenty years, 
and his experience has included teaching, supervision, and 
administration in both public and private institutions. 

A dramatist. Bray was associated for many years with Paul 
Green's "The Common Glory." In addition, four of his plays have 
been published. Bray is married to the former Virginia James. 
They have two sons. 

At the November meeting of the State Board of Education, 
proposals concerning the administration of the Governor's 
School, made by State Superintendent Craig Phillips, were 
approved. The changes, said Dr. Phillips, are not a reorganization 
but a clarification of the relationship between the school and the 
State Department of Public Instruction. 

The number of members of the Board of Governors of the 
school has been changed from 12 to 10, and the term of office 
for each member has been changed from three years to one of not 
more than two consecutive three-year terms. In addition, the 
functions of the resident director and his relationship with the 
Board of Governors, the school, and the Special Education 
Division were outlined. Liaison with the State education agency 
will be handled by the Special Education Division. 

The Governor's School originated in 1963 with foundation 
funds as an outgrowth of a proposal made by Governor Terry 
Sanford. The institution, a summer session for gifted children 
held on the campus of Salem College, became a permanent State 
educational project in 1966. 


Parents and teachers interested in receiving the monthly 
utilization guide for "Sesame Street," a television series designed 
to instruct as well as entertain preschoolers, may direct their 
requests to Children's Television Workshop, Box 9140, St. Paul, 
Minn. 55177. Subscription rate for the publication. Parent/ 
Teacher Guide, is $2. Included in the guide are the lessons to be 
presented on each program and follow-up activities that can be 
used every day. Six issues of the guide will be published. The 
hour-long program is being aired daily, Monday through Friday, 
by all stations in the University of North Carolina Television 
Network. The series, which began in November and will continue 
through May, is broadcast daily at 10 a.m. and repeated each 
afternoon at 5 p.m. The program is seen once a day at 4:30 p.m. 
in the Charlotte area. 


More than 500 Duplin County citizens will be involved in a 
school improvement plan that has been approved by the Duplin 
County School Board. The plan, submitted by Superintendent C. 
H. Yelverton, asks Duplin citizens to take a look at their schools 
and recommend ways of improving them. 

The Duplin County School Improvement Project calls for local 
school committees in each of the county's 20 school districts and 
one county-wide committee, both with membership represen- 
tative of the general adult population of Duplin County. The 
project is an attempt, said Superintendent Yelverton, to "release 
the power that lies with the community for school improve- 

Each of the school committees is to be composed of 20 to 40 
members, with laymen making up more than half of the 
membership. The rest of the committee will be composed of the 
principal, the P.T.A. president, teachers, a black student and a 
white student for each high school's committee, as well as laymen 
and professional representatives from the county-wide com- 

The 70-member, county-wide committee will have represen- 
tatives from each of the 20 participating schools — teachers, 
principals, and laymen — as well as representatives from private 
schools, the chairman of the Duplin school board, the superin- 
tendent of schools, and students. 

Two reports will be made by the project committee. The first 
is scheduled for April 30 of this year; the date for the second has 
not been determined. 


The Southeastern Conference of Elementary School Principals 
for 1971 will be held in Columbia, South Carolina, William Tim 
Brown, president of the South Carolina Association, announced 
recently. Conference headquarters will be the Sheraton Hotel. 
Dates for the meeting will be March 24-27, 1 971 . 


The School Health Division of the American Association for 
Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) began 
publication last fall of a new quarterly magazine, School Health 
Review. The purpose of the publication is to provide information 
and ideas for school personnel involved in health instruction and 
health services. 

Each issue of School Health Review features a series of articles 
devoted to a timely aspect of health education or services. Other 
articles cover various aspects of school health on different levels. 
Regular features include reviews of new literature and listing of 
new teaching resources; brief descriptions of innovative programs; 
news from the field, including activities of state and federal 
health agencies; summaries of recent research studies; and 
information about activities of the School Health Division. 
"Action," the newsletter previously issued by the Division's 
National Council for School Nurses, has been discontinued. 

Subscription rate for School Health Review is $5 for libraries 
and institutions. Members of the AAHPER may receive the 
magazine for $5. Further information may be obtained from the 
American Association of Health, Physical Education, and Recrea- 
tion, 1201 Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036. 


In the middle of a hot Saturday 
afternoon in September 1907, Lee 
Fuller's dray rattled up to our house 
and took my trunk to the station 
where I boarded the train for Hester, 
thirteen miles away. I was going off to 
teach. There was no way to go but by 
train. Automobiles were so scarce in 
Oxford that we still ran to the window 
to see one pass. As to the trunk: I'd go 
home very seldom. I could get there all 
right Saturdays, but in order to be 
back in time for school Monday morn- 
ing, I would have to take a train from 
Oxford about mid-day Sunday. 

I was glad to be going. Early in the 
summer I had applied for work at 
every school on a railroad in Granville 
County. It was August when J. C. 
Pittard, Chairman of the School Com- 
mittee at Hester, phoned me that I had 
been elected to teach during the com- 
ing six-months term at $40 a month. 
Board could be had for nine dollars a 
month, and I could get a good washer- 
woman for twenty-five cents a week. 
He'd let me know later where I would 

I accepted on the spot. I was lucky, 
I thought, to "get a school." There 
were few openings for girls in our 
town. About four girls were steno- 
graphers, one clerked in a dry goods 
store, and one operated the telephone 
exchange. The nursing profession was 
still looked upon askance by older 
people. Now that I was going to work 
I took down my plait, practiced doing 
my hair up on top of my head in an 
"eight" and lengthened by skirts until 
they almost touched the floor. I was 
on my way. Or was I? 

Late in August Mr. Pittard tele- 
phoned to tell me that I'd board with 
the Joe Bullocks and their little six- 
year-old James would walk with me 
the mile and a half through the pines 
and up the railroad track to school. 
That was agreeable with me. I had 
walked about that far from home to 
Oxford College during my two years 
there. But when Mama heard the plan 
she went straight up in the air. 

"No child of mine is going to walk 
through any woods with just a six- 
year-old boy for protection," she told 
me. I argued all I dared, but in the end 
I had to write Mr. Pittard that unless 
some other boarding plan was made, I 
couldn't accept the place. "If they 
want you bad enough," Mama said, 
"they'll make some way to get you." 
They did. 

Mrs. Sam Alex Fleming, wife of one 
of the committee, lived not too far 
from the school, and she agreed to 
take me for one month on trial. It was 
not her turn to "take the teacher" 
(which I learned was considered quite 
a chore), but she had children and 
wanted a school. When I met the 
Fleming family, thirteen in number, 
that first Saturday afternoon, I won-' 


by Kate Fleming Brummitt 

Mrs. Brummitt taught in Granville County, Oxford, and Elizabeth City from 
1907-1912. She was married in 1912 and was not eligible to teach in Oxford (married 
women were not employed). During World War I male teachers became scarce and Mrs. 
Brummitt taught for four and a half years. 

After the war she and her husband, Dennis G. Brummitt (Attorney General, 
1925-35) moved to Raleigh and she took courses at State College until she earned her 
B.S. in 1934 when she was 46. (At the same time her husband was awarded an 
honorary Doctor of Laws degree by his college, Wake Forest. Beginning at 17, he 
taught and was a principal for seven terms in Granville County — usually four-month, 
one-teacher schools. When he was not teaching, he studied, raised tobacco, and went 
to college until he got his law degree in 1907.) 

In 1935 Dennis Brummitt died. Mrs. Brummitt went to Carolina for one term and 
then went home to Oxford and taught 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades until she had 
completed 26 years of teaching. 

dered how one girl could make much 
more work in a set-up like that. I was 
to care for my own room and pick up 
my chips and fat lightwood splinters at 
the woodpile. As for the extra cook- 
ing, I'd been trained to hold down on 
food. Mama often said that more than 
three biscuits would spoil any lady's 

On Monday morning, September 9, 
four of the Fleming children escorted 
me to the one-room yellow building 
down the hill from the Pittard's house. 
At 8:15 I stood on the porch and rang 
the bell. Girls and boys, big and little, 
came trooping in. Already they had 
left their hats, caps, sunbonnets, lunch 
baskets, and buckets in the cloak 

The schoolroom was big with a lot 
of bare windows. The desks, both 
pupil's and teacher's, were homemade, 
as were the recitation benches and 
blackboard. A dozen or two library 
books and a handful of "gospel 
hymns" were on a shelf. Those, a box 
of chalk, some erasers, and a big 
wood-burning stove comprised the 
total equipment of the room. In the 

cloakroom were an ax, two water 
buckets, two dippers, and some 
brooms made from straw wrung down 
in the field. A committeeman would 
send us a "carryall" full of wood when 
it was needed, and the boys would cut 
it and make the fires. Big girls and the 
teacher always swept the room at the 
afternoon recess (we taught until four 

There was no water on the place, 
neither spring nor well. Every day at 
lunchtime and before morning and 
afternoon recess, two boys (chosen as 
a special privilege) would visit Mr. 
Pittard's well. On returning they'd pass 
up and down between the rows of 
desks, and every child would drink 
what he wanted, then plunge dipper 
and leavings back into the bucket. 
That practice soon gave place to a 
water cooler with spigot and individual 
drinking cups. A washpan, soap, and 
towels made their appearance among 
us, too. 

We had no toilets, but there was 
always the friendly protection of a 
clump of blackberry bushes or a mass 
of little sassafras trees. The children 


accepted the situation as a matter of 
course and would speak to me with 
dignity of "going to the bushes." 

Parents expected every child to 
"say" as many as four lessons a day. If 
that were done, there was no objection 
to the first two grades playing out 
much of the time in good weather. All 
above the third grade had at least six 
studies, not to mention the copies I set 
on slates and tablets. Textbooks were 
scarce. Some could be bought in an 
Oxford drug store, but most were 
borrowed, secondhand, or passed 
down in the family. Our schoolroom 
was a cooperative place. Big folks 
helped little ones; the fast helped the 
slow; and some with just a little 
guidance could manage much of their 
work alone. We were a happy, healthy, 
busy group. 

I knew no "methods." Oxford Col- 
lege had no teacher training course. I 
was armed with a first-grade Teacher's 
Certificate and an understanding of 
the hearts of children. I lined pupils 
up, gave out spelling words, map ques- 
tions, capitals of the states, arithmetic 
tables, and assigned examples to be 

worked. My little beginners got a 
mixture of A B C's, sight reading, and 
phonics. The amazing thing was they 

One of my pals went to the State 
Normal and took teacher training. She 
told me that Miss Anna Meade 
Michaux, her critic teacher, had all 
pupils hand in every afternoon a plan 
for the next day's work, based on the 
"Five Formal Steps." I did not know 
one formal step, much less five. 

There was no way to guess what 
might happen in my schoolroom at 
any time. Gladys, aged six, wearing her 
Sunday shoes, waded in a mudhole 
and was afraid to go home till I dried 
her out; Bill and Jim, aged nine and 
eleven, came to school with flushed 
cheeks and bleary eyes — drunk — 
from bootleg whiskey they'd found 
after their father's corn shucking; one 
little boy came rushing in complaining 
that a playmate had "cussed my 
mama" (time for a mouth-washing 
with soap and water). Truly, there was 
never a dull moment. 

After two years at my little school, 
I realized I must work more than six 

months in the year, and without train- 
ing I'd never qualify for a longer term. 
When Uncle Ben offered to give me a 
year at the Normal, and the College 
offered me and all other would-be 
teachers in North Carolina free tuition 
if we'd promise to teach two years in 
the state, I accepted both offers, went, 
and learned the Five Formal Steps 
from Mr. J. A. Matheson and Miss lone 

Even now, however, after more 
than 50 years, I can see my first 
beginners sitting on the backless 
benches, swinging their small bare feet, 
or trudging down the long country road 
to school, bringing me a tight little 
bunch of marigolds and zinnias, or a 
baked sweet potato. 


Washington High School houses one 
of the most interesting educational 
experiments in the State. U.S. history 
students there are coming up with the 
facts to be learned — and learning 
them in the process — rather than 
soaking information from all-knowing 
teachers or texts. 

The inquiry method being used by 
Mrs. LaRue Evans, director of the 
ESEA Title III social studies project at 
Washington High School, encourages 
students to question and ponder a 
problem. "We want them to look for 
loopholes and fallacies — investigate 
for themselves rather than taking 
things for granted," she said. 

Many traditional ideas have been 
abandoned in this project, now in its 
third and last year. The classroom, for 
example. Students in the project spend 

much of their time in a social studies 
resource center that has been set up 
across the hall from the school library. 
The center has several "stations" for 
student work: individual study carrels, 
audiovisual centers with films and 
tapes, conference rooms for meetings 
with teachers, and small seminar 
rooms for student discussion or show- 
ing films. 

Students enrolled in the U.S. his- 
tory courses taught in conjunction 
with the project begin their work, 
however, in the classroom. And they 
are heterogeneously grouped. "One of 
the objects of the project was to prove 
that standards do not have to be 
lowered as a result of heterogeneous 
grouping," said Mrs. Evans. "Indivi- 
dualizing the learning experience can 
result in higher standards and more 


individual progress," she said. To pro- 
vide for individualism within the heter- 
ogeneous classes, Mrs. Evans and the 
two teachers provided under Title III 
have developed eight basic units of 
study for the course. Each unit has, 
along with lesson plans, three different 
bibliographies compiled according to 
student abilities. A slow or poor reader 
might receive a unit bibliography with 
much audiovisual material and few 
books. Able students receive biblio- 
graphies with more books, but the 
audiovisual materials are still available 
to him. Textbooks, according to Sam 
Keel, one of the teachers, are just 
another reference book. 

Students use the bibliographies as a 
basis for finding their own informa- 
tion. And they are motivated to do so 
by formulating problems or hypo- 

theses which they then must test 
through research. First, however, the 
students must learn what a hypothesis 
is, how to conduct research, test the 
validity of their hypotheses, etc. The 
first unit taught in the course, 
"Youth's Role in Contemporary 
American Society," is used to intro- 
duce basic skills and the inquiry 
method. Once a student has formu- 
lated a hypothesis, the class has formu- 
lated one, or a problem is posed by the 
teacher, the research begins. 

Armed with their bibliographies, 
the students head for the resource 
center or the library to prove their 
theories. They are required to study all 
the materials on their bibliographies, 
and most of them must do further 
research to prove - or sometimes 
disprove — their hypotheses. 

Units are organized in terms of 
cycles, or designated periods of time. 
Each cycle consists of certain time 
periods during which students must 
use specific "stations" in the resource 
center or library to do their research. 
The cycle usually consists of four days 
but can be varied to meet the require- 
ments of the unit. "For the usual 
cycle, however, a student might spend 
his history period in the library on the 
first day, in the resource center the 
second, viewing films the third, and 
participating in a student seminar the 
fourth," said Keel. 

At the end of a cycle the class 
reconvenes for summing up and pre- 
senting findings. They might present a 
panel report from the recorders of 
each seminar, position papers could be 
written, questions directed by the 
teacher, gaming techniques carried 
out, a field trip held, or any other 
method suitable for summing up or 
presenting material. 'The whole thing 
is open enough to allow for teacher 
differences," said Keel. 

Each student participating in the 
project is required to keep a social 
studies notebook with separate sec- 
tions for seminar notes, independent 
study projects, classnotes, handouts, 
notecards, bibliography, research, and 
vocabulary. In addition, each student 
keeps a diary with at least two entries 
per week. "And this doesn't mean 
where they were on Friday night," 
said Mrs. Evans. "They learn to write 
about what they've read or seen on 
television and how they feel about it," 
she said. 

Notebooks are checked periodically 
by the teachers. Grades for the course 
are derived from the notebooks, 
papers written for class, and class 
participation. "There are no multiple 
choice or true-false sort of tests," said 
Mrs. Evans. 

Presenting history to a hetero- 
geneous class through individualized 
instruction, inductive reasoning, inde- 
pendent study, and use of primary 

sources, isn't the only objective of the 
project. "The main aim," said Mrs. 
Evans, "is to help each student mature 
by learning to make decisions and 
solve problems." Teachers say the 
method is also "fun" to students and 
teachers as well as stimulating. "We've 
tried to provide a free learning situa- 
tion in which we can concentrate on 
the relevant aspects of history," said 
Ann Powers, the other project teacher. 

"The freedom to move about the 
school without direct teacher super- 
vision and the freedom to find mean- 
ingful problems and try to solve them 
has resulted in a lot more student 
decision making," said Mrs. Evans. 
Testing with a control group last year 
proved the point. Differences in the 
amount of subject matter learned by 
the two groups was insignificant. "But 
our group was far ahead in critical 
thinking," said Miss Powers. 

Skill improvement is emphasized 
along with critical thinking. Reading 
enjoyment, notetaking, abstracting, 
and critical analysis are stated objec- 
tives of the project. "By attempting to 
develop the writing skills, we hope to 
lead the students to greater creativity 
and more enjoyment of writing," said 
Mrs. Evans. 

The method hasn't been confined 
to U.S. history or to Washington High 
School. Miss Powers and Dee Franklin, 
an English teacher, have teamed them- 
selves and two classes for a course they 
call "American Studies." Last summer 
a wall between their classrooms was 
removed and a teacher workroom- 
office built in a corner to make the 
teaming easier this year. Relating 
material and skill building activities 
seems to have worked. With 60 stu- 
dents and a two-hour block of time, 
the two teachers have tried everything 
from gaming and grouping to month- 
long independent study projects. 

To spread the method to other 
schools and other teachers, Mrs. Evans 
has devoted much time to in-service 
training, much of it with elementary 
teachers. "We have to start young to 
get the students to stop accepting 
everything a teacher says as the truth 
and prove it or think about it them- 
selves," said Mrs. Evans. 

The project's funding, however, will 
end this year. But Mrs. Evans feels that 
much can be continued without the 
federal pocketbook. "We've already 
got the equipment, the books, the 
resource room. The important thing is 
to keep the method going," she said. 
Jasper Lewis, superintendent of Wash- 
ington City Schools, feels that the 
project has affected other schools in 
the system by broadening the use of 
the inquiry method. "We hope to 
continue much of this type of instruc- 
tion as an outgrowth of the project," 
he said. 




"Kindergarten education must be- 
come just as much a part of total 
educational opportunity in North 
Carolina as our elementary, secondary, 
community colleges, and higher educa- 
tion programs," said State Superin- 
tendent Craig Phillips at ceremonies 
held Dec. 1 at Jeffreys Grove School. 
The occasion marked the opening of 
eight State-supported kindergarten- 
early childhood education centers 
made possible by a $1 million appro- 
priation of the 1969 General 

Governor Robert Scott, featured 
speaker that day, said: "We believe 
that each penny spent on educating 
our children, our most precious re- 
source, is a penny well spent." Open- 
ing ceremonies were held simul- 
taneously across the State with each of 
the eight kindergartens, one in each of 
the State's eight educational districts, 
linked by a conference-telephone 
hookup. State Superintendent Craig 
Phillips noted the Governor's support 
of public kindergartens in his intro- 
duction: "He spoke out for legislative 
support of a solid beginning of public 
kindergartens for North Carolina when 
his voice was needed." 

Participating with the Governor in 
the ribbon cutting which officially 
opened the Jeffreys Grove kinder- 
garten were Mrs. Margaret Scar- 
borough and Mrs. Anne Evans, kinder- 
garten teachers, and Phillip Bruce 
Jackson and Eulla Yvonne Dozier, 

Following the telephone greetings, 
programs were held at each of the 
kindergartens. Legislators, local offi- 

cials, school officials and interested 
citizens were present at each location. 
Speakers included John Pritchett, 
member of the State Board of Educa- 
tion, at Chocowinity School; Dr. Rich- 
ard Ray, director of the Learning 
Institute of North Carolina, at Beau- 
fort Elementary School; Dr. James 
Hilton, executive director of the 
Smith-Reynolds Foundation, at South- 
ern Pines Elementary School; Mrs. 
Lena Marley, Chairman of the United 
Forces for Education, at Saxapahaw 
Elementary School; Mrs. Carlton Wat- 
kins, president of the State Parent 
Teachers Association, at Woodhill Ele- 
mentary School in Gastonia; R. Barton 
Hayes, member of the State Board of 
Education, at E. Harper Elementary 
School in Lenoir; and Mr. John Rey- 
nolds, member of the State Board of 
Education, at Sylva Elementary 

Some 320 five-year-olds are en- 
rolled in the pilot kindergarten project 
with 40 at each location. One-third of 
the two-year $1 million appropriation 
has been allocated to the eight centers 
during the first year. Plans for the 
second year of operation will include 
twice as many children and 16 kinder- 

James W. Jenkins, special assistant 
for elementary education with the 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, is coordinator of the project. One 
important objective of the program, 
said Jenkins, is to develop kinder- 
gartens that are an integral part of 
effective, continuous educational pro- 
grams for children from age five to 



7:3 V/4 



N. C. 







— "T" — ^ 

C R C R 








C R 





Volume 34 / Number 6 / February 1970 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director, Public Information & Publications: Tom I . Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Editorial Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is required 
for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public Schools, Division 
of Public Information and Publications, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 


COVER: Saxapahaw Elementary School, Alamance County. Story begins 
on page 8. 

Seniors Become Teacher Aides 3 

Grass Roots Communication 4 

At Tryon Palace History Lives 6 

Finally, A School For Children 8 

Teacher of the Year Named 11 

State Board Actions 11 

Scholarships Available 12 

Fifty-Nine Schools Receive Initial Accreditation 12 

News Briefs 13 

Student Teachers are Team Members in Craven County 14 

Environmental Task Force Meets 16 

Attorney General Rules 16 

From the 

State Superintendent 

A close personal friend in the advertising business told me 
recently he was shocked when he saw this Doyle Dane Bernbach, 
Inc. advertisement in a national magazine: 


Is this ad some kind of trick? 

No. But it could have been. 

And at exactly that point rests a do or die 
decision for American business. 

We in advertising, together with our clients, 
have all the power and skill to trick people. 
Or so we think. 

But we're wrong. We can't fool any of the 
people any of the time. 

There is indeed a twelve-year-old mentality 
in this country; every six-year-old has one. 

We are a nation of smart people. 

And most smart people ignore most advertising 
because most advertising ignores smart people. 

Instead we talk to each other. 

We debate endlessly about the medium and the 
message. Nonsense. In advertising, the message 
itself is the message. 

A blank page and a blank television screen 
are one and the same. 

And above all, the messages we put on those pages 
and on those television screens must be the truth. 
For if we play tricks with the truth, we die. 

Now. The other side of the coin. 

Telling the truth about a product demands a 
product that's worth telling the truth about. 

Sadly, so many products aren't. 

So many products don't do anything better. Or 
anything different. So many don't work quite right. 
Or don't last. Or simply don't matter. 

If we also play this trick, we also die. Because 
advertising only helps a bad product fail faster. 

No donkey chases the carrot forever. He catches 
on. And quits. 

That's the lesson to remember. 

Unless we do, we die. 

Unless we change, the tidal wave of consumer 
indifference will wallop into the mountain of 
advertising and manufacturing drivel. 

That day we die. 

We'll die in our marketplace. On our shelves. 
In our gleaming packages of empty promises. 
Not with a bang. Not with a whimper. 
But by our own skilled hands. 

I ask myself the same questions: 

Do we in public education have a product that is worth telling 
the truth about? 

Are we adopting new programs, new methods and finding new 
people in order to develop a better product of public education? 

If public education ceases to become the hallmark of our 
democracy — who must bear the blame? 

If we really do have a product of public education worth 
telling the truth about — are we telling the truth about it? 

I firmly believe that we do have a great product. It is worth 
telling the truth about. Let's do a far better job than we've ever 
dreamed we could do. 





Sixteen senior girls at Garinger High 
School in Charlotte are spending two 
hours each school day at nearby Sham- 
rock Gardens Elementary School. 
They haven't been demoted. They're 
learning how to be teacher aides, and 
they're getting paid to learn. 

The program, called Cooperative 
Educational Occupation, is the only 
one of its type in the Charlotte- 
Mecklenburg school system. And ac- 
cording to T. Carl Brown, occupa- 
tional education consultant with the 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, the program is the only such 
project in the State at the present 
time. It works much like distributive 
education or the industrial cooperative 
training program, according to Brown. 
The girls attend classes at Garinger 
most of the day and work for two 
hours a day as teacher aides at Sham- 
rock School. They receive $1.45 an 
hour for their services and two school 
credits for the course, taught by Mrs. 
Willa Carson, who also teaches home 
economics at Garinger. 

The idea of the new program is 
quite simple, according to Garinger 
Principal Ed Sanders: "We furnish 
retail and industrial people with train- 
ees, why not look after the school 
system's well-being?" And there's not 
a teacher in the State who wouldn't 
agree. They all need aides. In addition 
to helping with clerical work and the 
manual preparation necessary before a 
teacher can get down to the work of 
teaching, aides are invaluable when it 
comes to giving each child more indi- 
vidual attention. 

The new program began last fall. 
During the first month of school the 
students spent about three hours a day 
learning about teacher aides in an 
orientation course taught by Mrs. Car- 
son. To develop the course, she 
checked all available literature as well 
as going to her fellow teachers. They 
gave her long lists of activities and 
duties they'd like teacher aides to be 
able to do. And Mrs. Carson set about 
teaching the girls these procedures and 
skills. Among them were use of audio- 
visual and duplicating equipment and 
office machines. Filing, aspects of 
child psychology, personality develop- 
ment, and personal grooming were also 

Each girl was asked to keep a log of 
her learning experiences. Mrs. Carson 
feels that personal initiative is one of 
the most important factors in becom- 
ing a good teacher aide, or a good 
teacher for that matter. "The log 
helped them to see how they were 
doing. It gave them a way to evaluate 
themselves," she said. Preparation also 
included visits to Shamrock School to 
watch classes and talk with the person- 

By October the girls were at work 
at the elementary school — only two 

blocks away — and drawing wages. 
Each afternoon at 2 p.m. they meet 
with Mrs. Carson for their class on 
"teacher aiding." 

"They come back and kick off their 
shoes and talk about their experi- 
ences," she said. Some days they use 
the time to make flash cards and other 
materials for their classes. During this 
period the girls also discuss educa- 
tional philosophy, child development, 
or give reports on various topics as- 
signed by Mrs. Carson. "I try to give 
them a little psychology so they can 
better understand the children's be- 
havior — so they just won't think a 
child is mischievous, but will under- 
stand why he behaves the way he 
does," she said. "And it's helped give 
them a little insight into their own 
behavior, too." 

To help the girls gain experience 
with various grade levels, they are 
moved from class to class on a regular 
basis. In addition, they also have du- 
ties in the lunchroom and physical 
education area. "These girls are finding 
their own way, and they seem to enjoy 
it," said Mrs. Carson. There are no 
boys in the course this year, but Mrs. 
Carson hopes to attract some in the 

The principal of Shamrock Gar- 
dens, Mrs. Rosalie Andrews, is quite 
enthusiastic about her young teacher 
aides. "Just the other day a child who 
had been having some difficulty with 
spelling seemed to get it all of a 
sudden. The children just seem to 
relate to these girls," she said. 

At the beginning of the program, 
the main idea was to train teacher 
aides, according to Mrs. Carson. Since 
then, however, thoughts have changed 
somewhat. Two of the girls enrolled 
have been so impressed with their 
experiences that they've decided to go 
to college and become teachers. All 
those in the program take other 
courses except for the hours between 
9:15 and 11:15 which they spend at 
Shamrock Gardens. Thus, they have 
the opportunity to- take the courses 
they might need for college entrance. 

By now the girls are well prepared 
for the elementary classroom, but 
sometimes they still have to grit their 
teeth. Kathy Smith, for example, 
found herself with a fight to break up 
recently. And she did it, despite a little 
stage fright. She, like all of the girls, 
really enjoys her work. 

"I love it, I guess because I like to 
be with kids," she said of the program. 
When Kathy isn't breaking up fights or 
helping her teacher with the children 
during a work period, she's grading 
papers. "When I graded the 'Weekly 
Readers,' I learned the answers so I 
wouldn't have to use the key," she 


'RIGHT little newsletters with features 
about school happenings and school personalities are becoming 
the rule rather than the exception in North Carolina. More and 
more school units are publishing newsletters in an effort to bridge 
the communications gap where it really counts — at the local 

In form the publications range from two-sided mimeographed 
sheets to slick little magazines eight pages and longer. A few, 
filled with excellent photographs and writing to match, could 
compete with the most up-to-date publications on the newstands. 
Others, a little less slick, feature a local touch that seems very 
close to the classroom. Some of the newsletters are published by 
graphics classes in local high schools, giving students a chance to 
learn on the real thing. Among them are the Greensboro Public 
Schools Newsletter, Lexington Schools' Focus, and The Haywood 
School Review. 

Most of the newsletters publish three times a year. A few, 
however, publish on an irregular basis depending on the availa- 
bility of news and funds. Funds, of course, are a major drawback 
to many of these local publishing projects. Focus on Progress, 
published by Chapel Hill public schools last year, has gone out of 
business this year. The magazine, printed on thick brown paper 
and filled with photographs, was one of the brightest produc- 
tions. Mrs. Dawn Bryan, who edited the publication, says that the 
unit hopes to resume publishing when funds are available. 

Some of the newsletters are published not by local units but 
by various projects funded by the federal government. An 
example is the Co-Op Step Pointer, an ESEA Title III publication 
for Carteret and Moore Counties. The newsletter is distributed to 
board members, legislators, newspapers, Congressmen, State 
education officials, and key citizens. 

Distribution of the magazines varies with their form. Some go 
only to central office staff or teachers. Others try to spread their 
publication to the general public or at least to key citizens in 

their area. The Moore County Schools Education Newsletter, in 
its sixth year of publication, has one of the largest circulations 
with 10,000 copies going out three times this year. The 
newsletter is sent to school personnel as well as to parents, 
professionals, businesses, and various laymen in the area. Copies 
are also mailed to other school systems. 

Contents of the newsletters vary with the skills and interests of 
their producers as well as the nature of the school units they 
represent. Most of the newsletters include calendars of school 
events and features about school projects and personalities. The 
Charlotte-Mecklenburg School Report, in its twelfth year of 
publication, carries a column with questions from readers on local 
policy answered according to Board rulings. Requests for ques- 
tions are solicited by the editor and answered in each issue. 

Boards of education have also been featured by many of the 
magazines. Reidsville City Board of Education's Educational Life 
is running a series this year called "Meet the School Board." 
Pictures and biographical material on several members are 
presented in each issue. Messages from the superintendent are 
another feature of many. And some of the superintendents use 
the opportunity to report on national meetings and educational 
trends as well as local affairs. 

The Greensboro Public Schools Newsletter, begun last year, 
has a column of chatty news about teacher honors and doings 
called "School Mouse" which makes good reading for those who 
might not even know the teachers involved. Some of the 
newsletters carry public service information — Moore County 
Schools Education Newsletter ran a short article on the 
availability of adult education classes. Another newsletter fea- 
tured information on precautions to be taken against winter colds 
and flu. 

Regardless of the content and format, all the newsletters are 
designed to tell others — be they school personnel only or the 
public, also — what's going on in local schools. C. Wade Mobley, 

superintendent of Montgomery County Schools which publishes 
the Education Messenger, said, "The publishing of this collection 
of school information and activities is another attempt to keep 
interested citizens informed of some of the happenings in our 
schools. Often we get so involved with our work that we assume 
everyone else knows as much about what we are doing as we do. 
The situation is often the reverse. Parents and the public in 
general will support us in our undertakings if they are kept 
informed of our efforts." 

Classroom Focus: Wilson City Schools informs the public as 
well as giving teachers a few hints from their fellow workers. The 
publication, eight pages long, features short articles from teachers 
about classroom projects that worked. Superintendent George S. 
Willard said, "It has been our purpose to encourage our teachers 
to pool and share information about promising practices, and 
also, to better inform PTA members and the general public about 
the creative teaching that goes on daily in the Wilson City 

Excerpts from two of the publications follow: 

If Uncle Sam has trouble balancing his budget it might 
be that he didn't start early enough. Mrs. Sarah Glasgow's 
second and third grade combination at Hearne School 
patronized local notion and variety stores with their P.T.A. 
attendance award recently. Each child was given his portion 
and permitted to purchase merchandise to the tune of 18 
cents. Naturally, there was much excitement and changing 
of minds as well as some frustration with taxes. The 
climactic surprise was a fat, sugary lollipop presented by an 
appreciative store manager. 

Classroom Focus: Wilson City Schools, 
Vol. I, No. 2, March 3, 1969 

Two Chapel Hill Senior High School teachers have 

received recognition for creating simulation games in their 
own classrooms. For her game "Experiment in Socialism," 
Mrs. Peggy Bryan, teacher of United States history and 
economics, was presented an award from the National 
Schools Committee for Economics Education, Inc. at the 
American Association of School Administrators Convention 
in February and received a citation from the Freedom 
Foundation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. 

The basic idea of socialism — taking from each according 
to his abilities and giving to each according to his needs — is 
demonstrated in an unusual grading system through which 
she teaches socialism to her economics classes. The game, 
played for only a few weeks, calls for the highest grade in 
the class to be averaged with the lowest; both students 
receive the average grade. Then the next highest is averaged 
with the next lowest until all of the grades have been 
accounted for. In this way, the students get a taste of life 
under the socialistic economic system. "It transplants them 
to proletariat in a socialist society where grades are the 
wages," explained Mrs. Bryan. 

Her grading system has met with varied response ranging 
from complete rebellion to exuberant approval. A few 
students even stated that they would prefer to socialize 
their money rather than their grades. Different classes 
reacted differently: in some the students all gave up, feeling 
that it wasn't worth it to try for a good grade, but in 
another everyone tried harder. Students protested the 
socialistic system in various ways: they circulated petitions, 
staged a walkout, and even refused to participate in the 
experiment. Another sign of protest came in the form of 
banners and notes, one read "I am anti-socialist, but I will 
stay here and learn the evils of such a society." 

Focus on Progress, 
Vol. I, No. 2, December 1968 


at try on palace 
history lives 

The day was dark, and the streets 
of New Bern weren't cheered by the 
heavy rain. The chartered buses, filled 
with seventh graders from Jacksonville 
who were a little tired and jumpy from 
the ride, changed gears and turned the 
corner. Suddenly the children were 
still. They peered out the rain-streaked 
windows at Tryon Palace. The build- 
ings and surrounding grounds sprang 
out of the old neighborhood like a 
duchess dressed for a ball. 

Craning their necks toward the 
Palace, the children were led out of 
the rain and into an auditorium across 
the street. And as they settled into the 
seats, excitement grew. The stage 
darkened and Donald Taylor, curator 
of education, stepped up. A screen 
descended from the ceiling, and soon 
the children were listening and viewing 
the story of the New World coloniza- 

Most of the children knew, of 
course, that Tryon Palace was the first 
permanent capitol of the Royal Colo- 

ny of North Carolina and then of the 
State as well - they'd heard all that 
back in Jacksonville in their N. C. 
history classes. But they were soon to 
learn more as they were split into 
small groups and led to the Palace 
grounds by one of the friendly hostess- 

Tryon Palace, they learned, had 
burned to the ground in 1798. The 
buildings they would see were restora- 
tions built on the original foundations 
from the original plans. The restora- 
tion, carried out between 1952 and 
1959 was made possible by the gifts 
($3,000,000) of Mrs. James Edwin 
Latham, originally of New Bern. 
Tryon Palace is owned and adminis- 
tered by the State. 

The seventh graders began their 
tour in the East Wing. They were met 
at the door by another hostess, this 
one dressed in an authentic 18th cen- 
tury costume. The students peered at 
the dress with a curiosity the hostess 
caught at once. "This is what ladies 
wore 200 years ago," she explained, 
adjusting her farthingales and discuss- 
ing them in detail to the delight of her 

She continued to enthrall them as 
she led the group from kitchen to 
laundry to servants' dining room in the 
East Wing, explaining the furniture 
and equipment along the way. "This is 
the way they baked bread way back 
then," she said, lifting a heavy bread 
board and sliding it into a brick oven 
as if she did it every day. 

In the quaint bedrooms above, 
filled with antique bed hangings and 
strange looking appurtenances — shav- 
ing mirrors and old-fashioned eye 
glasses — the children learned that 
"the less important guests might have 
stayed here." 

"And this is the first Murphy bed," 
another hostess said, pointing to an 
antique folding bed. Of course, she 
had to explain what a Murphy bed 
was. "Aw, we've got one kinda like 
that in our trailer," said one little boy, 
considerably less than impressed by it 

When asked if the furniture they 
saw had actually been in Tryon Palace 
"way back then," the hostess told the 
story of its acquisition. The furnish- 
ings of the Palace were the private 
property of William Tryon, Royal 
Governor of North Carolina, from 
whom the Palace takes its name. In 
June 1770 when the Palace was com- 
pleted. Governor Tryon, his wife, and 
nine-year-old daughter, Margaret, 
moved into the buildings bringing their 
own furnishings. 

"Both Tryon and his wife were 
quite wealthy, and their furnishings 
were considered to be in fine taste," 
said the hostess. In 1771 when Tryon 
became Royal Governor of New York, 
he took his belongings along with him 

to his new home at Fort George. All of 
his furniture was destroyed by a fire 
there in 1773. Tryon, however, draft- 
ed a complete list of the losses room 
by room. The inventory was dis- 
covered in England when the restora- 
tion was taking place, and it was 
followed as closely as possible in fur- 
nishing the Palace. All of the furnish- 
ings are authentic 18th century 
English pieces, since that's what Tryon 
owned himself. 

In the Main Building, where the 
Governor and his family lived, the 
children were met by more hostesses, 
all dressed in long gowns of dimity, 
taffeta, and lace — over the then 
popular farthingales. The students 
were shown a long seat that the 
hostesses said must have been made 
for ladies wearing farthingales. The 
sides curved out, and only a person 
with enlarged hips, or farthingales, 
would have fit it. 

In the library the students learned 
that Governor Tryon was quite a 
learned man — hundreds of books 
lined the walls. "Since they were 
bound in leather, they often warped, 
and had to be pressed in a book 
press," said a hostess, explaining the 
strange instrument. 

Perhaps more enticing was the tiny 
housekeeper's room filled with all the 
18th century equipment a house- 
keeper might have used. The students 
peered closely at an antique copy of 
The Art Of Cookery and discovered 
they could read it. "And that," the 
hostess said, "is a napkin press," point- 
ing to a strange object that looked like a 
thumb screw from the late, late show 
and worked just like the book press. 
She explained that 200 years ago 
people didn't use a clean napkin for 
every meal. "They all knew to use just 
one corner, so that the napkin could 
be used again." The children looked 
disgusted. They were discovering that 
life in the 18th century might have 
been elegant for some, but not exactly 
comfortable. Bathrooms, they found, 
just weren't. They stared at the small 
wash bowls in amazement. And, of 
course, they tittered at the "necessary 
house" across the courtyard. 

In the guard room of the Main 
Building, the students spotted long 
clay pipes, and they learned how hard 
it was to light a pipe without matches. 
"I imagine they kept candles burning," 
said the hostess. Throughout the tour, 
the ladies continued to enthrall the 
children with information about an era 
long passed. Many of the comments 
were educated guesses about how 
equipment and furniture might have 
been used — the hostesses are in the 
Palace daily, dressed as their ancestors, 
and they discover new things every 
day. The people must have been small- 
er, for example. "The dressing screens 
are so short," a hostess said. Sure 

enough, research revealed that people 
were smaller, the average woman was 
under five feet 200 years ago. 

More than 33,000 people visit the 
restoration each year, according to 
Curator Taylor. Of that number, about 
half are school groups. His planning 
has made the school children's visits 
worthwhile as well as fun. There's no 
endless trooping and looking without 
knowing what it's all about at Tryon 

When teachers arrange for a visit, 
which must be booked through the 
office, Taylor sends them a brochure 
on the tour and information about 
materials — including a color film - 
available from the Palace. His brochure 
also relates the Palace to other subjects 
than N.C. history: geometry, science, 
home economics, English literature, 
and geography to name a few. Also 
included are a preliminary outline for 
classroom use prior to the tour and a 
list of other points of interest in the 

Taylor conducts all the orientation 
presentations himself and fits the slide 
lectures to the level of knowledge of 
each group. The Palace hostesses take 
it from there. Taylor prefers splitting 
the children into very small groups — 
about 8 to 10 — so that they can get a 
personal tour of the Palace. Timing, he 
feels is also important. "There's no 
point in bringing them here when 
they're studying the First World War," 
he said. 

Tryon Palace draws school groups 
from Raleigh eastward, and Taylor 
visits many schools to lecture on Colo- 
nial history. "I like to talk to the 
fourth and fifth graders studying 
American history and save the tour for 
the seventh grade," he said. 

The approach at Tryon Palace, ac- 
cording to Taylor, is "living history." 
A visit will convince anyone that the 
approach works. 

"This is little Margaret's bird cage," 
said a hostess when the children visited 
Margaret's small room. "She was an 
only child, and she wasn't allowed to 
play with the children who lived in the 
town. I think she might have liked a 
bird for company. Don't you?" 

And Margaret seemed only a pace 
or two away. Perhaps standing in the 
next room looking through the rain at 
the nearby town, like the school child- 
ren fingering her bird cage 200 years 

Saxapahaw Elementary School seems like a space-age anachro- 
nism, a part of the 21st century that landed in the middle of a 
small mill village surrounded by farmlands. 'The school looks like 
it's going to fly away," said Mrs. Barbara Tew, principal, who's 
young, motherly, intelligent, and articulate all at once. From the 
middle of the basically flat, poured concrete structure, two roofs 
slant into the sky, capturing light that filters through the whole 

Completed over a year ago and designed by Alvis 0. George of 
the J. Hyatt Hammond architectural firm in Asheboro, the school 
has a variety of spatial arrangements made possible by the 
slanting roofs and multi-level floors. A small, central courtyard 
and large library complex is surrounded by class-workspaces on 
three sides and a gymnatorium-lunchroom area plus offices on the 
fourth. The feeling is open and light — more than two hundred 
children can be variously grouped in any one area — and you can 
look from one end of the school to the other without 
encountering any blocking walls. And yet there are literally 
hundreds of cozy nooks for reading, study, small groups, or 
impromptu naps on the thick carpeting that covers most of the 

But the structure itself, adventuresome as it is, isn't the 
deciding factor in making Saxapahaw School a child-oriented 
place. It's the methods: team teaching, nongraded grouping, 
continuous progress, free movement of children. Of course, the 
methods are made easier and, in some cases, possible by the 
building. "But it's the teaching attitude that counts the most," 
said Mrs. Tew. At Saxapahaw the methods are more than 
speculative or experimental. They're an accepted fact. And the 
more than 500 busy, involved children there attest to the 
methods' success. 

The school fits the children. There's none of that feeling that 
comes from the traditional classroom with so many children lined 
up in small desks surrounded by outsized walls and teachers. The 
whole school is scaled to children — even the entrance is lower 
than normal (7'4") — and the children emerge, to the visitor's 
eye, as the dominating factor in the school. 

Saxapahaw School is part of a county-wide (Alamance) 
building program begun in 1960. The county is separated into 
four educational zones; each zone, when construction is com- 
pleted, will feature elementary schools like Saxapahaw feeding 
into a middle school and a high school. "The theory behind the 
new buildings," said Mrs. Tew, "is to decide what activities are 
best for children and then what buildings are needed to house 
them." This common-sense approach is working at Saxapahaw. 

On paper, the school houses grades K-5. In fact, there are two 
multi-age groupings of children at the school. Primary groups are 
ages 5-8; intermediate groups, ages 9-10. Within the two basic 
groups, children may be working at any of several levels of 
achievement. Children and teachers are grouped together into the 
multi-age teams: there are two primary teams with 136 children 
and five teachers in each, and two intermediate teams with 90 
children and three teachers in each. The groups are heterogeneous 
with all levels of achievement in each. 

The word classroom can't be used at Saxapahaw. Instead, 
there are three large class-workspace areas opening onto the 
central library area. Each of these large areas can be separated 
into many self-contained classrooms with sliding doors. But 
they're always open. "I wish they hadn't even shipped the 
doors," said Mrs. Tew. With all the doors pushed back, the huge 
space created is dotted with supporting columns, doors to the 
outside and outside walls lined with chalk or bulletin boards. The 
exposed structural concrete, which has been sandblasted inside 
and out, is visually interesting, and a few walls have been covered 
with bright colors. 

Each class-workspace area has an adjacent art area for messy 
work surrounded by walls on three sides and is uncarpeted. The 
rest of the area is carpeted and this, along with acoustical ceilings, 
said Mrs. Tew, have made it possible for hundreds of children to 
work separately within sight of the others without deafening 
noise resulting. It's also handy for studying on (clipboards are 
used for writing on laps), napping, or just being comfortable. 
Each class-work space also has toilets — the children don't have to 





troop down long halls. 

Each primary team occupies one of the three class-workspaces 
adjacent to the library; the two intermediate groups occupy the 
largest space, adjacent, but not quite as open to the library. 
Groups move freely about their assigned class-workspace areas, but 
the other areas of the school - gym and library are used on a 
scheduled basis. "Any child, however, can go to the library 
whenever he asks," said Mrs. Tew. The library is separated from 
the surrounding class-work areas by steps which mark the general 
boundaries for each group. 

Within those boundaries are desks, portable coat racks backed 
by chalkboards, pianos, easels, audiovisual equipment, projects of 
all sorts including a teepee and squirrel cage (complete with 
squirrel) scattered about in what appears at first to be the 
aftermath of a tornado. Looks are deceiving though, and it doesn't 
take long to see that straight rows of desks or walls don't have to 
be present for learning to take place. 

Each team of children, primary and intermediate, has groups 
within it assigned to various home spaces. Basically, the children 
within the large team group are grouped with one teacher for 
language arts — and that grouping can change — and does — 

The teams meet after school each day, and with the flexible 
space and equipment available, they can change groups, activities, 
or arrangements every day. "It's one of the beauties of the 
situation," smiled Mrs. Tew. She noted, however, that grouping 
has become less and less important as personalized instruction 
takes over. The emphasis has become individual at Saxapahaw — 
children are most likely competing with themselves rather than 
with each other. "For example, a child might be doing what 
would be third grade reading, while the one next to him is doing 
fifth grade work — and they'd both be in the same social age 

With several teachers evaluating each child each day and 
sharing teaching duties, the idea works. But the method also calls 
for piles of individualized materials — the teachers gather and 
make them from every source possible — and keep them located 
where the children can get them without help. 

The intermediate groups, according to Mrs. Tew, are doing 
much contract work. In the center of their area are large, colorful 
file boxes with a file on each child and files of math and language 
arts materials. Children on contract get their own materials, 
complete them, and return the work to their folders. To check 
their work, regular conferences with teachers are scheduled, but a 
child can go to a teacher for help at any time. "The child, you 
see, is responsible for much of the experience." 

Near the children working individually might be a small group 
— of the same general age — working with a teacher. They sit or 
lie on the carpet — a few choose chairs — studying aloud. "Some 
children, of course, aren't ready to work alone," said Mrs. Tew 
In another corner is a group of retarded children working with a 
special education teacher. They are a part of the larger group 
most of the day; the school's one special education teacher acts 
primarily as a resource person. Mrs. Tew thinks the system works 

The colorful carpeting at Saxapahaw School cuts down on noise 
and turns floor space into cozy spots for studying, playing, or 


fine: "It keeps them from feeling the stigma of being something 
different or apart," she said. 

The special education teacher contends that the retarded 
children often learn from the normal ones. "You'd be surprised 
how much they accept differences and then go on to help each 
other," she said. The school has three teacher aides, invaluable, 
according to teachers. Two are kindergarten aides. Saxapahaw 
was one of eight State-supported kindergarten-early childhood 
centers opened in December. Part of the emphasis of that 
Statewide project is developing kindergarten programs that are 
integrated with primary education, and Saxapahaw had a built-in 
system to receive the five-year-olds. At first, they were more or 
less self-contained, separated from the other children by book- 
cases or other dividers. Later they became part of the primary 
teams, grouped with the older children for some activities. The 
five-year-olds show amazing ease in fitting into the new environ- 
ment. "We didn't have the first tear," said Mrs. Tew in 
amazement. The small children can curl up on mats and sleep 
soundly with older children a few feet away and very much 
awake. Children, it seems, can tune out almost anything. "It's 
only adults that think they've got to have an almost sterile 
atmosphere to think," said Mrs. Tew. 

Record keeping is anything but traditional at Saxapahaw. 
Grades are kept by the team, and they can't even be called grades. 
"The teams are just as individual as people," said Mrs. Tew when 
explaining various procedures for record keeping. Cards are kept 
on each child — one on each child in some teams, several cards on 
each child in other teams. Each teacher dealing with a child 
makes a daily notation on that child's progress. These are later 
totaled — but with no numerical averages — for report cards. The 
report cards show various reading and math levels and then a 
letter grade (excellent through needs improvement) for the 
achievement level or subject. The levels are geared so that parents 
can see the grade equivalent, but there are 15 levels of reading 
and 1 1 of math. 

When a child transfers or goes on to a middle school, these 
records, plus a list of materials or texts he's completed go along 
with him. In addition to report cards, parents are invited to 
personal conferences to discuss their child's progress. "And these 
are always positive conferences," said Mrs. Tew. "We don't call 
the parents just when the child's work needs improvement. Often 
we get together to talk about success." 

Parents have become very much involved with the new school, 
not just in their own children's progress in it. Meetings were held 
last year to acquaint them with the new methods and answer 
questions. "We want them to feel free to drop in anytime they 
want to," said Mrs. Tew. One mother, she said, comes to visit at 
least once a month. 

Civic groups are also involved. One club has taken the school's 
landscaping as a long-range project. The first priority will be the 
central courtyard — they've had a landscape architect design 

plantings around a small pool. Sliding glass doors will let children 
go outside. 

It took much in-service training and practice teaming to train 
the teachers for the new methods, according to Mrs. Tew. 
"Summer before last they took part in pilot teaming with 
summer school students to get the feel of it," she said. And last 
year, each grade was teamed for further practice. Students moved 
into the new school last January; non-graded teaming began this 
fall. "Other in-service courses, workshop sessions, and time to 
preview new materials and equipment also helped," said Mrs. 

"But our best aid has been attitude," she contends. Teachers 
like the new ideas. Mrs. Tew attributes this, in part, to the fact 
that the methods and ideas have been implemented from the top 
down in a county-wide effort. "We've been blessed with a 
forward-looking, bold Board of Education and a wonderful 
Superintendent," she said. 

Educational plans for the county were worked out by the 
board with the help of committees including laymen, parents, 
teachers, and students. "The specifications for this school were 
actually developed with the help of parents," she said. In 
addition, each school has its own advisory council of laymen and 
educators. "They give us advice and assistance as well as serving as 
a communication link to the community," she said. "It's taken 
everybody," she said, "to make the school possible." 

But it's the philosophy, not the building that's made for 
success. "We could pull out all the folding doors and have the 
same old thing," said Mrs. Tew. "But it does," she said, "take a 
depth of understanding and much organization on the teachers' 
part." According to Mrs. Tew, teachers are finding each day that 
the children are capable of much more maturity, interest, and 
judgement than normally expected. The primary groups, for 
example, have a 15-minute break after lunch when they are free 
to study, read, chat, or nap within their boundary area. They 
appear unsupervised; one lone teacher works in a far corner. "Of 
course we couldn't have done this a year ago," said Mrs. Tew with 

The feeling prevails throughout the school — busy, varied, and 
completely interesting. With so much happening around the 
children, an adult would think they'd be distracted. Somehow the 
opposite works. The individual child emerges from the confusion. 
The surroundings are a help. But they exist to silhouette the child 
in a setting uniquely his own. ■ 

Small and large groups can work side by side within the flexible 
space arrangements at Saxapahaw. Students line up for help from 
one member of the teaching team. 



"If we do not have success in the classroom then all else we do 
is of no help," said Superintendent of Public Instruction Craig 
Phillips. He spoke of and to Johnnie McFadden, a sixth grade 
teacher at Selwyn Elementary School in Charlotte, who was 
named North Carolina's Teacher of the Year at the January 
meeting of the State Board of Education. 

"I receive this award not as a man but as a member of the 
teaching profession," said McFadden, accepting a scroll from 
Chairman of the Board Dallas Herring. "This award represents the 
support of parents, teachers, students, and administrators for the 
teaching profession and our efforts," he said. 

McFadden is North Carolina's representative in the national 
Teacher of the Year awards contest, sponsored jointly by Look 

Magazine and the Council of Chief State School Officers. This 
year the awards program will run in conjunction with the first 
observance of International Education Year by the United 
Nations member states and UNESCO. 

A teacher for eleven years, McFadden was born in Wilmington. 
He received the B. S. degree from Winston-Salem State University 
where he was a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. He re- 
ceived a master's degree from Temple University. 

McFadden began his teaching career in 1958 at Morningside 
Junior High School in Statesville. He later held positions in 
Wilmington at James B. Dudley Elementary School, Williston 
Junior High School, and D. C. Virgo Junior High School before 
coming to Charlotte in 1966 to teach at Selwyn Elementary 

McFadden is a member of the Classroom Teachers Association, 
the Charlotte Mint Museum, and the Mecklenburg Jaycees. He 
was named Outstanding Young Educator of the Year by the 
Mecklenburg Jaycees and later received the State level honor 
from the North Carolina Jaycees. He is a member of the St. 
Stephen A.M.E. Church. 

For McFadden, 32 and single, teaching is a 24-hour job. 
Trained in science and math, he's still very much interested in 
these subjects and transfers it to his sixth grade students. As a 
result, he has the most chemistry equipment of any of the classes 
at Selwyn. And the students love the experimentation conducted 
in class. 

Frequently McFadden holds what he calls "fireside chats," 
with discussion of student questions that come from a classroom 
question box. The subjects, according to McFadden, aren't 
restricted. The class also has officers, a science club, a story- 
telling club, a reporter, and a photographers' club which puts out 
the class newspaper. 

Enthusiasm, McFadden feels, is the key to his classroom 
success. "Educational studies have proved that the atmosphere 
established in a classroom is determined mainly by a teacher's 
competencies, interests, and initiative," he said. 

"If our schools are to make strides and fulfill the cause for 
which they were organized, it is imperative that those who teach 
set the tone for the kind of education that will enable boys and 
girls to cope with the conditions of life while they seek to 
become independent thinkers. 


School Food Services 

The State Board of Education at 
their January meeting approved 
changes in the reimbursement rates for 
the school lunch program. Schools 
serving 1-9% free or reduced price 
lunches will receive a base rate of 4 
cents per paid lunch and 8 cents per 
free lunch. Previously, all schools re- 
ceived a base rate of 6 cents for paid 
lunches and 15 cents for free lunches 
(Type A). 

Schools serving 10-29% free lunches 
will receive a base rate of 6 cents per 
paid lunch and 15 cents per free lunch. 
Schools with 30% and over free lunch- 
es are considered Special Assistance 
Schools and will receive 20 cents for 
both types. Special Assistance program 
schools are still restricted to the Type 
A pattern plus milk and ice cream. 

The changes were made because the 
original reimbursement schedule ap- 
proved by the Board on the basis of 
the August estimate of the U.S. De- 
partment of Agriculture stated that 
the State would receive $22,216,916 
in federal assistance. Assistance actual- 
ly received has been about $2 1 /2 million 
less. However, according to Director of 
Food Services Ralph Eaton, the assist- 
ance is about $414 million more than 
that received last year. 

Library Training 

An amendment approved to an 
agreement with UNC-Greensboro for 
the purpose of training school librari- 
ans during the summer of 1969 
through June 1970 added an extra six 
weeks of in-service training for the 
coming summer. 

Teaching Policies 

Changes in policies were approved 
by the Board making the regulations 
less rigid in the area of State recogni- 
tion of successful teaching experience 
in lieu of student teaching. 

Previous regulations required that B 
teachers "shall" be assigned to teach at 
the grade level or in the area in which 
A certification is desired. New regula- 
tions say that B teachers "should" be 
assigned to such areas. 

Old policy also stated that B teach- 
ers should not be deficient in more 
than 1 2 semester hours of work ex- 
clusive of student teaching. This regu- 
lation has been dropped. In addition, 
new policy states that "when appropri- 
ate, the teacher education institutions 
should be involved in planning, imple- 
menting, and evaluating the program." 



Through funds appropriated by the 1969 General Assembly, a 
limited number of scholarships are now available to teachers and 
other professional personnel in North Carolina public schools. 
The funds will provide summer scholarships of $30 per semester 
hour up to $360 per summer to outstanding teachers or 
leadership personnel to pursue a planned graduate program 
leading to a master's degree or completion of a sixth year 

The scholarships are allocated to school administrative units 
by the State Department of Public Instruction and are awarded to 
persons nominated by their superintendents. The new scholar- 
ships are a part of the recently expanded Program for the 
Professional Improvement of Teachers, which has been placed 
under the supervision and administration of the Division of Staff 
Development, headed by Dr. James Valsame. 

Scholarship recipients are eligible for a maximum of three 
summer grants subject to continued employment in North 
Carolina, continued good standing in graduate programs, and 
continued appropriation of funds by the General Assembly. In 
addition, a recipient must assure that he will teach or serve in the 
public schools of the State for at least two years following 
termination or completion of the graduate program, according to 
Dr. Valsame. 

A limited number of tuition scholarships are also available for 
teachers taking courses needed to remove out-of-field status and 
for teachers retraining to qualify for certification in an area of 
critical need. Superintendents must certify contract status and 
approve courses for eligible teachers seeking tuition scholarships. 
The State reimburses accredited colleges or universities for the 
established tuition and fees up to S20 per semester hour for 
approved course work taken in fulfilling the second type of 

Eligible teachers desiring either type of scholarship should 
contact their superintendent, according to Dr. Valsame. 

The Program for the Professional Improvement of Teachers 
has been extended in other significant areas. In-service programs 
in professional areas have been included, maximum reimburse- 
ment for local programs increased, a program to provide for the 
use of consultants to assist local units in improving instruction 
added, and eligibility for in-service programs has been extended 
to include paraprofessionals. The program has also been extended 
to authorize direct allocation and payment of funds to adminis- 
trative units submitting an annual plan for all in-service programs, 
and a limited number of regional positions have been established 
to assist local units with a limited central office staff. 





Membership in the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Schools (SACS) among North Carolina secondary schools rose to 
a total of 322 for 1969-70. Twelve secondary schools received 
initial accreditation. 

Forty new elementary schools were granted accreditation 
bringing the total for the State to 448. An additional 412 
elementary schools in the State are affiliated and working toward 
accreditation. Samuel Leonard School, a juvenile correction 
institution in Johnston County, is the first of the State's eight 
juvenile correction schools to receive accreditation. 

The following schools received initial accreditation: 


Caswell County: Bartlett Yancey High; Chatham County: 
Chatham Central High; Craven County: Havelock High; Elizabeth 
City-Pasquotank: Northeastern High; Guilford County: North- 
west Junior High and Southeast Junior High; Johnston County: 
Smithfield-Selma High; Lincoln County: East Lincoln High; 
Moore County: Pinecrest High; New Hanover: M.C.S. Noble 

Junior High; Sampson County: Union High; and Union County: 
Sun Valley High. 


Carteret County: Beaufort; Charlotte-Mecklenburg: Allen- 
brook, Cotswold, Idlewild, Landsdowne, Marie G. Davis, Oak- 
hurst, and Winterfield; Craven County: Bridgeton, Brinson, 
Graham Barden, Havelock Junior High, and West Havelock; 
Durham County: Parkwood; Gaston County: Sherwood; Golds- 
boro City: Goldsboro Middle School; Greensboro City: More- 
head; Hickory City: W. M. Jenkins; Jackson County: Glenville; 
Johnston County: Clayton; Monroe City: Benton Heights, East, 
and Walter Bickett; Moore County: Westmoore; New Hanover 
County: John J. Blair and Pine Valley; Rutherford County: 
Alexander, Cool Springs, Forest City, and Rutherfordton; Samp- 
son County: Roseboro; Transylvania County: Brevard Junior 
High, Penrose, Pisgah Forest, Rosman, Straus, and T. C. Hender- 
son; Wake County: Henry R . Adams. 


Economics Education Committee Begins Study 

North Carolina launched an in-depth study of economics 
instruction in the public schools in December with the first 
meeting of the Committee on Economics Education in North 
Carolina Public Schools. The 32-member committee was named 
by the State Board of Education, as directed by the 1969 General 
Assembly, to study economics education in the State. The 
Committee's membership consists of a cross-section of interests, 
including educators, bankers, labor leaders, industrialists, and 

Senator Hector McGeachy, Senate president pro tern, intro- 
duced the bill calling for the study. According to McGeachy, 
many North Carolinians know little or nothing about the free 
enterprise system. "If people don't understand private property 
and free enterprise, why should they respect it?" he asked the 

Edward L. Rankin, executive vice-president of the North 
Carolina Citizens Association, was elected chairman of a sub- 
committee on public school curriculum. Named vice-chairman 
was Harry Gatton, executive director of the North Carolina 
Bankers Association. 

A subcommittee on teacher education elected Dr. James 
Bearden, dean of East Carolina University's school of business, as 
chairman, and Robert T. Ellett, Jr., public relations representative 
for R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., vice-chairman. 

Prinicpal of the Year Named 

David T. Helburg, principal of Sternberger Elementary School 
in Greensboro, has been named the State's "Principal of the 
Year." The award was presented during the 17th Statewide 
Principals Conference sponsored by the Division of Principals of 
the N.C. Education Association. Helberg was cited "for chal- 
lenging innovative practices, dynamic public relations, inspiring 
administrative vision, cooperative program planning, professional 
leadership qualities, unselfish service to others, and constant 
concern for children." 

A native of Chicago, Helberg holds degrees in music, arts and 
sciences, and an M. A. in educational administration from 
Northwestern University. In 1947 he joined the Greensboro 
school system as a band director. He became principal of 
Sternberger when the school opened in 1949. In addition, 
Helberg is a former editor of the Tar Heel Principal. 

Helberg is a member, past president, and past chairman of the 
trustees of the Greensboro Conservative Hebrew Congregation, 
Beth David Synagogue. He is a performing member of the 
Greensboro Symphony, a 32nd degree Scottish Rite Mason, a 
Kiwanian, and a past president of Greensboro Little Theatre. Last 
spring, Helberg received the Oak Leaf Award, the State's highest 
PTA honor. 

Webb to Head Title I, ESEA 

Harold H. Webb has been named Coordinator of the Title I 
program of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act 
(ESEA) for the State Department of Public Instruction. Webb 
formerly served the Department as associate director of the 
Division of Human Relations. 

A native of Greensboro, Webb received his B. S. and M. S. 
degrees from A & T University. He has done graduate work at the 
State University of New York, Northern Illinois University, and 
New Mexico Highlands University. 

Webb began his career in education as a science teacher at 
Central High School in Hillsborough in 1948, and he later taught 
at Cedar Grove School in Hillsborough. He joined the State 
Department of Public Instruction in 1962 as a science education 
consultant, became assistant coordinator of the National Defense 
Education Act in 1966, and associate director of the Division of 
Human Relations in 1969. 

Region Five Citizen Involvement Under Way 

Late in November the Education Development Council of the 
State's Fifth Educational District held a two-day organizational 
meeting to develop plans and procedures to involve laymen in the 
educational process of the 1 1 counties comprising that Region. 
The Council is an outgrowth of the Statewide educational task 
force named earlier in the year. Both groups are the result of 
recommendations of the Governor's Study Commission on the 
Public School System of North Carolina. 

The purpose of the groups — local, regional, and Statewide - 
according to the Study Commission, is to obtain the citizens 
support essential for effective leadership or improvement of the 
public school system. They are composed of business, govern- 
mental, and educational leaders. 

The Region Five group will serve as a pilot project for other 
regional groups throughout the State, and one of its purposes will 
be the formation of local citizens groups. The Region Five 
Council is headed by Roger M. Jones of Winston-Salem, director 
of educational relations for Western Electric. 

Statewide Safety Program 

A Statewide school safety program is in the works, according 
to John C. Noe, driver and safety education consultant with the 
Department of Public Instruction. The program is being de- 
veloped by the New Hanover School system through use of its 
closed circuit television facilities and a 520,000 grant from the 
N.C. Association of Insurance Agents, Inc. 

Under the agreement of the grant, finalized last fall with the 
Department of Public Instruction, the New Hanover system is 
developing local school safety materials and procedures for use 
this year. Materials and procedures suitable for Statewide use are 
also being developed. They will be available during the 1970-71 
school year and beyond, according to Noe. 

The New Hanover system's $120,000 television studio facility 
and production staff are cooperating with teaching personnel in 
development of the new procedures and materials. The system is 
one of two in the State that owns and operates an institutional 
television station. Robert Keiber, a Learning Institute of N.C. 
intern working in the system, is unit-wide coordinator of the 
project. Claude McAllister, director of television, is general 

The new safety program, according to Keiber, has been in the 
preparation stage for more than two years. Teachers in each of 
the county's 30 schools were appointed as safety coordinators. 

The coordinators will compile lists of suitable safety activities 
for school use in teaching these areas along with summaries of the 
safety status of each school program. The summaries will be 
compiled into a unit-wide study. Ways of appropriately teaching 
safety on a Statewide basis will be developed from the informa- 
tion. Teaching aids such as films, tapes, and other audiovisual 
materials will be developed for reproduction and distribution 
throughout the State during 1970-71. At present there are no 
uniform safety teaching methods in Statewide use, said Noe. 


Student Teachers Are 

Team Members 

in Craven County 

Dr. Lois Staton, education professor at East Carolina University, consults with teachers and student 
teachers (right) regularly for planning and evaluation. 

Working within the team situation, student teachers are put to work immediately with small groups 
and individual students. Team leaders can use their extra staff — the student teachers — to plan 
additional grouping or individual instruction sessions. 

Student teaching is at best a nerve- 
racking experience. After hours of 
formal classwork devoted to methods 
and content, the student teacher is 
finally faced with the real thing — 
children — eager or, in some cases, 
bored and expecting something. 

Student teaching arrangements vary 
according to the college or university 
doing the training as well as the school 
system accepting the student teachers. 
But in most cases the student teacher 
is assigned to one supervising teacher 
and to one classroom. Usually, he 
observes for weeks before actually 
taking over the class. 

In Craven County the approach is 
different. Some of the student teach- 
ers there, 13 from East Carolina Uni- 
versity, jumped right in and were 
supervising small groups, if not actual- 
ly teaching, on their very first day. 
Their chance came from a unique 
ESEA Title III program, aimed pri- 
marily at in-service education for the 
elementary teaching staff in Craven 
County. In several of the county's 
elementary schools, team teaching has 
been initiated and visitation centers set 
up for the other teachers in the system 
to watch. Each participating school 
and its team or teams have worked out 
their own format, so that the demon- 
strations in each of the visitation 
centers is different. In some the team- 
ing is strictly limited to specific grade 
levels. In others, multi-age groups of 
children are taught some skills and 
then regrouped differently for other 
activities. Some teams are small, some 
large, some have aides, some do with- 
out. In one school, the walls can be 
folded back to open a large space for 
large groups. In others permanent 
walls make large groups almost impos- 
sible. In-service training, summer class- 
es, visitation to other schools, and 
micro-teaching techniques are all a 
part of the program to benefit teachers 
in Craven County. The student teach- 
ers from East Carolina University are 
just one part of the total program. But 
they're being used for all they're 
worth, and they're learning from the 

The student teachers came to Cra- 
ven County in December for 11 weeks 
of training. They were split among the 
four visitation centers and assigned to 

the various teams. They find them- 
selves working with several teachers, 
and sometimes with more than one 

Their activities vary with each 
team. "I was teaching reading the first 
week," said one girl, by now a veteran. 
In her team the entire first grade is 
grouped together with all the teachers 
working as a team. "Having a student 
teacher gives us one more team mem- 
ber, so that we can have one more 
grouping of children," said her super- 
vising teacher. The student teacher 
came into the team along with a small 
group of children who'd had no pre- 
vious reading experience. She was put 
to work immediately with that group 
for part of the day. 

Since most of the schools involved 
are traditional, the teachers have had 
to work out unique arrangements for 
physically grouping their students. 
One teacher uses the hallway outside 
her room for small groups; it's out- 
fitted with a strip of carpet, easels, and 
small chairs. 

According to Dr. Lois Staton, edu- 
cation professor at East Carolina Uni- 
versity, the basic idea is to have the 
student teachers work first with indi- 
vidual students, then small groups, 
and finally a whole class. The team- 
ing and grouping in Craven County 
make the arrangement possible. 

The curriculum in reading has been 
divided into 17 levels for the elemen- 
tary grades and 1 8 levels for math. The 
levels are correlated with State- 
adopted textbooks as well as with skill 
descriptions. Continuous progress 
takes place within each grade, and in 
some instances, children can be moved 
to multi-age groups for skill develop- 
ment activities. Student teachers can 
see first-hand how continuous progress 
actually works, and the teacher prepar- 
ation necessary to make it work. 

Student teachers find out how 
they're doing by watching themselves 
on video tape. The equipment is used 
in all the visitation centers for micro- 
teaching. The method, according to 
Mrs. Bertha Grubb, director of the 
project is invaluable in helping a 
teacher improve certain teaching skills. 
A teaching segment is filmed and then 
reviewed and evaluated. Then a teach- 
er teaches a short unit, perhaps five 

minutes, and reviews that film. Later 
she'll teach the same unit to another 
group, and review the new film for 

When Dr. Staton visits her student 
teachers, the comments are those 
you'd expect with any student teach- 
ing situation: 'Is her voice loud 
enough? Has she stopped saying 
'O.K.'?" And the answers are quite 
positive, she feels. Dr. Staton has been 
involved in the overall project; she 
taught an in-service course in language 
arts for the Craven County teachers. 

All the student teachers agree that 
the feet-first approach to student 
teaching is a quick cure to the new 
teacher's stage fright. Most said that 
they might have been a bit scared the 
first day or so, but by jumping right in 
with small groups, or overseeing large 
individual study groups by themselves, 
they skipped the process of getting 
really "uptight." 

Many of them, however, mentioned 
problems with discipline. "But they 
think they're having problems when 
really they're doing fine," said Mrs. 
Grubb. "They have to learn, you 
know, that children do move. They 
wiggle. It's perfectly natural," she 
laughed. Many of the student teachers 
were quite surprised to find that many 
of their students were totally bored by 
activities they found quite fascinating. 
"I never knew what lengths I'd have to 
go to to make it interesting to them," 
said one student teacher busy prepar- 
ing an easel of briqht visuals. 

One problem that all the student 
teachers had was housing. Most found 
apartments hard to find in Craven 
County. "And people were dubious 
about renting to single girls," said one 
student. Financially, student teaching 
itself can be a burden. Housing and 
food cost more off campus, and for 
students with on-campus jobs, the 
period without added income is a 
hardship. Supervising teachers helped 
with the problems, but Mrs. Grubb feels 
that perhaps more emphasis could be 
placed on such help. In any case, 
working out problems of this kind 
gives the student teachers a taste of 
the situations that will face them. 

By working with the teams, the 
student teachers are learning to plan 

and teach together, and they're learn- 
ing the differences between teachers, 
their methods, personalities, and ob- 
jectives. They've also found many 
visitors watching them — and not just 
their supervisors from East Carolina 

When asked if the student teachers 
will be able to find jobs in team 
teaching situations after graduation, 
Mrs. Grubb admits that the chances 
are iffy. "But, of course, we hope 
they'll come back to Craven County, 
where the teaming will continue," she 

Sam Hill, coordinator of student 
teaching for the State Department of 
Public Instruction, feels that student 
teaching in a team situation is ideal. 
"It's easier for them to go from a team 
to a self-contained classroom than the 
other way around," he said. 

Hill is convinced that the Craven 
County situation proves that student 
teachers can be a great asset to school 
systems. "I've heard many teachers say 
that student teachers are a burden and 
a responsibility. But I think they can 
be a great benefit to the classroom 
teacher. They can be used in a great 
variety of ways," he said. In Craven 
County it works. The student teacher 
is part of a differentiated staff — a 
team. He's flanked on one side by 
aides and on the other by teachers in 
various stages of in-service training. 

"Perhaps in the past too much 
concern has been placed on getting a 
student teacher ready to teach — 
turning out a finished product. This is 
a mistake. Most teachers are just begin- 
ning to learn to teach when they're 
employed full-time. And this learning 
process generally continues for some 
years," said Hill. 

"With teaming there can be many 
possibilities for the student teacher to 
learn: team planning, team teaching, 
team diagnosing, team prescribing, and 
team evaluating. The possibilities are 
endless," he said. And perhaps most 
important, in Craven County the stu- 
dent teacher sees the full-fledged 
teacher involved in in-service activities 
— taking an exam in the next room 
maybe, while the student teacher takes 
over the class. The student teacher 
finds that, for teachers, being a stu- 
dent never ends. 



The 42-member Task Force on En- 
vironmental and Natural Resources, 
authorized by legislation approved by 
the 1969 General Assembly, held its 
first meeting in January. Formed for 
the purpose of studying environmental 
education, State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction Craig Phillips, called 
the group and their work "one of our 
most important endeavors." 

Environmental education, he ex- 
plained, is education dealing with the 
relationship between man and his bio- 
physical environment and is aimed at 
producing a citizenry which is aware 
of environmental interrelationships 
and processes; understands how to 
solve environmental problems that 
arise; and is motivated to work toward 
their solutions. 

The Task Force was charged with 
the responsibility of studying educa- 
tion in the area, examining programs 
already in existence, and making speci- 
fic recommendations regarding present 
and future needs in the field of en- 
vironmental education. The Task 
Force was split into committees which 
will study the efforts of other agen- 
cies, curriculum, teacher education, 
and will write position papers. 

Chairman of the Task Force, Repre- 
sentative Norwood E. Bryan, Jr. of 
Fayetteville, who introduced the legis- 
lation responsible for the formation of 
the group, noted that environmental 
studies "concern the far future as well 
as the all-too-close moment of tomor- 
row. Our purpose in its broadest sense, 
is to do what we can to assure a future 

for our children and for those genera- 
tions yet to come. 

"If we have failed to emphasize 
within our public school curriculum, 
within an explicitly ecological context, 
the interrelationship between man — 
particularly technological man — and 
his environment, we have deprived our 
children of an essential focus which is 
the unique basis for their understand- 
ing of the critical events of our times." 

Speaking of the abundant natural 
resources in North Carolina, Rep. 
Bryan said, "Lying within our bounda- 
ries are great forests to conserve, broad 
estuaries to save, rich topsoil to till 
and magnificent mountains to view. 
By a fortunate circumstance, it has 
been given to us to make a judgment 
to conserve, while others are being 
forced to make efforts to restore." 

Excerpts of rulings irom me ouue 
Attorney General's office are pre- 
sented here as an information service. 
Complete copies of the rulings may be 
obtained by writing Division of Public 
Information and Publications, State 
Department of Public Instruction, 
Education Building, Raleigh 27602. 

Public Schools; Compulsory Attend- 
ance Law; Compulsory Attendance of 
a Married Child Under the Age of 
Sixteen Years, December 16, 1969. 

" . . .article 20 of Chapter 115 of 
the General Statutes of North Caro- 
lina, referred to as the Compulsory 
Attendance Law, is directed to the 
liability of the parent or guardian 
'having charge or control of a child 
between the age of seven and sixteen 

■ "The marriage of an infant, assum- 
ing the validity of the marriage, eman- 
cipates the child from the parents. The 
parents cannot, therefore, be liable for 
a child over which they have no 
control. For purposes of school at- 
tendance, the married child under the 
age of sixteen years is treated as an 
adult and may not be required to 
attend school nor are the married 
child's parents liable under the Com- 
pulsory Attendance Law if the married 
child under the age of sixteen years 

ifenenil rules 

crioobcs noi iu diiciiu sciiuui. 

Public Schools; Teachers' Contracts 
Designating Particular School Where 
Teacher Shall Teach Under "Special 
Conditions" of Contract; G.S. 
115-142; Relocation of Teacher to a 
School Within the School System 
Other Than That Specified in the 
Contract in Order to Comply With 
Federal Court Order Requiring Total 
and Complete Integration of Faculty 
and Pupils, December 16, 1969. 

"... contracts for professional ser- 
vices between the Durham County 
Board of Education (Board) and indi- 
vidual teachers were entered into 
designating the particular school in 
which the teachers would be em- 
ployed. Subsequent to the making of 
these contracts, the United States 
Court of Appeals for the Fourth Cir- 
cuit on 2 December 1969 in THOMP- 
SON, et als, v. DURHAM COUNTY 
No. 13,583, held that the Board must 
totally integrate all facilities, including 
faculty and student body, before 31 
December 1969. In order to comply 
with the mandate of the Fourth Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals, some teachers, 
whose contracts specify the name of 
the school to which they would be 
assigned, must be reassigned to 

di mil ict 

school within the system 
operated by the Board. Such reassign- 
ments would not constitute a breach 
of contract on the part of the Board. 

"A contractual duty to make com- 
pensation is discharged, in the absence 
of circumstances showing contributing 
fault on the part of the Board, where 
performance is subsequently prevented 
or prohibited by judicial order. KUHL 
WAYNE COUNTY, 155 Neb. 357, 51 
NW 2d 746; 6 Corbin on Contracts, 
Sec. 1346. The prevention of perform- 
ance of a contract by judicial order or 
decree may be properly held to be a 
valid defense in an action for breach of 
contract if it was not caused by the 
Board's negligence and if no other 
means of avoiding such interference 
with performance are readily avail- 
able. . . . 

"In order to comply with the 
Fourth Circuit's decree, we are advised 
that the Board must make teacher 
assignments to schools within the 
school system administered by the 
Board which are different from the 
school designated in the employment 
contract. Since no other reasonable 
alternative is available to the Board, 
such reassignments would not consti- 
tute a breach of contract on the part 
of the Board." 






Volume 34 / Number 7 / March 1970 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director of Public lnformation:Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is required 
for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public Schools, Division 
of Public Information and Publications, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 



"Thin Skin of Life" by Pat Bowers. Two articles in this issue are concerned 
with ecology. "Salt Marsh Safaris" begins on page 9 and "The Environ- 
ment: Resources or Necessities?" is on page 12. 

Renewing Certificates 3 

Gobbledygook 4 

Volunteers Lend a Hand 6 

Salt Marsh Safaris 8 

News Briefs 11 

The Environment: Resources or Necessities? 12 

On-the-Job Training for Girls Entering the Business World 14 

State Board of Education Actions 16 

I to iii tlie 

State Superintendent 

Back in February at Atlantic City, I asked more than 300 of 
North Carolina's schoolmen to become more positive about our 
public educational system - to take the offensive rather than 
being on the defensive all the time. 

Those of us who attended the 102nd annual convention of the 
American Association of School Administrators came away more 
encouraged than we were when we arrived in the snow to join 
some 30,000 other professionals from all over the nation. 

It was exciting to see the tools and materials presented by 
more than 700 firms in 1,464 booth spaces. The panels and 
seminars covered every phase of education from "What Happened 
to the Blue Back Speller" to "Education in the Space Age." The 
best part was talking with colleagues from every state, exchanging 
ideas, suggesting ways to solve problems, and getting to know 
each other a little better. 

A highlight of the entire convention was the address of 
Malcolm T. Stamper, vice-president-manager, Everett Branch 
Commercial Airplane Division, The Boeing Co., Seattle, Washing- 
ton. He pointed out that the Boeing 747 was built by 50,000 
people. These 50,000 were taught on the average by 30 teachers 
during their life, so multiplying the 50,000 by 30 you get a total 
of 1,500,000 teachers who helped "build" the Boeing 747. 

Mr. Stamper closed his excellent speech with these words: 
"How good is our educational system? As probably the least 
qualified person here tonight to answer that question, let me say 
that if you read the agenda of seminars for coming week in your 
program, you would have to assume that the system is fraught 
with problems — militancy, low pay scale, availability of 
teachers, discipline, financial difficulty, inner-school problems, 
integration, and on and on. 

"But if you look at the output of that educational system — 
the new opera — the artificial kidney — the walk on the moon — 
the great book — and yes, the 747, because it is yours just as 
much as it is mine — then you are inevitably drawn to the 
conclusion that however deficient it might be, it is still the best in 
the world." 

So, we do have problems. So, we in public education join with 
leaders of business, industry, finance, medicine, and all the others 
to continue working hard at the daily task of developing our 
educational system to be the best possible. 

As for me, I am taking the offensive! What about you? 


How long is an initial certificate valid? 

A certificate is valid for five years from the date of qualification. 
The validity period begins July 1 of the year of qualification and 
terminates June 30 five years later. 

When must a certificate be renewed? 

A certificate must be renewed within the five-year renewal period 
preceding June 30 of the year of expiration. However, credit 
earned not later than September 1 of that year will be acceptable. 

What is required for the renewal of a certificate or rating? 

Renewal credit must be appropriate to the certificate field and/or 
teaching responsibilities of the person involved and applies to all 
certificates and ratings. The first and subsequent renewals, 
including reinstatement of certificates, must be through six units 
(or semester hours) from any combination of the following: 

Teaching Experience (2 or more years within the 

renewal period) 2 units only 

Approved In-service Program (courses, 

workshops, etc.) maximum of 4 units 

Approved Travel 2 units only 

Appropriate College Credit not limited 

What type of credit is appropriate for renewal purposes? 

The credit must be appropriate for the teacher involved. (For 
example, a high school mathematics teacher could not use credit 
for a workshop in language arts for elementary teachers for 
renewal purposes). 

Can credit earned after September 1 of the year of expiration of 
the certificate be used toward renewal for that particular year? 

No. Credit must be earned by September 1 of a given year in 
order to be applicable for renewal or reinstatement purposes for 
that particular school year. Credit earned after September 1 of a 
given year will not affect renewal or reinstatement until the next 
school year. 

May credit earned in excess of the required six semester hours or 
units be used later? 

No. Excess credit may not be carried over into the next renewal 

May graduate college or university credit used toward qualifying 
for a Graduate Certificate also be used to renew a Class A 

Yes. Graduate credit used toward qualifying for a Graduate 
Certificate may be used to renew the Class A Certificate. 

When adding a subject to a certificate already held, what is the 
validity period of the new field? 

The new field dates for five years from the last six semester hours 
of credit needed to add the new subject, (e.g., if a teacher earned 
four semester hours in 1966 and 2 in 1968, the new field would 
date for five years from 1966). 

How is the expired certificate dated when reinstated? 

The certificate is dated from the last six semester hours or units 
of credit or from the oldest portion of the six hours or units 
required to reinstate, (e.g., six semester hours or units completed 
in 1968 would renew until 1973 or two hours completed in 1967 
and four hours in 1968 would result in the certificate dating from 
1967 and expiring in 1972). 

How much credit may be recognized for renewal purposes? 

Two units may be earned through approved travel and not more 
than four units may be earned through approved in-service 
programs (courses, workshops, etc.) during a renewal period. 

How are approved in-service programs (workshops, courses, etc.) 
and approved travel recognized? 

In-service credits and travel are recognized in terms of units by 
the State Certification Office toward certificate renewals. A unit 
of such credit is equivalent to a college semester hour. 

Should a teacher participate in more than one in-service ex- 
perience at any particular time while employed during the regular 
school year? 

No. A teacher may not participate in more than one program at a 
given time during the school year (this applies to both college and 
unit credit programs). 

Are Life Certificates required to be renewed? 

No. Life Certificates do not require renewal. 

Are scores on the National Teacher Examinations required in 
connection with the renewal of a certificate? 

No. Renewing a certificate does 
National Teacher Examinations. 

not require scores on the 

May correspondence and extension credit be used for renewal 

Yes. Correspondence and extension credit offered through an 
approved institution may be accepted for renewal purposes 
provided the credit is appropriate for the certificate involved. 

May credit earned toward qualifying for an additional certificate 
area at the same level of certification already held be used to 
renew the old certificate field? 

Yes. Credit needed to qualify for an additional field may be used 
for renewal purposes, (e.g., a teacher holding an English Cer- 
tificate and adding social studies may use American history to 
renew the English certificate). 

For additional information contact Dr. J. P. Freeman, Direc- 
tor, Division of Teacher Education and Certification, State 
Department of Public Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, 
N.C. 27602. 

Gaps have been around for years. In 
the early sixties the country worried 
about the missile gap. Concern later 
centered around the arms gap. Then 
came the credibility gap, and lately it's 
been the generation gap. 

At least educators have been con- 
sistent. They've stuck to the communi- 
cation gap — through curd and pauci- 
ty. And that's a pretty fair example of 
one angle of the gap: gobbledygook — 
using a diamond-studded word when a 
gold-filled one would do. 

It isn't enough for education to 
talk about its trials and triumphs. 
The words must be understood. And 
sadly, gobbledygook sometimes besets 
the profession to the point that what's 
said is total gibberish to the public. We 
suspect, in fact, that most educators' 
gobbledygook is a heavy diet for other 
educators, too. 

Opening warfare on gobbledygook, 
we offer a preventive English lesson 
with examples and translations of the 
worst gobbledygook plus an Educa- 
tional Jargon Dictionary written by 
Dave Si f ton, managing editor of Inside 
Education, published by the New 
York State Education Department. 

the first new 

highly abridged dictionary 

of educational jargon 

All you non-educators out there 
have often complained that educa- 
tional speeches and books put you to 
sleep. You describe our way of talking 
with terms like "pompous," "sopo- 
rific" and "elliptical." This, we feel, is 
a rather harsh and unfeeling position 
to take. 

It is true that our mode of expres- 
sion is characterized by euphemisms, 
double-negatives, redundancy, amor- 
phous generalities, unnecessary quali- 
fication, use of complex phrases to 
express simple ideas, and endless re- 
petition of catchwords, such as "in- 
novative." Nevertheless, you may rest 
assured that our words are very often 
supposed to mean something. 

To help you puzzle out what we are 
trying to say, we have translated a few 
of our more mystifying usages into 
English. They are intended as a sort of 
Rosetta stone — something to give 
you the drift of how we think. Once 
you get the feeling of it, you may even 
be able to talk as we do. 

Before going any further, however, 
there is one crucial rule to remember. 
Never use an unqualified noun. A 
plain, unadorned noun shows a defi- 
nite lack of perception, a failure to 
comprehend the complexities that lurk 
within the simplest of ideas. If you 
can't think of a good qualification, 
you can always use the word "effec- 
tive," as in "the need for an effective 

and nutritious school lunch program." 
The soreheads among you may carp at 
this, saying that nobody wants an 
///effective and (///nutritious lunch pro- 
gram; but pay them no heed. The 
secret of good educational writing lies 
in the ability to say the obvious in the 
most obscure way possible. 

To act out physically — To 
assault. Taken literally these 
three words, in succession, mean 
nothing. (Can one "act out" 
mentally? If one can "act out," 
can one "act in?" Act what?) It 
is this fact, however, that makes 
the phrase so useful. It assures a 
professional educator that only 
another professional can under- 
stand what he's talking about. 

Creative new program — An 
educational method which is 
somewhat different from an- 
other educational method. 

Designated — Named. 

To develop and implement 
educational policies — To decide 
on a policy and carry it out. This 
phrase is a favorite among us 
educators because it is ponder- 
ous and overworked. 

Diagnostic in-take, work-up, 
documenting and evaluation of 
the variables that are operative — 
Finding the cause. 

Direct and indirect guidance 
— Guidance. This phrase in- 
corporates a masterful qualifica- 
tion. If guidance is not direct, 
then it must be indirect. Thus 
there are only two possible 
qualifications. If you are speak- 
ing about both kinds of guid- 
ance, there is no need to qualify. 
But this phrase saves the day by 
naming both anyway. 

Disadvantaged — Poor. 

Dissemination — Spreading 
the word. 

Group interaction — Socializ- 
ing. This is a nice general phrase 
that is equally applicable to a tea 
party, a feel-in at Esalen Insti- 
tute, or an outright orgy. It is 
very stimulating, because the 
reader has to guess what it 

Human relations — This 
phrase is even more stimulating 
than "group interaction," be- 
cause even the writer has to 
guess what it means. If you are 
reading an educational pamphlet 
or newsletter and run across 
"human relations," you can be 
sure you are dealing with a 

Nondisadvantaged — Well off. 
Another educational triumph, 
this word is a self-contained 

To more effectively meet the 
educational needs of the child- 

ren — To teach better. 

Unique — This is one of our 
favorite words. Used rigorously, 
it means that something is abso- 
lutely singular, that there is 
nothing like it anywhere. The 
chances of this ever happening in 
education are remote; but we 
confuse the issue by using this 
word at every opportunity. 

Utilize — Use. These words 
mean exactly the same thing, 
but "utilize" is harder to read, 
and therefore preferred. A de- 
lightful variation is to employ 
"utilization" for the noun 
"use." This tour-de-force makes 
five syllables do the work of 


Although there are certain genetic 
differences in intellectual capacity, 
there is strong evidence that environ- 
mental factors and intelligence stimu- 
lation can influence to a marked de- 
gree measured intelligence in perform- 
ance in school. 

It's their home life that trips 'em 

The concept of regionality, under 
which the territorial coverage of each 
program was of major importance, has 
been de-emphasized. 

It's not where you live. It's where 
you 're at! 

The preprimary interval should sharply 
reduce the problems of widely varied 
experience and social adjustment en- 
countered by children who are arbi- 
trarily enrolled in grade one at age six 
regardless of their previous cultural 

Kids who go to kindergarten are 
ahead of the game. 

Cross fertilization is the sequent of 
heterogeneous grouping. 

We hope not. 

The differentiate function, hence, the 
paramount goal, of the . . . school is to 
intervene protectively in the process of 
education . . . mediate between the 
human condition at the onset of 
adolescence and the pressures of cul- 
ture . . . continue . . . with a curricu- 
lum applied in a psychosocial environ- 
ment .... 

No wonder the kids drop out! 

Not too long ago parents didn't see 
much of their children's schools. They 
came, perhaps, to visit little Johnny's 
room once a year, attend a PTA 
program, or discuss grades. Times, 
however, have changed. These days it's 
hard to find a school that hasn't got 
parents involved in some aspect of the 
operation. Parents are transporting the 
kids, tutoring them, making up their 
faces for plays, making up the bulletin 
boards, typing in the office, planting 
shrubbery in the school yards, and 
baking cookies in the kitchens. 

Some parents, of course, have al- 
ways been deeply involved. But lately, 
more and more parents and civic 
groups have discovered schools as a 
place to volunteer. Additional leisure 
time may account for much of the 
new manpower. Increased emphasis on 
education in the news media accounts 
for much of the interest. But despite 
the reasons, the parents are turning 
out. And it's up to school administra- 
tors and teachers to give them some- 
thing relevant to do. In some cases, 
civic groups or parents have appeared 
at the schoolhouse door asking to be 
put to work. 

It happened that way in Whiteville 
last year. One day several parents were 
discussing the subject of "our schools," 
and before they knew it, the gathering 
grew to 25 or more and a discussion of 
education in the broader sense. From 
the casual meeting came an answer to 
the parents' question: "What could 
they contribute to their schools for 
their children and for education in the 
broader sense?" 

The group approached C. W. Dig- 
gins, superintendent of Whiteville 
Schools, and several principals with 
their request. They didn't expect to 

change things overnight or at all. They 
simply wanted to assist, in twos or 
threes or fours, and under the guid- 
ance of school leaders. "We wanted to 
be a part of something better for our 
children," said one man. 

"Citizens for Better Public 
Schools," the volunteer organization, 
applied for a charter as a nonprofit 
corporation and was in business — in a 
very small way. Requests for service, 
they felt, should come from all sides — 
parents, teachers, students, and ad- 
ministrators. And all their actions 
would be cleared with the superin- 
tendent. One man furnished the ferti- 
lizer for grassing the Edgewood School 
grounds, two others built a picket 
fence around some mobile classrooms, 
another helped put up a basketball 
goal. Others applied for a street light 
in front of their school, some painted 
garbage cans, replaced broken win- 
dows in the high school gymnasium, 
and two men put up a flag pole in 
front of another school. 

The doors were opened and more 
parents and interested citizens became 
involved donating everything from 
money, time, and ideas to strong 
backs. Some even wore blue "Support 
Your Public Schools" patches designed 
and paid for by themselves to repre- 
sent their convictions. 

As the chairman said: "We want the 
movement to be contagious. But it's 
not a hobby. We're not going to tackle 
something we can't complete. 

"Our objective is to do what we can 
to make our schools a better place for 
our children to learn and thereby to 
become useful citizens," he said. 
Somebody, of course, had to help 
them decide what needed to be done 
and what was involved in the doing. 

In some instances, volunteers in the 
public schools must be trained to 
complete their self-appointed tasks. 
An example was the effort involving 
the twenty adult volunteer school bus 
drivers who saw to it that seventh 
graders in Charlotte attended young 
people's concerts last year. 

The work was sponsored by the 
Women's Association of the Charlotte 
Symphony and allowed some 40 stu- 
dent bus drivers to stay in their classes 
while seventh graders were transported 
to the concert. To accomplish the 
volunteer driving stint, each woman or 
man had to spend 18 to 24 hours in 
preparatory training under the direc- 
tion of the school system's transporta- 
tion director, Donald W. Baucom. 

The volunteers learned a lot about 
school bus driving while they were at 
it. One day, while practicing, the 
group drove up to a hamburger stand 
in their school bus and ordered lunch. 
"And would you believe," said one 
woman, "that we had to stand up on 
the bumper, raise the hood, check the 
oil and water, and then check all the 

lugs on the wheels before we could get 
in the bus to drive?" she laughed. 

Everyone - except the student 
drivers confined to their classes — 
thought the results were worth the 
effort. Especially the seventh graders 
who might otherwise have missed 
"Peter and the Wolf" and many other 
concert selections. The program has 
expanded this year to include grades 
4-10; band, drama, and chorus pro- 
grams; and over 100 volunteers. 

Tutoring is one of the most effec- 
tive forms of school volunteer service. 
In a few schools the efforts are highly 
organized and directed toward under- 
privileged children who might other- 
wise lag behind their peers. Students 
themselves, in some cases, are doing 
the volunteering. In Asheville, students 
from St. Genevieve-of-the-Pines and 
UNC— Asheville have been tutoring de- 
prived children for several years. 

PEACE, the name of the St. Gene- 
vieve's project, stands for Project for 
Educational and Cultural Enrichment. 
It was begun in 1964 by Sister Helen 
McCarthy who believed that high 
school girls could be a real help in 
giving instructional aid to disadvan- 
taged children. 

Now in its fifth year, the program 
involves several hundred children from 
Livingston Street School in the third 
through sixth grades. Children from 
the school visit St. Genevieve's where 
students in grades 9 through 12 
tutor them under the guidance of 
senior students and the teaching sis- 
ters. The afternoon sessions also in- 
clude a recreation and play period. 
This year students from Christ School 
and Mars Hill College have joined the 
effort and meet each afternoon at St. 
Genevieve's to assist with the tutoring. 

The principal of Livingston Street 
School, Arthur Edington, feels that 
the project has definitely increased 
learning levels in the elementary 
school. And the older students are 
gaining teacher experience as they 
learn about social problems first-hand. 
The student teachers are given an 
orientation course each year; and 
when they tackle the tutoring, they 
give help in art, music, science, and 

In many instances the volunteering 
is a singular effort with one volunteer 
offering skills or knowledge not ordi- 
narily available to the school system. 
Language instruction from native 
Frenchmen is found in some fortunate 
schools. Twice a week at Hope Valley 
School in Durham, fifth and sixth 
graders rise and greet their volunteer 
French teacher, Mrs. Charles Neal, 
with an exuberant "Bon jour, ma- 

Mrs. Neal, the wife of a pediatrician 
and the mother of four children, has 
been voluntarily coaching academical- 
ly talented students at Hope Valley in 

Parisian French, for the past four 
years, two days a week at the school. 
From the moment Mrs. Neal steps into 
the classroom, no English is spoken. 
The sounds may be strange at first, but 
since they are the only means of 
communication, meaning gradually 
accompanies them and the students 
begin to speak as well as to under- 
stand. Students begin conversation in 
the fourth grade and continue learning 
from spoken and visual presentation of 
the language until the sixth grade 
when they are introduced to literature, 
grammar, and the written language. 

Mrs. Neal says she enjoys seeing the 
students react eagerly to learning 
French. She'd like to see a "patron 
program" whereby other people with- 
in the community might give a little of 
their talents to enrich the school sys- 

In one of the newest volunteer 
efforts, mothers in the Newton- 
Conover School System have declared 
war on would-be child molesters. The 
"Mothers Block Watch," a network of 
mothers who live in the perimeters of 
the schools observe the children twice 
daily as they go to or return from 
school. The effort is being organized 
and by the Parent Teacher Association 
Council with the full cooperation of 
the Newton-Conover police. 

In addition to protecting the child- 
ren against abductions, accidents, 
fights, trouble with animals, or being 
lost, the mothers have placed signs in 
their front windows that read "Block 
Watch" and can be seen from the 
street. Children are shown copies of 
the signs at school, and if they are in 
any kind of trouble, they know they 
can get help wherever they see the 
signs. The doorbell won't go un- 
answered because someone in that 
house has volunteered her time. Child- 
ren aren't the only ones benefiting 
from the volunteer effort — adults in 
need of help during the block watch 
hours can also call on the volunteering 
mothers for help. 

Whether the volunteer efforts are 
on the part of parents, students, or 
civic groups; whether the volunteers 
tutor, act as teacher aides, fertilize the 
lawns or paint the fences, the efforts 
are giving the kids and the volunteers a 
boost. They represent a partial answer 
to the personnel shortage facing our 
schools and best of all — they're free. 

MM b •«*,£«» 

Will Hon, director of the Marine Science Project in Carteret 
County, tells a story about grunions that explains the motivation 
behind his salt marsh safaris. It seems that he and a neighbor were 
once discussing grunions, their amazing habits, their biological 
clocks, etc. "We talked for hours before I realized that he had 
visions of fish wearing Mickey Mouse watches," he said. 

The neighbor's misconceptions, along with those of just about 
every school child in Carteret County, have been corrected 
through a public school marine science project which began about 
four years ago. The birth of such a project in Carteret County was 
no fluke. The community houses the State's largest commercial 
fishing fleet, a large sport fishing fleet, a deepwater seaport, six 
marine research laboratories, a major Coast Guard station; Cape 
Lookout National Seashore; a State park and a wildlife refuge; 
miles of beach resorts; the office of the State's fisheries division; 
processing plants for seafood, fish meal and oil; a history of sea 
adventure including Edward Teach, alias Blackbeard; and a 
population thoroughly attuned to the sea for their livelihoods and 
their recreation. 

"Cram all of this into a county of only 30,000 residents and 
you have a truly sea-oriented society," says Hon. Carteret County 
is in the middle of the North Carolina coast and includes the 
spearhead of land known as Cape Lookout just south of Cape 
Hatteras. Cape Hatteras, according to Hon, is an unusually clear 
breaking point in the north-south distribution of plants and 
animals and a natural place for the study of them. Beaufort and 
Morehead City are protected by the necklace of barrier beaches 
which stand between them and the ocean; and shallow sounds 
behind these "banks," as they are called, have always yielded 
richly to fishermen. They now display their riches to classes of 
eager young explorers who are part of the Marine Science Project 
and the related salt marsh safaris. 

Basically, according to Hon, the project is an examination of 
the region's attitude toward the sea. And the sea, in Carteret, 
embraces the community physically, culturally, and economical- 
ly. "The approach," says Hon, "is through the public schools. 
The target has been grades four through twelve, building from 
gentle coaxing at the lower level to a tough, elective, college prep 
program for upperclassmen in the high schools." 

The project's message, he says, is ecology. And the chief tool is 
the field trip. "The classroom has not been deserted, but every 
classroom presentation implies a coming field experience, and 
each page of written material is treated as a temporary stand-in 
for reality," he said. To a degree perhaps unique, the students in 
Carteret are out in the field doing what other students are usually 
accustomed only to talking about. 

The original project — funded through an ESEA Title III 
planning grant in 1966 — called for a major facility to serve as a 
nucleus for instruction, exhibits, laboratory work, library refer- 
ence, research, and dissemination of literature. Plans for the 
building, however, failed to materialize until this year, and halted 
construction caused the Marine Science Project to search for ways 
to teach without facilities or much equipment. 

But even without a building, the Marine Science Project has 
managed to become a center for curriculum development, 
research on field trip techniques, in-service training, a summer 
science school, and a marine science library and audiovisual 
center. In addition, publications have been issued and the regional 
coordination of marine science education begun. 

In the area of curriculum development the Project added two 
new courses to Carteret's high schools in 1967-68 and has refined 
and continued them each year since then. In both of the county's 
high schools a full-year college preparatory course in marine 

ecology is taught with emphasis on the philosophy and method- 
ology of science using marine situations to demonstrate basic 
principles of ecology. Unusual aspects of the course, according to 
Hon, have been the number of field trips (about 15), student 
initiated weekend work, and research projects under the guidance 
of working biologists. (An advanced research oriented seminar 
course was added this year with about ten top students 

For students not planning to attend college, a special course 
called Coastal Affairs is taught by Hon. (His total staff numbers 
seven and includes curriculum specialists, field specialists, and 
secretarial staff.) Emphasis in the course lies in applying 
ecological knowledge to problems of managing coastal resources. 
"We examine man's role at the edge of the sea by teaching 
ecology through field trips and research and then considering the 
future through projection of trends and debate," said Hon. 

The student safari or field trip, of course, is the emphasis in 
both courses as well as in the instruction geared for younger 
students. Three-week teaching units have been prepared for 
grades four through ten to supplement existing science instruc- 
tion, and each unit is climaxed by a suitable field trip. 

Units for tenth grade biology classes include a comprehensive 
introduction to ecology as an approach to nature. Students get a 
survey of coastal communities, which, through photographs, 
diagrams, and words, analyzes the forces that shape natural 
communities by the sea. The connected field trip is a summary of 
the principles presented, using the salt marsh as the basic 
demonstration. Another tenth grade unit is designed to close the 
school year by pulling together and correlating the biological 
facts learned during the year with a field trip to upland habitats. 
Each biology class in Carteret County since the fall of 1968 has 
been taught these units. Marine Science Project staff members 
collaborate with the regular tenth grade teachers on teaching and 
field trips. 

The eighth grade unit, called "The Sea and its Boundaries," 
and the seventh grade unit, "Salt Marsh, Sound, and Sea Beach," 
explore areas implied by their titles with, of course, safaris to 
match. Sixth, fifth, and fourth grade units are prepared in the 
same sequence to consider the variation of life from beach to 
dune to marsh to mudflat as well as to explore the reasons for the 
spectrum of environments and their life forms. 

Materials for each unit include text, classroom exercises, 
additional notes for teachers, guides to films and reference 
materials, tests, and answer sheets. Supplementary materials have 
also been prepared, since, according to Hon, the need for such 
materials in the area of marine science is acute. "There are many 
reference books for background lectures on oceanology, but 
nothing to give school teachers and students a field approach to 
coastal ecology in this region," he said. 

Bibliographies on available literature were compiled during the 
planning stages of the project, and films and science volumes were 
installed in a reference and circulating library. To that collection 
the staff of the Project added their personal volumes. Unfor- 
tunately, the entire collection burned in the fall of 1968 along 
with the classrooms housing the Project. After the mishap the 
Project was housed in the Radiobiological Lab of the U.S. Bureau 
of Commercial Fishers, and a new film and materials library is 
slowly growing. The Project is publishing materials that Hon feels 
will be of widespread interest and broad application. Among 
them are "The Major Coastal Communities of North Carolina," 
and its companion piece, checklist of species found in tidewater 
Carolina, called "Coastal Carolina, Our Role at the Edge of the 
Sea" (available later this year) and "The Field Experience: A 

a,,:.. i;-i.:-" 

3?e i 

Why, A How." A complete list of publications is available from 
Will Hon, Marine Science Project Director, Drawer 29, Beaufort, 

Field trips or safaris, of course, are the basic tool of the 
Carteret project. Staff member Larry Yeater and his assistant 
head the field trip section; their basic equipment includes a large 
truck with storage compartments serving as a mobile laboratory, a 
36-seat bus for student transportation, and a twin-engined 
pontoon boat for short movements of students. For trawling, 
dredging, and long-distance ferrying of students they rent local 
boats. The project also has minimal quantities of scuba gear, nets, 
collecting apparatus, preservatives, field test kits, and glassware. 

The philosophy of the field trip, according to Hon, is to set up 
what he calls "discovery type situations." A typical approach is 
to take a class, in field clothes, to a marine community and settle 
in an advantageous spot. "The leader guides them in looking at 
the area in new ways and in asking pertinent questions. When 
several good questions have been formulated, groups are assigned 
to explore them," said Hon. Students then spend an hour or more 
collecting, measuring, and arguing among themselves about what 
they are seeing and experiencing. When the class reconvenes, each 
group presents its problem and its discoveries and then defends its 
explanation of the situation observed. 

More sophisticated trips are developed for the high school 
classes. A dozen or more students may be taken on an overnight 
trip to the Outer Banks to spend a full day in guided research. 
Students also explore local technical libraries, research labora- 
tories, the port terminal, marine industrial facilities, and ship- 
building yards. One of the most successful field experiences, 
according to Hon, has been a local working trip to plant 
dune-stabilizing grasses, coupled with a ferry trip to Ocracoke 
Island to see massive federal projects of the same type. 

And the ultimate safari for older students is a yearly junket to 
Florida for the better students in the marine ecology courses. 
Yeater takes several boys by car on a trip as far as the Florida 
Keys. In a carefully-selected series of stops the boys examine 
various beaches, visit Marineland and Silver Springs, and see the 
Everglades and the Keys. Last spring the idea was extended to 
tenth graders who took a six -day Easter vacation tour with Yeater 
and a tenth grade biology teacher. 

Another special project was begun last year when students in 
the two marine ecology classes scanned a short unit for second 
graders. They served as trip leaders and teachers on a field trip to 
a tidal mud flat. 

In-service training is another important part of the diverse 
project. "No place exists in the eastern Carolinas," according to 

Hon, "for teachers to study marine science and field trip 
techniques in combination." In-service training began in the 
spring of 1968 when eighty elementary teachers received stipends 
to attend sessions for certificate credit. Later that spring all of 
Carteret's secondary teachers were brought together for basic 
instruction for the teachers. In-service training has continued to 
grow since then with the out-of-county groups attending and 
Project staff members assisting with the adaptation of materials 
and field trips for other areas. Last summer the project staff 
organized six weeks of intensive training in marine life, ecology, 
and geology. Some 300 teachers have attended sessions to date. 

Another outgrowth of the Project is a summer program for 
children. It grew from a summer science school that had been 
organized for the children of local marine biologists. In 1968 the 
Project adopted the summer school, confining the subject matter 
to marine science and enlarging its scope. Hundreds of students 
have been enrolled and scholarships have been offered to the 
disadvantaged. The summer classes, featuring short lectures, 
demonstrations, and movies, are taught several days a week at 
schools in Morehead City and Beaufort and are followed up with 
a daily field trip. 

Plans originally included a Sea Lab Center to house the 
Project, and construction on such a facility, to be built in 
Morehead City, will begin this year. The Center, funded by a 
combination of federal and State funds, will serve primarily as a 
research extension facility for N.C. State University. Space, 
however, will be reserved for the use of teachers, students, and 
other persons connected with the Marine Science Project. And 
Hon hopes to draw more out-of-county student groups to the 
facility. "The approach," he said, "will be interpretive." A group, 
for example, might come from Raleigh, meet with biologists at 
the Sea Lab for exhibits, demonstrations, or movies — or even a 
multimedia approach incorporating all three. Then, after a field 
trip, the group would reconvene at the Sea Lab with specimens to 
observe and study. Some type of summarizing activity would 

Summarizing, as far as marine science goes is, at best, difficult. 
Enthusiasm, however, is natural. "I find it easy to be enthusiastic 
about my work because everyone here is in love with the sea," 
said Hon. It may be because the sea offers constant changes, 
challenges, and a multiplicity reflected in the many different 
aspects of Hon's project. "It's easy," he said, "to maintain a sense 
of wonder around the sea." 

See the next issue of North Carolina Public Schools for an article 
on oceanography courses in New Hanover County Schools. 



New Graduate Program Offered 

■BWS «$ 

Television Programs Suggested 

Eleven network television programs of outstanding educational 
value have been selected for student viewing this spring by the 
Teachers Guides to Television and the Television Information 
Office. Each semester several programs are selected by an 
advisory panel of distinguished educators for inclusion in "Teach- 
ers Guides to Television." 

The spring issue will also include special guides to news 
broadcasts, a bibliography prepared by the American Library 
Association, and a related film list prepared by the Department of 
Audio Visual Instruction, Indiana University. An advance sche- 
dule which lists other programs of outstanding educational value 
for the entire semester and a calendar-poster for classroom 
bulletin boards are also included in the spring issue. 

"Teachers Guides to Television" may be ordered at $2 per 
semester or $3 for a full school year, plus 25 cents handling 
charge per magazine for orders of 1 or less, from Teachers Guides 
to Television, P.O. Box 564, Lenox Hill Station, New York, 
N.Y. 10021. 

Programs listed this semester include: 

"The Incredible Diving Machines" (ABC) 

"Winnie the Pooh" (NBC) 

"The Saga of the Iron Horse" (ABC) 

"David Copperfield" (NBC) 

"Horton Hears a Who" (CBS) 

"It Couldn't be Done" (NBC) 

"This Land is Mine" (ABC) 

"Holland Against the Sea" (CBS) 

"CBS Reports: America's Health" (CBS) 

"The Unseen World" (ABC) 
"The Wilderness Road" (NBC) 

Advanced Studies Program 

March 10 

March 12 

March 15 

March 15 

March 19 

April 2 

April 6 

April 8 

April 20, 


May 3 

May 23 

The Demonstration and Research Center for Early Education 
(DARCEE), a unit of the John F. Kennedy Research Center on 
Education and Human Development at Peabody College, is 
offering an advanced studies program in the area of early 
childhood education. The major aim of DARCEE is to discover 
and implement ways of improving the educability of young 
children, primarily those under six, from low income homes. The 
program is funded through the Office of Economic Opportunity 
and the Office of Education. 

DARCEE awards fellowships to graduate students at all levels. 
Students in education, usually with a major in early education, 
may earn the Master of Arts, Education Specialists, or the Doctor 
of Education Degree. Those in Psychology can earn the Master of 
Arts and the Doctor of Philosophy Degrees in clinical, educa- 
tional, developmental, or school psychology. Students may 
prepare to be regular classroom teachers, lead or demonstration 
teachers, supervisors, program directors, college instructors, or 

Fellowships at DARCEE provide full tuition, a stipend of up 
to $2,500.00 the first year and a small dependency allowance. 
For information and application, write Christopher R. Barbrack, 
DARCEE - Box 151, George Peabody College, Nashville, 
Tennessee 37203. 

The Harvard Graduate School of Education is offering a new 
doctoral program entitled "Education and Social Policy." The 
program, according to Theodore R. Sizer of the Harvard 
University Graduate School of Education, will train planners, 
analysts, and researchers for a wide variety of educational settings 
- from the Office of Education and State legislatures to school 
districts. "We want to attract students with an active interest in 
change, and a desire to sharpen their analytic skills," said Sizer. 

The coursework will focus on major policy issues in American 
education and will, according to Sizer, involve three years. 
Coursework will center around three areas: politics, sociology, 
and quantitative data analysis. Training will also include an 
internship. The program will be closely related to the Harvard 
Center for Educational Policy Research and the Harvard Center 
for Law and Education. 

Further information about the new program may be obtained 
from John J. McGarraghy, Assistant to the Dean, Graduate 
School of Education, Harvard University, 114 Longfellow Hall, 
Appian Way, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138. 

Pupil Personnel Services Director Warned 

Thelma Cumbo Lennon, former NDEA Title V Supervisor, has 
been appointed director of the Division of Pupil Personnel 
Services for the State Department of Public Instruction. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Jerome Melton, assistant superintendent for program 
services, new responsibilities of the Division will include all phases 
of student activities, including guidance, school health, attend- 
ance, and psychological services. 

Mrs. Lennon is a graduate of N.C. Central University and 
received the Ed. M. degree from Boston University. She has also 
been a graduate student at Harvard University. Before joining the 
Department of Public Instruction in 1962 as a guidance coun- 
selor, Mrs. Lennon served as an instructor at St. Augustine's 
College and later as Dean of Students at Allen University in 
Columbia, S.C. 

June Gilliard Visits Russia 

The National Council for the Social Studies in cooperation 
with the United States Office of Education selected Miss June 
Gilliard, social studies consultant with the State Department of 
Public Instruction, as one of three educators to visit the U.S.S.R. 
during January and February. The purposes of the visit were the 
exchange of educational experiences and continuation of the 
cultural exchange program between the United States and the 

In addition to Miss Gilliard, the delegation included a 
classroom teacher from Minnesota, Dr. John Jarolimek, presi- 
dent-elect of the National Council for the Social Studies and a 
professor at the University of Washington in Seattle. While in 
Russia the delegation observed Soviet educational institutions and 
programs. They will submit reports to the U.S. Office of 
Education and the National Council on Social Studies, giving a 
comparative analysis of the Soviet and American approaches to 
the social studies with regard to objectives, methods, materials, 
and evaluation procedures. 


"My One-Room School" by Kate Fleming Brumitt in the 
January issue of North Carolina Public Schools was reprinted by 
permission from the Fall 1969 issue of the Alumni News, a 
publication of the Alumni Association of UNC-Greensboro. A 
note to this effect was inadvertantly omitted at the end of the 




The little boy walked to the front 
of the crowded court room and spoke 
into a microphone at least a foot taller 
than he was. "The world has been here 
for billions of years. But if we don't 
do something about it, it won't be 
here much longer," he said. 

The child had waited for hours to 
go on record at a public hearing on 
environmental and natural resources 
education. His remarks were made 
after many adults had spoken. Some 
were cool and full of answers. Others 
became emotional and demanding. 
The boy, however, spoke for everyone. 

The hearing was one of six called as 
a result of the Environment and Na- 
tural Resources Act of the 1969 Gen- 
eral Assembly. The legislation reflects 
growing state, nation, and world con- 
cern for the quality of man's environ- 
ment. And while that concern is wide- 
spread, it is not manifested in compre- 
hensive and cooperative programs of 
action designed to control and pro- 
mote the wise use of our natural 
resources. The bill, which was intro- 
duced by Representative Norwood E. 
Bryan, Jr., of Fayetteville is an at- 
tempt to produce that action. It di- 
rects the State Board of Education and 
the State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction to study the extent of the 
need for, and formulate proposals re- 
lating to, educational programs dealing 
with the relationship of man and his 
biophysical environment. 

The act further directs the study to 
include an examination of the status 
of the existing curriculum in this area, 
textbooks available, courses being 
taught elsewhere, available curriculum 
guides and instructional materials, and 
the need for in-service training for 

A 42-member Task Force on En- 
vironment and Natural Resources was 
named to conduct the study. They 
met in Raleigh early in January to 
formulate plans, break into sub- 
committees, etc. Representative Bryan 
is chairman of the Task Force. Dr. 
Edwin West, science consultant for the 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, will direct the study. Task Force 
members represent a broad area: State 
government, federal agencies, institu- 
tions of higher learning, business and 
industry, and other institutions such as 
farm, civic, and service clubs, as well as 
various commissions and committees. 

To insure the widest possible public 
participation in establishing new direc- 
tions in environment education, the 
Act also directed that the State Board 
of Education hold public hearings on 
the subject. And the public did partici- 
pate. Educators, businessmen, repre- 
sentatives of industry, housewives, and 
a people who identified themselves as 
"just citizens" turned out. And they 
all expressed concern. 

"I'm here today because my life 
patterns are threatened . . . even per- 

haps my life," said Roy Davis, an 
Asheville engineer. 

"The super-rich are the super- 
pollutors," said Dr. Herbert Hecken- 
bleickner of UNC— Charlotte. He said 
that Americans abandon nine million 
cars, trucks, and buses each year. 
"Education," he said "is the only 
long-range way to do much about this 

"The environment is already de- 
graded," said Dr. Maurice Camp, head 
of the Mecklenburg County Health 
Department. And Roy Alexander, a 
teacher at Independence High School 
in Charlotte said that we must move 
away from a "cowboy economy" in 
which society simply moves on to 
greener pastures when the surroundings 
are befouled. "It just won't work in a 
closed system like the planet earth," 
he said. 

"And we cannot hope to achieve 
environmental awareness by simply 
inserting another course into the curri- 
culum," he said. Alexander told the 
Task Force members of a program at 
Independence High School in which 
science and social studies courses have 
incorporated environmental studies in- 
to their curriculum. A specific inde- 
pendent study course in environmental 
conservation is being offered this 
spring, and a club, which serves as an 
auxiliary to the school's outdoor 
laboratory, enables students to take 
camping trips to see natural resources 


first hand. For two summers another 
group has taken bus trips across the 
country to study regions in terms of 
ecology, history, economics, and other 
subjects. An environmental conserva- 
tion conference, to be held at Inde- 
pendence High School this spring, is 
being planned. According to Alex- 
ander, delegates from high schools and 
colleges in both North and South 
Carolina will attend. 

Steve Longnecker, an instructor at 
Asheville Country Day School, said 
that the only disagreement among 
speakers was at what grade level to 
start teaching environmental conserva- 
tion and appreciation. "But how early 
can you start?" he asked. Some ex- 
pressed concern that the curriculum is 
already heavy. 

Another teacher from Asheville said 
that it isn't necessary to leave anything 
out of the curriculum in order to add 
environmental education. "It can be 
dovetailed with the existing curri- 
culum," she said. Others felt that an 
interdisciplinary approach was abso- 
lutely necessary to teach children the 
economic and historical implications 
of environmental control or apprecia- 

Mrs. Marjorie P. Lockwood, a 
teacher at A. C. Reynolds High School 
in Asheville, agreed to the interdis- 
ciplinary approach. "I do not see how 
anyone can teach literature or art, for 
example, without a sensitivity to na- 

ture and all living things," she said. 

Many agreed that a classroom, fact- 
filled approach is not the answer. Dr. 
Jim Clay of UIMC-Charlotte said that 
the "interest of the child is sometimes 
killed by study in a vacuum." 
And science, he said, is often studied 
in, a vacuum with the result that the 
student is left with little bits of in- 
formation and no appreciation for the 
subject. Interrelationships, he said, are 
the most important aspect. "I'm not 
sure how to get it across. But I am sure 
that it doesn't begin and end with 
class." Many felt that environmental 
studies should range from K-12, and 
many felt it should be field or action 

Lynn Cagle of the Cabarrus County 
Schools told the Task Force members 
in the Charlotte hearing of a Title III 
project held last summer for high 
school students on the subject of earth 
and space science. "We'd finally given 
them something that was relevant," he 

"I've given up on the adults," he 
said, adding that "it's high time we put 
our money on the kids. If you could 
see the anger of the kids last summer 
seeing what we'd done to the environ- 
ment, then you'd understand," he 

The development of good in-service 
and pre-service programs and the need 
for curriculum materials on environ- 
mental education were stressed by 

many. "Few colleges offer a course in 
this," said Dr. Harry Johnston of the 
Department of Ecology at UNC- 
Asheville. "We do not have the in- 
formation that we need now. We need 
to get it in the hands of the teachers," 
said Culver Dale, superintendent of 
McDowell County Schools. 

The opinions expressed at the pub- 
lic hearings were varied, but comments 
on and concern for the environment 
were similar. Frank Bell of Mondamin 
Camp in Tuxedo said, "Perhaps man 
has strayed too far from his origins to 
ever return to them." He said that 
many children think that milk comes 
from bottles, music from boxes, etc. 
"We need to relate to our natural 
ecology," he said. 

"To do this we need to appreciate 
it." Education, Bell said, is a con- 
tinuing process in which the individual 
builds the experiences, knowledges, 
skills, and habits that enrich living. 
What, he asked, is more important 
than air, earth, and water? "They are 
necessities, not resources. They are 
prerequisites to life and we have neg- 
lected and abused them too long." 

Opinions and suggestions aired at 
the hearings will be used by the Task 
Force in compiling their findings and 
formulating their proposals. When 
completed, the proposals will be sub- 
mitted to the Governor and to the 
1971 General Assembly. 



On-the-job Training 

For Girls Entering the Business World 

Telephone conversations are a big part of a receptionist's job. Theresa 
Beaty is able to learn on-the-job through COO training. 

Less than 40 percent of the thou- 
sands of students graduating from high 
school in North Carolina each year go 
to college. For the rest, job hunting 
follows their commencement exer- 
cises. And as anyone who's pounded 
the pavement and searched the classi- 
fieds knows, experience is the best 
recommendation for any job. 

Cooperative education programs — 
combining on-the-job training with 
classroom instruction — are not new- 
comers to North Carolina's high 
schools. Such programs — also called 
distributive education or industrial 
cooperative training — have been oper- 
ating for the last 30 years. Most of 
these programs, however, have been 
aimed at male students: mechanical, 
industrial, trades, and agricultural 
training. Opportunities for girls have 
been limited. But as their presence in 
the labor force has grown, more and 
more cooperative education programs 
have been planned for girls. Offerings 
now include office occupations, cos- 
metology, food services, and health 
education — to name a few. 

Office education courses, however, 
are in the greatest demand since most 
of the girls going to work right after 
high school seek positions in the busi- 
ness world. For these girls, Coopera- 
tive Office Occupations (COO) pro- 
gram — combining work and class 
instruction — can help them get the 
job they want. According to Miss D. 
Macil Via, occupational education con- 
sultant with the State Department of 
Public Instruction, there are approxi- 
mately 50 State and federally sup- 
ported programs in North Carolina 
offering business education along with 
actual work experience. An additional 
95 programs offer "in-school" work 
experience with students employed as 
part-time clerical workers by their 
school systems. 

Three high schools in Gaston Coun- 
ty offer a Cooperative Office Occupa- 
tions program supported by State and 
federal funds that is much like the 
others across the State. The Gaston 
County program is designed to give 
senior students real "on-the-job" train- 
ing classroom experience, and a few 
extras thrown in by instructors such as 
Mrs. Gerald Cortner, coordinator of 
the COO program at South Point High 
School in Belmont. Mrs. Cortner has 
33 students enrolled this year, the 
third for the Belmont program. 

During the morning students take 
classes required for graduation along 
with a business skills course taught in a 
two-hour block. And when they are 
ready, the girls head for afternoon jobs 
with various companies in the com- 

The two-hour business skills course 
is taught by Mrs. Cortner, and when 
she says business skills, Mrs. Cortner 

means more than the usual office 
knowledge. "I try to give the girls 
some idea of what to expect when 
they walk out the doors of the high 
school and enter the business world," 
she said. During the course students 
receive instruction in the operation of 
many different business machines: the 
10-key adding machine, the full key 
adding maching, printing calculators, 
rotary calculators, duplicating 

machines, and dictating equipment. 
They also reinforce shorthand, typing, 
or bookkeeping skills learned earlier. 
"But the girls also get other types of 
training that will help them to be 
better secretaries," she said. 

Mrs. Cortner tries to "polish" her 
students by introducing them to the 
sideline aspects of secretarial work. 
The "extras" approach, she calls it, 
and she said it is possible with the 
cooperative program and the two-hour 
block of time for instruction. The 
most "polish" and fun comes, perhaps, 
when various beauticians visit to lec- 
ture on the importance of neat hair 
styling and grooming. Telephone re- 
presentatives are also invited to the 
classes to discuss correct telephone 
etiquette and the proper use of a 
telephone in a business office. Other 
speakers and guests have represented 
the post office and discussed mailing 
procedures and postal services. Bank- 
ers and personnel managers from local 
businesses and industries have also 
come. In addition, Mrs. Cortner plans 
field trips to businesses and other 
points of interest, some of which 
would not ordinarily be considered 
essential to secretarial training. 

"Since a secretary should be well 
rhannered and knowledgeable in many 
areas, I feel it is to her advantage, for 
example, to know what to do if she 
were ever assigned to take a customer 
out for lunch or to go with her boss on 
a luncheon meeting and take notes 
during the meeting," she said. To 
teach the girls, Mrs. Cortner takes her 
classes to a nice restaurant where they 
learn about menues, prices, and de- 

The students also travel to a nearby 
IBM school where they learn as much 
as possible in a short period of time 
about computers and their benefits. 
"We also like to have a few of our 
graduates come back and talk with us 
about their experiences in the business 
world," said Mrs. Cortner, who em- 
phasized the variety of learning ex- 
periences needed to become a good 

A student enrolled in the Coopera- 
tive Office Occupation Program can 
emphasize stenographic skills or cleri- 
cal skills during the two-hour block. 
When a field trip or other extra isn't 
planned during the two-hour block, 
Mrs. Cortner assigns problems that 

require the students to use most of the 
office machines in the class. Until the 
student is ready for on-the-job train- 
ing, Mrs. Cortner remains on hand 
during the afternoons to give further 

When the students are ready for 
actual work experience, they seek em- 
ployment with a firm approved by the 
program coordinator. When the girls 
go for their interviews, they're on their 
own. "I send two or three girls to an 
employer, let each of them fill out the 
application, and have the interview. 
This lets them learn what it's like to 
compete for a job as well as the proper 
way to apply for one," she said. 

"Of course, I talk with them before 
they go and tell them that they may 
not get the job after all," she said. 
"They take it well because they know 
they're still learning." Learning to take 
the employment tests and talking with 
employers, she feels, is one of the 
most important aspects of the experi- 

The girls then follow a flexible 
program developed by the coordinator 
and the employer. "Of course, the 
students get paid for their work and 
this helps motivate them, as well as 
allowing them to share some expenses 
with their parents," she said. 

By the first of the year, Mrs. 
Cortner has most of her students 
placed in jobs. By the end of the year 
the students — all of whom are seniors 
— are well prepared for the outside 
world. When their commencement 
speakers challenge them to "go out 
and conquer the world," they're 
ready. In fact, by June many of them 
have already found permanent jobs. 
Good ones, too. 


Television Course for 
Kindergarten and First Grade 

At the February meeting of the 
State Board of Education, an agree- 
ment with the National Instructional 
Television Center was approved for the 
purpose of securing the rights to a 
Telecourse being produced by the Cen- 
ter. The course consists of a series of 
36 fifteen- minute television lessons in 
color and at least one half-hour, in- 
service orientation program. 

The Telecourse, designed for in- 
school use at kindergarten and first- 
grade levels, will be ready by August 
1 5, 1 970. The agreement granted the 
Board the rights to unlimited instruc- 
tional use of the Telecourse, the half- 
hour orientation program, and a 
manual prepared by the Center. The 
board has unlimited rights to these 
materials and to the revised materials 
that will be produced through 

As part of the agreement, the Na- 
tional Instructional Television Center 
will also produce a series of six thirty- 
minute, in-service education tapes re- 
lated to the utilization of the Tele- 

Prospective Teachers Scholarship 
Loan Fund 

For the first time since the Scholar- 
ship Loan Fund for Prospective Teach- 
ers was initiated by the General As- 
sembly in 1957, the State Board of 
Education wrote off several scholar- 
ship loan accounts as uncollectible. In 
line with recommendations from the 
Attorney General's Office, a total of 
$1,348.88 in principles and interests 
was declared uncollectible. That sum 
represented eight accounts. 

The Board also approved a policy 
recommended by the Attorney Gen- 
eral's Office that loans on which no 
payment has been made in the last 10 
years or uncollectible loans in the 
amount of less than $100 be written 

In-Service Training for Teachers of 
Gifted and Talented Students 

The Board approved an in-service 
training institute for teachers of gifted 
and talented students to be held at the 
Governor's School in Winston-Salem, 
June 22- July 31, 1970. The institute 
was made possible by a $31,000 grant 
from the Reynolds Foundation. 

Twenty-five North Carolina public 
school teachers, nominated by their 
superintendents, will be selected to 
attend. Those selected must be plan- 
ning to teach in grade seven or higher 
during the 1970-71 school year, must 
hold at least a Class A certificate, and 
must be scheduled to teach identified 
high-ability students full-time or part- 
time next year. 

The course will last six weeks, and 
selected teachers will work closely 
with the director of the Governor's 
School and four master teachers. They 
will receive $75 each week of the 

The purpose of the institute is to 
provide teachers with additional back- 
ground, methods, and basic experi- 
ences with talented students. Chair- 
man of the State Board Dallas Herring 
pointed out that this institute will help 
broaden the base of involvement and 
usefulness of the Governor's School. 

Additional Kindergarten Centers 

The State Board approved the addi- 
tion of one kindergarten early-child- 
hood education center for each of the 
State's eight educational districts. 
After superintendents have submitted 
letters of intent for the operation of a 
center and the sites have been visited, 
recommendations as to the location of 
each center will be made by the State 
Department of Public Instruction. 
Formal approval for the eight addi- 
tional centers will be made in April. 

One million dollars was appro- 
priated by the 1 969 General Assembly 
for the establishment of public kinder- 
gartens in the 1969-71 biennium. The 
first eight sites were selected in August 
1969, and the kindergartens began 
operation in December. 

65 / 

North Carolina State Library. 

m a 









north i 




Hlicablt^H ^y 

Hi 5) House Wt is renti 
H(6) House Wat is bein; 
■ (7) House lat is ownec 

1 CIhvI^^^^^ 

1 Place a check by any o 

1 orange (1) 

1 grapefruit (1) 

I tomato (1) 

H other green or yellow 

1 Place a check by the ai 

1 Hr Area of Homemakinj^H 

Hrcome (budgeting, buying, ^H 

■ s (planning work, selecting ■ 
Big time and energy effectiiH] 

HLly (meal planning, meal^H 



f4 44 
35 45 
Hi 46 

37 47 

38 48 1 

39 49 
^ 50 


Food ^^H Hr m ^w 
Clothin^H B^^ B ^| 

Medical coHV ^^^fc^B 

Home ImproH ^^H^^^^ 

Home ImproH| J^P^^B Bfe^hi 

t\:-i-^Hk ^HT ^^^B 

RecreatiojHJHk ^Hy ^^V 

Automobj^M Hk ^^HT ^fl 
Opei i^H] B^^HIBT .^fll 






Volume 34 / Number 8 / April 1970 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director of Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

From the 

State Superintendent 

Excerpts from Craig Phillips' NCEA Convention 
Address, March 20, 1970 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is required 
for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public Schools, Division 
of Public Information and Publications, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 



To Interest the Children, Salisbury's 

Supplementary Education Center 

by Jean Marl owe 

Ten Years Later, A Follow-Up Study of Tenth Graders 

More Than Sand and Water 

News Briefs 

Brush-In at Odell School 

Shakespeare 14 

State Board of Education Actions 16 

Attorney General Rules 16 






. . . Shakespeare gave some lines in Act II, Scene III, of MacBeth which 
dramatically describe the March 1970 atmosphere in which you and I are 
making, what I believe, is our greatest effort to give of our best to the 
school boys and girls of North Carolina. 

"The night was unruly: where we lay, our chimneys were blown down 
— and as they say — lamentings heard in the air, strange screams of death: 
and prophesying with accents terrible of dire combustion and confused 
events — new hatched to the woeful times, the obscure bird clamoured the 
livelong night — some say the earth was feverous and did shake." 

This night of Lennox certainly can be compared with our today — our 
unruly today in which old traditional educational chimneys which were 
once considered sturdy and solid, are being blown down by the winds of 
change — winds of change generated by strong committed young voices — 
the voices of our students in our classrooms — the voices which are asking, 
sometimes demanding, sometimes pleading, that we find and develop more 
relevance in our teaching — an unruly today where lamentings in the air by 
parents — citizens — taxpayers — governmental leaders — are saying to you 
and to me that we must find better means of clear understandable 
accountability for the use we make of the resources now available to us for 
the education of VA millions of North Carolina's young people before they 
provide more of these resources. . . . 

I think we know what to do. 


1. We just must say to the people of this state and their chosen 
decision makers: congressmen, legislators, commissioners, school board 
members, that we are more interested in children than we are in ourselves. 

2. We must say to the people of this state and their decision makers 
that we're ready, the 60,000 school people from Cherokee to Currituck, to 
go to work on a truly full-time basis — ten- and twelve-month career 
patterns for professional and non-professional personnel — that we're long 
overdue in abandoning the daily wage and the 185-day work period. 

3. We must say with great conviction to the people of this state and 
their chosen decision makers that we are willing to stand accountable for 
the wise and effective and creative use of resources made available to us 
and that, although most difficult to do, we'll find better ways to do this 
accounting — but we must also say to them collectively that they must 
take time to listen, and to look at what we have to tell them and show 
them — and that they then must find ways to dramatically increase 
resources through which you and I will have at least a fighting chance to do 
educationally for their children what most of them fondly, fervently, and 
prayerfully want us to do. 

4. We must say to them with no equivocation that we believe in an 
integrated — non-segregated unitary — non-dual school system for the state 
of North Carolina and the 152 school communities which operate local 
school systems. We can say this best collectively by getting on with the 
final merger of the NCEA and the NCTA into a new committed NCAE 
whose constitution is proposed to begin with a preamble which says this 
and whose full posture and every action must demonstrate to ail that 
segregation — dual education — is dead in North Carolina. 


1. Each member must take upon himself a new commitment to 
youngsters — a belief in their part in the process — their right and 
responsibility to a role in the educational decisions which so greatly affect 
their lives whether it be in the classroom or in an activity. 

2. Each member must become a real counselor to boys and girls. Have 
you ever thought about what might happen in a positive way if even 
20,000 of our secondary level people built a new personal ongoing 
relationship with 20 youngsters with whom you've never previously 
identified — 200,000 new personal, warm, helping, sharing relationships, 
with all kinds of youngsters — a new touch with a new impact. 

3. Each member individually must become a live image builder tor 
education with those in the community whom you know best. Your 
decision maker friends have confidence in you as an individual. Be sure 
that they know what ,/ou do, how you do it, what's good about it, where 
you come up short and what you need to get a better job done. But most 
of all tell him individually through what you say and do that you're more 
interested in his child than you are in yourself. 

This time, March 1 970, and all beyond although an unruly time — can be 
a good time for us all if we know what to do — I think we can do it better 
than anyone ever dreamed we could. 

"It's been so successful we couldn't 
get rid of it if we wanted to." 

Superintendent Harold Isenberg of 
the Salisbury City School System was 
talking about the Supplementary 
Education Center in Salisbury, which 
includes a planetarium, a 34-acre re- 
serve for nature study, and an art 

But the project ends its third and 
final year of operation under the 
ESEA Title III federal grant on July 
1 5 this year, and the community faces 
a decision. Is the project valuable 
enough to justify picking up the 
$75,000 tab for it? 

Isenberg thinks it is. "We are very 
hopeful — confident — that the project 
will be continued next year. It relates 
to our whole concept of public educa- 
tion: to interest the children in as wide 
a variety of educational experiences as 
possible," he said. "Any time a child is 
interested in coming to school he does 

The question of whether the pro- 
ject shall fold or flourish is not unique 
to Salisbury. Over the last four years 
ESEA Title III has spent close to $12 
million in North Carolina. Most of this 
money has gone into operational pro- 
jects, which can be funded a maximum 
of three years. After that, the money 
must come from some other sources. 

The job of finding these other 
sources is not an easy one. As one 
school official put it: "The citizens are 
very pleased with the project as long as 
it's paid for with federal money. But 
getting them to dig into their pockets 
to support it is a different matter." 

The Salisbury project serves all 
schools in Rowan and Davie County 
Systems as well as Salisbury City 
Schools. The project owns a bus which 
it uses to transport students to the 

In addition to the student pro- 
grams, the project has an extensive 
in-service program for teachers. Classes 
in astronomy, black history, ecology, 
air pollution control, and other areas 
have been conducted by the Center for 
teachers in the three systems. 

But local school and civic officials 
have made no financial commitment 
for the project's future, and what has 
been termed a "quiet campaign" has 
begun on behalf of the Center. The 
County Commissioners have appointed 
a committee to study the needs of the 

Bill Lyon, a local businessman, is 
chairman of the Center's Advisory 
Committee. A group of 40 representa- 
tives from various segments of the 
community, the committee has served 
the dual role of policy-making body 
and link with the general public since 
the school system received a planning 
grant for the project in 1966. 

"Getting the project into operation 



By Jean Marlowe/Editor, ESEA Title III 

*>*?*■ , •-*- 

Photographs, Salisbury Evening Post 



on the local level is going to be the big 
struggle," Lyon said. "Our hope is that 
eventually it can be handled through 
local funds, but we are going to have 
to phase it in over a period of time." 
Lyon thinks the "phase-in" money, 
which will provide additional time for 
the school systems to absorb the costs, 
can be obtained through private 

The Advisory Committee actually 
grew out of an older group which in 
1958 joined together to preserve the 
34 acres of woodland and marsh which 
has since become one of the school 
system's proudest assets. Lyon points 
out that $300 was raised at that time 
for lumber to build nature trails into 
the area. Students literally blazed the 
trails into the marsh and built the 
walkways which have since been used 
by thousands of students. 

Another $53,000 was raised locally 
in 1967 to provide additional space 
when the program first expanded. An 
old warehouse was renovated and now 
contains the natural history exhibits, 
the live domestic animals which the 
project has collected, the planetarium, 
and the project offices. 

One of the key people who will be 
leading the "quiet campaign" for 
funds is J. H. Knox. Superintendent of 
the Salisbury Schools until retiring last 
year, Knox was instrumental in getting 
the project funded and maintains a 
keen interest in it as a consultant. Like 
Lyon, Knox acknowledges that initial- 
ly some of the money will have to 
come from another source than the 
school budget. But he quickly points 
out he is looking for operational funds 
— money which will be required on a 
yearly basis to keep the project going. 
He is wary of using a one-shot public 
community fund-raising effort for this 
reason. Hence the "quiet campaign." 
As of late February the project had 
received definite commitments 
amounting to $5,500. The area served 
by the project includes, besides three 
school systems, two community col- 
leges — Livingston and Catawba, and 
Rowan Technical Institute. A third 
college, Pfeiffer, is close by and has 
used Center facilities. 

Catawba College has used the Cen- 
ter extensively. The two facilities share 
the Center's $56,000 planetarium and 
the College's observatory to provide a 
complete approach to astronomy. The 
Center and Catawba College both 
border on the reserve, and both use it 
for nature studies. 

One of the most obvious measures 
of community participation is the 
number of animals which have been 
given or permanently loaned to the 
Center. They include "Peter," a large 
white rabbit, and "Chipper," a squir- 
rel, and opossums, guinea pigs, a green 
snake, two king snakes, a hognose 


- _^ . ■ • - * r* 

v 40- * 

snake, and a boa constrictor. With the 
exception of the boa constrictor (who 
has been described as "very gentle"), 
the animals are loaned to individual 
classrooms for a week or more. 

Knox cites this aspect of the pro- 
gram as one of the most helpful parts 
for elementary teachers. It allows 
elementary students to become 
familiar with animals and develops in 
them a deeper appreciation of "the 
natural," he explained. 

"The science training which teach- 
ers get in college is most often orien- 
ted toward technological work — dis- 
sections, for example. This is just not 
what elementary teachers need or can 
use in their classes," he said. 

Knox sees the future direction of 
the project as moving towards environ- 
mental studies. "I'd like to expand the 
conservation aspect of the program," 
he said. "This is where our vast re- 
sources are." The Audubon Society 
recommended in 1958 that the marsh 
be preserved. 

Numerous groups in the area have 
expressed an interest in keeping the 
project going. A local garden club 
prepared a display for the Christmas 
season this year called "Christmas 
Trees Around the World." Student 
groups outside the school organization 
which have used the Center include 
the scouts and the YMCA. The Center 
is swamped each summer with requests 

from Bible Schools. The planetarium is 
also open every other Sunday to the 
general public. Attendance so far has 
reached over 75,000. 

Salisbury Post editor George Ray- 
nor said his initial reaction at seeing 
the amount of use of the Center by 
the community was "surprise." "We've 
been terribly pleased with it. We no 
longer have to go out of town to the 
larger museums, but can go to our own 
Center now," he said. "We've never 
had anything like this before." Raynor 
said the bus had probably been the 
most important factor in achieving 
such participation. 

Center activities are continually 
publicized widely by Project Director 
Mrs. Nancy Holshouser. During the 
month of December, 1969, records 
show the project was visited by 2,517 
students in the Salisbury City Schools, 
2,648 in Rowan County Schools, 985 
in Davie County Schools, and 203 
students in private schools. Total parti- 
cipation in the Sunday openings was 
695, for a grand total for the month of 
7,899 participants. ■ 



How prevalent is the practice of combining the roles of 
homemaker, wage earner, and mother? 

What homemaking tasks are considered most difficult by 
today's young woman? 

What homemaking problems are unique for the single 

To find the answers to these and similar questions, the home 
economics staff of the Department of Public Instruction initiated, 
in 1967, a comprehensive survey of young Tar Heel homemakers. 
"The survey," said Mrs. Ernestine Frazier, chief consultant of the 
Homemaking and Consumer Education Section," was needed to 
determine the needs and characteristics of young homemakers. 
The findings will, in turn, have implications for revising the home 
economics curriculum in both homemaking and related occupa- 
tional programs." 

A sampling plan consistent with good research techniques was 
developed to identify the population base to be used for the 
study, and an eight-page questionnaire was adapted to be mailed 
to selected young women who were enrolled in North Carolina 
public schools as tenth graders during the 1 957-58 school year. 

In July 1968 the questionnaires were mailed to 2,450 young 
women. Within two weeks one thousand had been returned, and 
within two months 1,807 women had replied. These women 
represented a systematic selection of five percent of the approxi- 
mately 40,000 tenth grade girls enrolled during 1957-58. They 
had attended schools in all sections of the State — rural, 
suburban, and urban areas. The schools they attended varied in 
size and ethnic composition. 

The research study will be published this summer and 
distributed to school administrators and home economics staff. 

The findings of the study are in five basic areas, as were the 
inquiries on the questionnaire: education, employment and 
occupation, family, homemaking, and homemaking practices. 


Almost 90 percent of the young women surveyed graduated 
from high school. Of those who graduated from high school, 
almost 60 percent continued their schooling for six months or 
more, and over 75 percent of those continuing their education 
completed their course of study or graduated. 

Of the 1,807 women surveyed, 1,405 were married. Some 
1,154 of these young women indicated they had not continued 
their formal education since marriage. For the majority, there- 
fore, their high school education was the primary source of 
preparation for marriage and employment. Most of them married 
by the age of 19 or 20. 

Over 87 percent of the women had been enrolled in home 
economics at some time during their high school years. The 
majority of them had taken home economics in either the ninth 
or tenth grade. Over five percent of the young women had 
enrolled in home economics in college — or about one in every 1 1 
who continued their education beyond high school. 

Employment and Occupation 

Almost all of the young women — 93 percent of the 1,807 — 
had been employed at some time since leaving high school. And 
over 90 percent of the married women reported that they had 
been employed since their marriage. At the time the survey was 
made, over half the young women were "currently" employed. 
And 85 percent of those "currently" employed were working 
full-time. Those "currently" employed held positions classified as 
sales and clerical (38 percent), professional (34 percent), bench- 
work (14 percent), or service occupations (8 percent). 

Most of the women, therefore, were performing or had 
performed dual roles as homemakers and wage earners. Their 
reasons for continuing employment after marriage were not 
secured, but according to the study, the fact of their employment 
raises many questions for educators. It is the conclusion of the 
study that preparation for handling multiple roles is needed. 
Almost 90 percent of the women said "Yes," to the question "Do 
you feel that young women today need preparation for employ- 
ment outside the home?" 

According to the report, "Educators no longer can debate the 
need for such educational preparation, but rather must focus on 
the extent to which they are providing training opportunities 
desired and needed by young women prior to their entrance into 
the labor force." 

About forty percent of the respondents said they were 
interested in training for employment that would prepare them 
for occupations requiring home economics knowledge and skills. 
The occupations selected most often were home decorator 
assistant and child care center worker. When these young women 
were enrolled in high school, no specific training opportunities 
were offered for these occupations. In fact, there were no 
occupational home economics programs in North Carolina high 
schools prior to 1964. 


Most of the young women in the study (86 percent) had 
married, but six percent of those had been separated, divorced or 
widowed. Slightly over 13 percent were unmarried. 

Half of the young women married by the age of 20; by the age 
of 23, over 75 percent were married. Of the 1,562 married 
women, 67 percent had children, and most of these women had 
become mothers between the ages of 19 and 21. Most of the 
young mothers had one child who was 1-3 years of age and one 
child 4-6 years old. 

Working mothers, surprisingly, reported few problems in 
making arrangements for the care of the children while at work. 
Most had arranged for the care of their pre-school children in 
their own home or at the home of the person providing care. 

As for income, about 10 percent of the young women's 
families earned less than $4,000 annually; another 10 percent had 
annual incomes over $12,000. The average annual family income, 
however, was $7,000 to $8,000. 

Almost one half of the respondents were living in homes which 
they owned or were buying; approximately 40 percent lived in 
rental property; and 8 percent were living with their relatives. 

The young women, the survey showed, were highly mobile. At 
the time the study was made, the women — all Tar Heels 
originally — were living in practically every State in the nation and 
in other countries as well. In a 10-year period, some had changed 
their residences as many as five times. The most common forms 
of mobility, were moves within the city (22 percent), county (25 
percent), or State (25 percent). 


Young married women ranked "managing money" as their 
greatest homemaking problem. Second was "combining the dual 
role of homemaker and wage-earner." Unmarried women ranked 
"assuming emotional and physical responsibility for a family 
member" as their greatest homemaking problem and "reaching 
decisions about marriage" as second. 

About 85 percent of the young women believed that they 
needed preparation for homemaking in addition to the prepara- 
tion received in their parental homes. The three areas they 
indicated as needing help with at present were "managing the 
income," "managing a home," and "housing the family." 

According to the study, recent curriculum revision and 
in-service education opportunities have attempted to provide help 
for students currently enrolled in home economics in many 
problems areas indicated by the study. The study notes, however, 
that "the decisions to be made by young women during their high 
school years might be less difficult if they become aware of 
possible consequences and some problems they may encounter, 
such as the relationship between being employed and having to 
provide housing, manage the housekeeping tasks, and provide care 
for a husband and perhaps a child or two by the age of 25." 

The report notes that since parental homes apparently 
provided little experience in making financial and housing 
decisions and that these two areas were ranked as most difficult, 
they should receive more emphasis in the home economics 
curriculum with stress on practical experiences. 

Homemaking Practices 

Responses in the areas of food consumption, buying practices, 
child care, and clothing construction were particularly interesting. 
By asking the young women to check foods served "yesterday" — 
hopefully a typical day — it was found that most of the women 
served a limited variety of foods with high levels of vitamins A 
and C. Milk consumption was found to be below the daily 
recommended amounts for about one-half of the children and 
parents represented. It was found, however, that most of the 
women selected less expensive foods when shopping for such 
items as margarine, cereal, canned vegetables, and meat. The 
response also showed that most young women used a variety of 
cooking methods. Few of their problems in homemaking were 
related to feeding the family. 

As far as money management practices went — one of their 
major problems — most of the young women said they used cash 
rather than credit for their purchases. The three items paid for by 
credit most often were automobiles, home furnishings and 
equipment, and major home improvements. Most of the women 
reported that they keep expense records and follow a regular plan 
for saving. Over half indicated that they maintained a financial 
reserve for emergencies, and approximately two-thirds indicated 
that the head of the family had invested in insurance plans. 

According to the study, the decisions made by young women 
in their use of credit deserves close examination, especially since 
they listed money management as their most difficult problem. 
But the report states that "considering the rise in the number of 
credit cards and credit institutions in our economy, the data 
probably reflects less frequent use of credit than the opportuni- 

ties which were available." 

Decision making on the use of money was most often shared 
between husband and wife. Only 3.3 percent of the respondents 
reported that husbands alone made money decisions. 

A majority of the young families seemed to share child rearing 
responsibilities also. Only 1 .9 percent of the respondents said that 
the father alone is responsible for discipline. The two occasions 
most young parents had planned to be together with their 
children were for meals and play. About two-thirds of the parents 
planned times to have fun with their children while less than 
one-half of them had planned times to read, talk, or do household 
chores as a family. 

When the young women felt a need for help with child rearing 
problems, 51 percent consulted family doctors and 36 percent 
sought advice from child development books. "This implies that 
the home economics curriculum might provide more experiences 
in selecting and evaluating some guides and resources which could 
help young parents reach decisions related to discipline and child 
development, since they frequently do not rely on their parents 
and neighbors for such help." 

The most common playthings available in homes with pre- 
schoolers were active-play toys. Most homes, however, did have 
varied materials for social and creative play available. The most 
common toys were push and pull toys, tricycles, trains and 
trucks, swings, dolls, guns, and story books. Creative materials 
such as crayons, paint and paper, blunt scissors, etc. were 
available in a smaller percentage of homes. 

Questions regarding the purchasing and construction of family 
clothing revealed that sixty-eight percent of the young women 
bought most of their family's clothes ready-made. The buying 
guides they found most useful were shopping for brand names or 
for articles similar to those that had previously given satisfaction. 

Only one-fourth of the women consistently sewed for their 
families, although an additional 27 percent said they sewed 
"sometimes." Of those who did sew, the majority made dresses 
for themselves, and about a third made clothing for their 
children. Shirts, it would seem, are seldom sewn by young 
women. Seventy-five percent of the women, however, reported 
that they mend family garments. Fewer women reported con- 
structing items for their home than for their families. Those who 
did sew for their homes most often made curtains or drapes. 

In conclusion, the study notes that certain areas of home 
economics are of more vital concern to young women than foods 
and clothing. They consistently reflected a need for help in 
improving management skills as consumers and housekeepers. The 
study, of course, has implications far beyond home economics. 
The young women surveyed represented the total female school 
population during 1957-58, not just those students enrolled in 
home economics. 

"The fact that almost all of them entered employment at some 
time and want to be prepared with salable skills implies that a 
variety of occupational education offerings are needed in each 
school," the report states. 

"Occupational training for young women commensurate with 
their interests and abilities seems appropriate for a comprehensive 
high school, an industrial education center, a technical institute, 
and a community college if the needs of the young women are to 
be served." 

Data collected in the study will be available for further 
analysis and use by persons interested in pursuing any questions 
raised or for initiating new projects. ■ 

Some people look at the beach and 
see nothing but sand and water. 
There's no telling what New Hanover 
County's oceanography students might 
see: plant or animal life, topographical 
features, weather conditions, a site for 
a dock, geological or chemical as- 
pects ... the possibilities are endless. 

The County's new oceanography 
program deals with varied aspects of 
oceanography ranging from boat oper- 
ation to biological research. Team 
teaching is used, and there's heavy 
emphasis on field experiences. The 
basic idea is something for everyone — 
the planning has been individualized 
from the start. 

The course is a three-hour elective 
block scheduled during the afternoon 
to allow for long field trips. Students 
receive three credits for the course but 
may not substitute it for required 

"The program was formulated with 
the intention of providing the students 
with an opportunity to do independ- 
ent study during the second semester 
of the year," explained Jerry Beaver, 
director of secondary instruction. He 
and Jim Gearhart, vocational director, 
head the project. 

"The first semester was planned to 
provide them with a broad coverage of 
the field of oceanography including 
the physical, biological, chemical, and 
geological aspects of the subject," 
Beaver said. "It was actually an at- 
tempt at an awareness of everything in 
the ocean and around it," said Gear- 
hart. The field trip, of course, was and 
is the jumping off place. Equipment 
for the program includes four 19' 
fiberglass outboard boats and docking 
facilities on Wrightsville Beach. 

"Environmental awareness is much 
in vogue these days. We feel, however, 
that only by moving from the class- 
room into the field can the student 
begin to understand how his environ- 
ment functions and how best to relate 
to it," said Beaver. 

To plan for such relationships, 
members of the teaching team were 
employed for a month and a half last 
summer to screen records and inter- 
view the 68 students who were to be 
enrolled. (More, of course, applied.) 
During that time the teachers planned 
individualized and group programs 
rather than "the course." 

The team itself is diversified with 
Carl Ward, a full-time vocational teach- 
er acting as coordinator. Other team 
members include a full-time New Han- 
over High teacher whose background 
includes chemistry, physics, and geo- 
logy; and two half-time teachers at 
New Hanover whose backgrounds are 
in biology, chemistry, and physics. 

The students, too, are diverse. The 
course was open to students planning 
to go to colleges and technical insti- 
tutes, as well as to the terminal high 

school student. "We also accepted 
students who were simply 'interested' 
and had no real career leanings in the 
field," said Gearhart. 

Through team planning and small 
groupings, students with backgrounds 
in advanced mathematics and science 
are engaging in in-depth studies and 
research projects which require back- 
ground knowledge and greater applica- 
tion of scientific principles. A few, for 
example, are studying the absorption 
of radioactive material in the Cape 
Fear River by plants and animals. All 
of the research projects, according to 
Beaver, are problem-solving. 

Students with technical plans and a 
background with no more than basic 
math and science are doing less sophis- 
ticated research with heavy emphasis 
on practical application. These stu- 
dents are involved in problems relating 
to the practical application of seaman- 
ship, navigation, instrumentation, boat 
and engine maintenance. Ward, the 
vocational teacher, works closely with 
these students on their individual pro- 
jects and also during field trips when 
these students actually operate the 
boats while others gather specimens or 
do research. 

Field trips and boat practice aren't 
confined to school days. Ward makes 
himself available on weekends, and he 
estimates that he's taken about three 
or four trips each weekend. "Of 
course, the students don't hesitate to 
call the other teachers during the 
weekend either," he said. 

The Wilmington area, according to 
Ward, is geographically perfect for a 
field oriented oceanography course. 
The Gulf Stream brings tropic waters 
and life into the area, while arctic 
waters pour in from the North. "We 
actually had haddock during one cold 
spell," he said. 

Weather conditions, of course, are 
a constant concern. Teachers must re- 
vamp their plans when the weather's 
bad and a field trip must be called off. 
"But the students," said Ward, "would 
go out any time. You have to call 
them on weekends if the weather's 
bad, or they'll show up at the dock 
even when the boats are covered with 

ice " 

Local interest has been high from 

the beginning, according to Beaver. 
"Students have asked their guidance 
counselors for such a course for 
years," he said. In addition, officials in 
local technical institutes and colleges 
expressed a desire for such a course to 
complement and assist them in pro- 
viding a developmental curriculum in 

Local industry is also behind the 
effort. Research staffs and facilities 
have been offered by several, including 
the U.S. Saline Water Research Sta- 
tion, International Nickel Company, 
the Marine Laboratory, Du Pont, Her- 

1 1 

. ^ 

— »- - 


^B^'v ■*^**w.~ * ,j- 

i©^ 4P 
l 1 


> 1 


are dropped 
vater visibility. 

in the water to Microscopic sea-life is collected in the plank- 

ton net; then it is dumped into test tubes for 
further study. 

Samples are taken to determine bottom 


cules, General Electric, and others. 
Many of the students are doing their 
individual projects at one of these 
facilities under the direction of their 

Gearhart noted that there has also 
been an immediate vocational need for 
such a course. But perhaps the most 
important aspect of the school sys- 
tem's rationale was the desire to pro- 
vide better science instruction. "Cur- 
rent educational thought indicates that 
science can be best taught by an 
interdisciplinary approach — relating 
the various science disciplines. "And 
it's been proven that students learn 
best when they are actively involved in 
the process," said Beaver. And in- 
volved they are. 

The idea for the second semester 
was to give the students a chance to 
put some of the theory and observa- 
tion of first semester to practical use. 
Practical "spin-offs" have already oc- 
curred. Students have collected speci- 
mens for other science classes to 
study. Another bonus will occur this 
spring when some of the students 
discuss their individual projects with 
younger pupils. Slides and materials on 
some projects will also be available to 

Tuesday and Thursday have been 
set aside for students to work on 
individual projects. While most are 
working in the field, others are in 
laboratories or libraries carrying out 
additional research. The students di- 
vide themselves into four groups based 
on the location of their work sites: the 
sound, marsh, beach, and the dock 
(where a group works on boats, nets, 
and at other vocationally oriented 
activities). A few others, as previously 
mentioned, are conducting their ex- 
periments at local industries. 

Students under Ward's supervision 
are working on various vocational pro- 
jects, such as highly sophisticated boat 
repair, boat building, net repair, train- 
ing as boat operators, and learning 
various fishing techniques. "All of the 
students, however, receive an overall 
background in boatmanship," said 
Ward. One boy, it was discovered, had 
never been in the water; he was taught 
to swim. All the students were taught 
water safety to begin with. Regular 
classwork continues along with the 
individual projects. 

Four of the students have been 
motivated to take scuba diving lessons 
on their own time, and they plan on 
doing some research underwater. 
"Again, on their own time," Gearhart 
is quick to point out. Some student 
projects, of course, have been vetoed 
— scuba diving on school time, for 
example. Another project that had to 
be modified was a study of sharks. 
Students wanted to study them in the 
sea. Instead, some young sharks and 

Classroom work includes dissection of the 
dog-fish and other sea animals found in the 

dog fish will be captured and studied 
in a tank. 

The oceanography laboratories are 
filled with student finds, including 
shells, corings, plants, and living crea- 
tures. One boy, hard at work at his mi- 
croscope, was searching a tiny bottle of 
plankton he'd brought in the week 
before. "I'm looking each day to see 
what dies off when," he announced 
proudly. "Only I guess it will never die 
off completely," he said. Other stu- 
dents might have hoped otherwise as 
the odor of his tiny bottle permeated 
the room. "Yes, we do get a lot of 
smells with this course," a teacher 

In one project the students are 
making plaster impressions of fish and 
doing fish printing. Others are making 
a food chain study — to see what eats 
what. And one student is studying the 
fiddler crab. He can be found digging 
on the coldest day. "They hibernate in 
the winter," he said. But he dug some 
up to make sure. 

Other projects include classification 
charts on marine life, mapping the 
topography, and microscopic analysis 
of corings they made themselves. First, 
however, the students had to make the 
equipment to get their corings. Efforts 
failed to devise a light plastic covering 
to go around their coring and inside 
the heavy pipe dropped to get it. But 
they're still working on it. 

"They take the course very serious- 
ly," said one teacher. "Some of them 
think they're Jacques Cousteau," he 
said. And the teacher himself sounded 
pretty involved when he told of spend- 
ing all weekend looking for specimens. 

Intense involvement has led to in- 
teraction of the individual projects 
with students helping one another 
when possible. Those who found 
shrimp eggs in their corings, for ex- 
ample, passed them on to others 
studying animal life. Brine shrimp 
eggs, they discovered, don't seem to 
need water and will last indefinitely. 
"Some found in the pyramids have 
been hatched," he said. 

Each classroom is equipped with a 
case of books covering all aspects of 
oceanography and in various levels. 
The most popular, it seems, is a text 
on dangerous sea animals, but other 
books look just as worn. Students also 
gain from class discussion of their 
projects. One boy, quite articulate, 
found himself at the mercy of his 
classmates when reporting on shells 
he'd collected and classified correctly 

— he hoped. In the ensuing discussion 

— better termed battle — his peers 
were quite willing and able to test his 
every thesis. They sent him scurrying 
through his shell book to prove that 
his rather strange-looking shell was 
really an Atlantic jingle. "Ah!" he 
said, finding his proof. "Whatdy'a 
know," he said, "there are even Pacific 
jingles. But I guess we don't have 'em 

"This is a growing, emerging pro- 
gram," said Beaver of the freedom and 
diversity in the classroom and in the 
field trips. And the team members feel 
it should stay that way. "I hope we 
never get to the point where we say 
'Follow page so and so on such and 
such a date'," a teacher said. 





District conferences will be held during April by the North 
Carolina Congress of Parents and Teachers. Staff members from 
the Department of Public Instruction will take part in the 
















Southern Pines 








Black Mountain 



I 3 
I 7 
I 8 
I 9 
I 14 
I 15 
I 16 
I 17 
I 22 
I 23 
I 28 
I 30 


Citizens in Burke County are learning about their school 
system's programs and aims through a series of radio broadcasts 
entitled "Projection 70." The series is being broadcast over the 
Burke County Broadcasting Company (WSVM Valdese). 

One object of the programming is to explain to the public the 
school system's merger. The units of Burke County, Glen Alpine 
City and Morganton City merged last fall. 

The broadcasts feature interviews of board members, promi- 
nent laymen and professionals, and other interested individuals. 
The tapes are being made available to other radio stations for 
their public affairs and educational programming, according to 
William R. Rollins, vice-president of The Surburban Radio Group 
of which WSVM is a member. 


Robert E. Youngblood, former supervisor of instruction for 
Washington City Schools, has been appointed as coordinator of 
the Migrant Program for the State Department of Public 

A native of Albemarle, Youngblood received his A.B. degree 
from Catawba College and his master's degree from East Carolina 
University. He has done additional graduate work at Duke 
University. Prior to joining the State Education agency, he served 
as an elementary teacher and as a principal in Durham. 

The Migrant Program provides educational and supporting 
services for children of migrant agricultural workers. 

Students are reading. According to the 1968-69 public school 
library statistics, compiled by the State Department of Public 
Instruction, almost 49 million books were circulated during the 
1968-69 school year, or almost 40 books per public school 

There were 2,359 school libraries operating during that year 
with 1,220,636 students using them. The figures, according to 
Mrs. Judith Garitano, library consultant for the State education 
agency, were taken from reports submitted by elementary, junior 
high, and senior high libraries. 


Books 48,449,018 

Per pupil 39.69 

Filmstrips 3,078,288 

Per school library 1,304.91 

Recordings, disc and tape 2,61 1 ,991 

Per school library 1,107.24 


Total expenditures 


Per pupil 




Per pupil 


Magazines, pamphlets and 



Per pupil 


Library supplies and 



Per pupil 


Audiovisual materials 


Per pupil 



Number library books 




Volumes per pupil 


Number magazine subscriptions 


For pupils per school I 



Number filmstrips 


Per school library 


Number recordings, disc and tape 


Per school library 



Number librarians engagec 

in library 


full time or major porti 

on of time 


Number city and county I 


supervisors or coordinators 



National Library Week is being observed April 12-18 through- 
out the nation, and one of the themes for the observance is 
"Reading is for Everybody." In choosing this theme, the National 
Library Week Steering Committee has endorsed Commissioner of 
Education James E. Allen's goal of universal literacy as a target 
for the seventies in the United States. According to Commissioner 
Allen, more than a quarter of the population is illiterate or nearly 
illiterate, and about half of the unemployed youth, ages 16-21 are 
functionally illiterate. 

"... We should immediately set for ourselves the goal of 
assuring that by the end of the 1970's the right to read shall be a 
reality for all — that no one shall be leaving our schools without 
the skills and the desire necessary to read to the full limits of his 
capability ..." said Commissioner Allen. In support of the 
observance in North Carolina, a committee representing all 
sections of the State was appointed and is headed by Mrs. Robert 
W. Scott. City and County Library supervisors and librarians have 
been urged to take advantage of National Library Week to 
publicize their library programs by Dr. James W. Carruth, 
Director of the Division of Educational Media of the State 
Department of Public Instruction. 








The Concord Tribune, Al Forsyth, Photographer 

Small elbows by the dozens jabbed the air as rows and rows of 
toothbrushes scrubbed, and dozens of small mouths puckered, 
smiled, or gaped. It was a massive "brush-in," the first of its kind 
in North Carolina, held in early February at Odell School in 
Cabarrus County. During the brush-in about 900 children applied 
topical fluoride to their teeth and learned how to brush properly 
at the same time. Parents, of course, were notified ahead of time 
about the brush-in and its purposes. 

Paper towels containing small amounts of lavender "gooey 
stuff," two paper cups (an empty one for spitting and one 
containing water), and toothbrushes lined the tables that filled 
the school gymnasium. At 30-minute intervals, groups of elemen- 
tary students filed through the doors and took their places at the 

The children looked apprehensively at the materials before 
them as they listened to the dentist at the head of the table 
explain, "Brush the upper left side 10 times, spit; now the upper 
right side, spit; the upper under side, spit; now the bottom, 
outsides, insides, just like the top." 

The children, grinning and chattering like a convention of 
monkeys, dipped into the "gooey stuff" and proceeded to 
produce a flurry of molar scrubbing. "Remember, children, brush 
10 times on every tooth," the dentist admonished. Dental 
assistants were nearby to help each with technique. 

The main objective of the two-day brush-in, according to Miss 
Becky Bowden of the Dental Health Division of the N.C. State 
Board of Health, was to reach children in rural schools who have 
no access to fluoridated city water. "A fluoride brushing will 
almost instantly harden tooth enamel and last for many weeks or 
months," she said. 

"And if you can save one child from just one lost tooth or one 
toothache, or teach just one child to brush, then it's all 
worthwhile," she said. Some of the children, however, weren't so 

"Tastes like cherry bubble gum with sand in it," said one tyke, 
screwing up her face around the toothbrush. "Rotten cherry 
bubble gum," corrected a small friend at her elbow. "Naw," said 
another, "it tastes like mud." 

Despite the differences of opinion concerning the toothpaste, 

all the children loved spitting. "It must be some sort of 
psychological release," grinned Miss Bowden. Dentists who 
warned "Don't swallow, use the cup," were taken at their word. 

Dr. Edwin Lipe, a dentist with the Cabarrus County Schools 
and a staff member of the Dental Division of the State Board of 
Health, manned the brush-in along with members of the Cabarrus 
County Dental Society, the Dental Assistants Association, and 
students from health occupations classes in nearby schools. 

The fluoride application, said Dr. Lipe, can reduce cavities by 
20 percent. Dr. Richard Murphy, regional consultant for the 
Dental Health Division, said that while application of topical 
fluoride is not a substitute for a fluoridated water system, it does 
provide protection against tooth decay. 

"North Carolina is still predominantly rural and therefore we 
cannot fluoridate every water supply. If we could, we could 
reduce tooth decay by 65 percent," he said. By the age of 2, 
about 50 percent of all children have decayed teeth. By the age of 
15, the average child has about 11 teeth that are decayed, 
missing, or filled. In areas where the optimum amount of fluoride 
is present in community water supplies, the incidence of dental 
cavities has decreased by over 60 percent, according to a survey 
of eighth grade boys at the N.C. Advancement School. The boys 
who grew up in fluoride areas had a 63 percent lower incidence of 
decay than those who grew up in non-fluoride areas. 

Dr. Murphy felt, however, that the educational benefit of the 
brush-in was just as important as the fluoride, and the dentists 
emphasized that the self-application of fluoride does not take the 
place of regular dental care. "It is only effective as a preventative 
when used in conjunction with other preventive measures such as 
proper diets, regular brushing, use of other fluoride methods, and 
regular care by a dentist," said one dentist. 

"And if just one child has learned to brush his teeth, the effort 
is a success," said another. One child admitted that he had never 
had any toothpaste; he'd just seen it advertised on television. 
Now he wanted some and he even had a toothbrush to take home 
to use it with. The children, of course, were allowed to keep their 
toothbrushes. The project was funded by the Concord Woman's 
Club, which appropriated $175 — or approximately 17.2 cents 
per child — for the brush-in. The Cabarrus County Dental Society 
sponsored the project. 

Strange as it may seem, some of the children had never seen a 
toothbrush before the brush-in, and a few did not know how to 
hold one. And despite the comments on the taste of the "gooey 
stuff," some of the children admitted that their mouths felt very 
clean and their teeth felt better after the brushing. Some even 
said the gooey stuff wasn't "all that bad." 

Dr. Lipe has been a dentist with the Dental Health Division 
since 1962. He is one of 24 staff dentists with the Division who 
are stationed across the State. Their duties include educational 
and clinical work with school children. 

Accompanied by a dental assistant, they visit classrooms in 
grades K-6 and lecture on dental care. The lectures are followed 
by a screening program in which the dentists inspect each child's 
teeth. The children receive a special kit containing toothpaste and 
tablets that color teeth and are used to demonstrate proper 
brushing methods. The children must brush vigorously and 
correctly to remove the stain. 

Other school-oriented activities of the Dental Health Division 
include teacher seminars on dental health and distribution of 
various pamphlets and materials for both teachers and students 
on the subject. 

School and dental health officials felt that the Odell brush-in 
was an unqualified success and hope it will be repeated in other 
parts of the State. Further information on brush-ins, seminars, or 
materials may be obtained from Miss Becky Bowden, Dental 
Health Division, N.C. State Board of Health, P.O. Box 2091, 
Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 


1 \v 


M ■> 

The crowded gym grew dark, and on the stage pastoral scenes 
were projected onto gilt-edged Victorian screens. The play began: 
Love's Labour's Lost from scene to scene with connecting 
narration by an all-purpose character who changed hats, vests, 
and voices regularly. 

The players wore turn-of-the-century costumes that bounced 
with ruffles and feathers. The male outfits were strangely 
up-to-date. The actors were young - only a few years older than 
the audience, and characters they portrayed were young. 

The students were attentive. Their fascination kept them 
leaning forward to catch each word and gesture. And yet they 
laughed at the appropriate moments. The only guffaw came from 
a hefty young boy during a love scene near the end. 

During the loud applause the bell sounded on schedule. 
Students, books, and Shakespeare disappeared for the moment. 
Later the play would be savored and discussed. 

Each winter for the past eight years professional Shake- 
spearean performances have been presented in sixty North 
Carolina high schools by Theatre-in-Education, a New York 
dramatic company. Almost 50,000 students saw the per- 
formances this year. They were well prepared by teachers using 
materials supplied by the State Department of Public Instruction. 
Evaluations followed each performance, and in some schools, a 
short critique was held with the director and the students. 

The company this year presented various scenes from Love's 
Labour's Lost with a narrative text written by Marchette Chute, 
author of Stories from Shakespeare. Meant as an introduction to 
Shakespeare, the scenes and accompanying text pinpointed 

significant moments in the play. Some characters and scenes were 
eliminated, but none of the scenes were rewritten. 

Produced by Lyn Ely and directed by Mario Siletti, the play 
was staged in an art nouveau style circa 1908. The presentations 
were extremely well received. For many students, the production 
was their first encounter with "live theater." Staging, lighting. 
and acting were watched intensely. 

"Shakespeare always seems so dead when you read it." said 
one student. "Now the theater seems real to me," said another. 

"They acted as if it were real," said yet another. "Now I 
want to attend as many theater productions as I possibly can," 
one student promised. "I didn't know Shakespeare could be 
amusing," was another comment. 

"The multi-purpose sets were extremely impressive. Their 
simplicity emphasized the uncomplicated staging possible for 
Shakespeare's plays," a teacher noted. The set consisted of 
curtains, projected slides, and a bench. 

"The performance confirmed my opinion that Shakespeare 
and his works can be appreciated as more than just relics," said 
another teacher. "It helped make Shakespeare the vivid ex- 
perience that it should be," said yet another. 

The performances are funded by the General Assembly and 
sponsored by the State Board of Education. Schools are selected 
by Raymond K. Rhodes, director of School Athletics and 
Activities, for performance sites on the basis of interest, 
population density, location, facilities, and travel time between 



At the March meeting of the State 
Board of Education, Chairman Dallas 
Herring made the following policy 
statement on behalf of the Board: 

Frustration, confusion, and mis- 
understanding, derived from today's 
great social, political and economic 
change surrounding all levels of public 
education are contributing to the de- 
velopment of the major crisis in sup- 
port for our schools in North Carolina. 

Educators, local school board mem- 
bers, county commissioners, parents, 
students, businessmen, citizens — all 
people who are bound together in a 
productive partnership to assure ade- 

quate education for our children find 
themselves wondering about the direc- 
tion of public education in North 

In a sincere effort to clarify what 
we believe is the direction of public 
education in North Carolina, we, the 
members of the State Board of Educa- 
tion, reaffirm our belief that North 
Carolina's most important business is 
its system of public elementary, secon- 
dary, and community college educa- 
tion and that growth and progress of 
public education in North Carolina 
must be based in the Seventies on 
reason, restraint, and responsibility. 

Educational partners in this State 
know full well that reasonable, honest, 
and workable solutions to the prob- 
lems of desegregation and education 
can be found. Mutual trust must re- 
place current distrust. Frustration and 
crisis must be translated into organized 
goals and objectives. Honest effort 
must be exerted to understand all sides 
of controversy. Reasonable men, and 
North Carolina is blessed with more 
than its share, will find reasonable 

Although criticism may come from 
every side, restraint calls for all eyes to 
be open to the realization that there is 
much good in our educational system 
and that there is great potential for 

vast improvement in the Seventies. We 
must realize that these schools are ours 
— that thousands of men and women 
are dedicated to doing their best, but 
that the best can be much better. Most 
of all, we must recognize that stability 
and maturity are the foundations of 

The Board is aware of its terrific 
responsibility. It is aware of its re- 
sponsibility to give positive leadership 
in the constant search for adequate 
resources for the dramatic improve- 
ment of educational opportunity in 
North Carolina. It knows full well that 
the acquiring of these resources will 
require involvement of thousands of 
our responsible citizens. 

We, the members of the State 
Board of Education, rededicate our- 
selves today to our task and ask our 
many partners in this great enterprise 
to join us with reason, restraint, and 
responsibility in planning well for the 
Seventies. We must utilize these 3 R's 
in day-to-day leadership if we are to 
reach higher levels of educational 
achievement for all our people in 
North Carolina. 

Yes! North Carolina is still very 
much in the public education business! 
We ask all North Carolinians to help us 
stay in business and improve our pro- 

Excerpts of rulings from the State 
Attorney General's office are pre- 
sented here as an information service. 
Complete copies of the rulings may be 
obtained by writing Division of Public 
Information and Publications, State 
Department of Public Instruction, 
Education Building, Raleigh 27602. 

Public Schools; Teacher Aides; 
Authority of Principal and Teacher to 
Assign Supervisory Responsibility to 
Teacher Aides and Liability for Ac- 
tions of Such Teacher Aides, January 
20, 1970.. . 

"... (1) Principals and teachers 
have authority to assign supervisory 
responsibilities to teacher aides. 

"Both principals (G.S. 115-150) 
and teachers (G.S. 115-136) are 
charged with the duty of maintaining 
good order and discipline in their 
schools. Although there is no express 
statutory authority for the assignment 

of teacher aides, this general grant of 
authority would be sufficient to pro- 
vide for the assignment of supervisory 
duties to teacher aides. 

"The statute dealing with duties of 
teachers (G.S. 115-146) provides in 
part that teachers shall ' . . . teach as 
thoroughly as they are able all branch- 
es which they are required to 
teach . . . . ' This wording is broad 
enough to provide for the reasonable 
use of teacher aides just as it is broad 
enough to allow the use of mechanical 
teaching devices. 

"(2) A teacher aide is liable for 
injury to a pupil when his or her 
negligence causes injury to the pupil. 

"Generally speaking, a teacher in 
the public schools is liable for injury 
to pupils in his charge caused by his 
negligent act or omission. DRUM v 
MILLER, 135 N.C. 204. The same rule 
would apply to teacher aides, and 

neither the teacher nor the teacher 
aides enjoy governmental immunity 
for their negligent acts. HANSLEY v 
TILTON.234N.C. 3. 

"Neither a teacher nor teacher aide 
would be liable in cases where he was 
not negligent, or where his negligence 
did not cause the injury in question. 
The two factors of negligence and 
proximate cause are required for lia- 
bility. DRUM v MILLER, supra; 

"It is probable that the teacher 
could be held liable for the negligence 
of the aide, as the teacher has the 
primary responsibility for the welfare 
of pupils under his supervision. Before 
the teacher could be held liable for 
such negligence on the part of the 
aide, however, it would be necessary 
to show that the teacher was n3gligent 
in entrusting the pupils to the super- 
vision of the aide." 


&5 I 

North Carolina 


State Library. 

n. a 















Volume 34 / Number 9 / May 1970 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Director of Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Writer and Photographer: Nancy Jolly 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued monthly, except June, July, and August, by the 
State Department of Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at 
Raleigh, N.C. 27611. Unless otherwise noted, no credit or permission is 
required for reprinting, with the exception of articles from other 
publications reprinted herein. Mailing address: North Carolina Public 
Schools, Division of Public Information and Publications, State Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 



A big K for kindergartens. Last December eight Kindergarten-Early 
Childhood Demonstration Centers opened — one in each of the State's 
eight educational districts. This fall nine more will open across the State. A 
report of the work of these demonstration centers begins on page 9. 

Students Organize Mini-Courses 3 

The Fifty-Four Million Dollar Question 

by William M. Hennis 4 

Breakfast at School 
by Donald M. Causey 6 

Touch It and Make It Real 7 

Playing Is Learning 8 

State-Supported Kindergartens: 
In terim Report by Jim Jenkins 

Observations on Soviet Education 

State Board of Education Actions 

News Briefs 

Grass Roots Opinion Survey 16 

Finals, a Thing of the Past 16 


From the 

State Superintendent 

Odds and Ends from the Top of the Desk: 

SUPERINTENDENTS' CONFERENCE this year will be held 
at the far eastern end of the State at Wilmington. In order to give 
more time for smaller group sessions and a wider number of 
topics, the assistant superintendents are asked to meet with State 
Department of Public Instruction staff members late Sunday, 
July 1 9, to adjourn at noon on Tuesday, July 21 . Then at 6 p.m. 
on Tuesday the superintendents will begin their sessions to be 
concluded at noon on Friday, July 24. 

THE DEANS AND DEPARTMENT Chairmen of the schools 
or departments of education at the state-supported universities 
met with key staff members at Quail Roost in April for a 
ten-hour discussion of many topics concerning changes and trends 
in public education and how these two areas can work together. 
This is thought to be the first meeting between State Department 
staff and the representatives of higher education and, from 
comment of those attending, this will be just the first of many 
such meetings. Representatives of the private teacher-training 
institutes will be held later. Topics discussed included changes in 
curriculum and methods for early childhood, occupational 
education, and the inclusion of economics and environment 
studies in all grades from K-12. 

These sessions are designed to exchange ideas, methods, new 
ideas and new approaches in the training of public school teachers 
and how both areas can improve the quality in public education 
in North Carolina. 

NO, THE STATE DEPARTMENT is not suggesting that "team 
teaching" and the "ungraded concept" be discontinued. Unfor- 
tunately, a headline on a news story a few weeks ago gave the 
wrong impression. It is the feeling that after six years the 
concepts learned in Comprehensive School Improvement Project 
(CSIP) should not only be continued but be implemented in as 
many schools as possible. So far more than 181 schools are now 
successfully practicing these methods with varying degrees of 
success. Through this six-year program of study and experimenta- 
tion it is highly recommended by the Department that these 
successful programs be adopted on a wide scale. 

BUDGET SESSIONS by staff members are now going on in 
full swing in preparation for requests to the 1971 General 
Assembly on recommended programs for the 1970-72 biennium. 
The requests from the State Board of Education will be based on 
many ideas that have been expressed by many groups of people 
over the last 15 months. Conferences with superintendents, 
principals, teachers, local board members, PTA members, and 
other groups have resulted in many ideas and suggested methods 
to change outmoded procedures. All of these reflect what many, 
many people feel should be best for the youngsters in order to 
better prepare them. And through it all a prime concern is to 
balance all of these ideas with getting the most we can out of for 
all our children with our tax dollar. 


Subjects like sex education, self- 
defense, extrasensory perception, 
black studies, drugs, and law enforce- 
ment aren't usually a regular part of 
most high school curriculums. Stu- 
dents, however, evidence much inter- 
est in such subjects. And when stu- 
dents get interested — and organized - 
almost anything can happen. 

At Albemarle Senior High, a small 
school with limited course offerings, is 
one example. Seniors tossed their regu- 
lar curriculum out the window for one 
week last January. Instead of their 
usual studies, the students took part in 
"Senior Mini-Course Week," during 
which they could take their choice of 
36 subjects including those listed 

Nothing, of course, was just 
"tossed." The experiment was the 
direct product of the students' en- 
thusiasm and required months of plan- 
ning before "Mini-Course Week" be- 
came a reality. The idea behind the 
brief, capsuled courses was to involve 
students in the learning process 
through choosing subjects and then 
planning courses. From the beginning 
of the project to its end — picking 
courses, working out schedules, find- 
ing teachers and materials - the pro- 
ject was planned, organized, and car- 
ried out by students. 

The idea to experiment, according 
to Mrs. Nancy Gamewell, a senior 
English teacher, came from an article 
in Today's Education entitled "Maxi- 
mum Results from Mini-Courses." 
Warren Hawkins, principal of Albe- 
marle High School, read the article, 
which describes an experiment at a 
Hamilton, Mass., high school in 1968, 
found it impressive, and distributed 
copies to various faculty members. 

Mrs. Gamewell showed hers to Ron- 
nie Garber, feature editor for the 
school newspaper, Full Moon. He, too, 
was impressed and wrote an article last 
October on "Bored Students Dying 
with Lectures" that described the ex- 

periment. Seniors then became inter- 
ested and "Mini-Course Week" was in 
the works. 

The task of organizing the experi- 
ment was delegated to Mrs. Game- 
well's senior English class. But that 
was just the beginning. The students in 
her class — along with representatives 
from all other senior English classes — 
had to decide if they wanted to go 
through with the project and if, in- 
deed, it could be worked out. 

They compiled long lists of courses 
they would like to take, voted on 
them, and finally reduced 140 subjects 
to 36. Each subject was then assigned 
to a chairman who was responsible for 
preparing a list of objectives, suggested 
content, and materials to be used. The 
chairmen were also responsible for 
finding qualified teachers. Overseeing 
the project was a student steering 
committee with Ernie Whitley, Ronny 
Garber, Ellen Garrison, and Mary Ellen 
Hill. Organization and implementation 
of the project extended from Decem- 
ber 1 through January 23. 

"A tremendous amount of student 
involvement went into the project," 
said Mrs. Gamewell. Others said the 
experiment brought forth a unanimity 
of purpose and planning seldom found 
in any classroom. "It was something 
we started, and we had to really work 
at it to make it a success," said one 

The chairmen and various commit- 
tees — with very little faculty help — 
worked out the plan, detail by detail, 
before it was presented to the Albe- 
marle Board of Education for ap- 
proval. They submitted a four-page 
outline which included, of course, 
their objectives. Providing a relevant 
curriculum and course content was 
listed first. Other objectives included 
providing a chance for an active stu- 
dent role in education, emphasizing 
seminar rather than lecture methods, 
and providing a view of many different 
career possibilities. Other aims were 
better relations with the community 
by participation of outside teachers 
and giving seniors a broader spectrum 
of knowledge. 

The seniors' plea to the board 
ended with a Mini-Creed: "Most 
worthy trait — positivism. Proof of 
sincerity — the immeasurable work 
done thus far by the senior planners. 
Major goal — enlightenment." And 
although the experiment was a first in 
Albemarle, the Board gave the stu- 
dents their wholehearted approval. 

To find teachers for their mini- 
courses, the students searched Char- 
lotte, Salisbury, nearby colleges, and 
their own community, looking for 
experts in each field. They finally 
secured some 90 teachers — almost 
three per course — including parents, 
civic leaders, professionals, their own 

teachers, other students, and special- 
ists in the community. Police officers, 
for example, talked about |aw enforce- 
ment, and a genuine "black belt" 
instructor was found to teach self- 
defense. The students also found a few 
anonymous speakers: one from Al- 
coholics Anonymous and one from a 
nearby prison camp. Faculty members 
were lined up to supervise student- 
taught classes, and parents served as 

The most popular course taught 
was sex education. In fact, the demand 
for it was so great that a special night 
section was scheduled. A panel of 
doctors from the Stanly County Medi- 
cal Association and various ministers 
conducted the sessions. All students 
taking sex education were required to 
secure parental approval. 

Before Mini-Course Week began, 
the student chairman for each course 
had compiled his list of objectives, 
content, and materials. This informa- 
tion plus student assistance helped 
each teacher direct each course toward 
what students considered relevant. 

Each senior was scheduled to at- 
tend five classes each day of the 
mini-course week. Registration for the 
classes ranged from a low of eight to a 
high of 46 — one section of sex 
education. Unfortunately, when mini- 
course week arrived — January 19-23 

— the last day of classes had to be 
cancelled due to bad weather. "But 
even four days of relevancy was 
great!" said one senior. 

Subjects taught, in the order of the 
most votes received, were sex educa- 
tion, physical education, auto mechan- 
ics, dance, self-defense, computer pro- 
gramming, campus radicalism, Ameri- 
can problems, and music. Also taught 
were fashion design, modeling, cosmo- 
tology, yoga, extrasensory perception, 
a memory course, photography, dra- 
matics, speed reading, black studies, 
interior design, magic, business man- 
agement, creative thinking, archery, 
psychology, and the supernatural. 
Electronics, social and moral prob- 
lems, handwriting analysis, intellectual 
games, arts, drugs, law enforcement, 
sewing, knitting, crocheting, and a 
study of hypnotism were also offered. 

"It was their thing," says Mrs. 
Gamewell, who feels that the most 
important aspect of the experiment 
was the students' role. "The emphasis 

— which apparently was the real mo- 
tivation for the students — was in- 
volvement," she said. 

"It is amazing what students can do 
if given the opportunity. The whole 
thing was a perfect example of student 
involvement, of relevance, of what 
education can be," she said. ■ 

William M. Hennis, 

Evaluation Consultant 


If a serious problem continues long 
enough, it usually gets attention. This 
has been the case with an educational 
problem which has proved to be a 
billion dollar question for the nation 
and a 54 million dollar question for 
North Carolina. The problem: provid- 
ing special educational programs de- 
signed to meet the needs of educa- 
tionally deprived students. The ques- 
tion: how best to meet these needs. 

In 1965, after years of trying to 
enact legislation providing general aid 
to education, Congress enacted the 
Elementary and Secondary Act. In 
doing so, Congress declared it to be 
"the policy of the United States to 
provide financial assistance to local 
educational agencies serving areas with 
concentrations of children from low- 
income families to expand and im- 
prove their educational programs by 
various means which contribute parti- 
cularly to meeting the special educa- 
tional needs of educationally deprived 

Since enactment of the legislation 
in 1965, Title I of the Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act has provided 
North Carolina with more than 220 
million dollars for this purpose. It 
should be noted, however, that funds 
provided by Title I are categorical in 
nature. They must be used to improve 
the education being provided one cate- 
gory of children .... educationally de- 
prived children who attend eligible 

A school is eligible if its school 
population includes at least as high a 
percentage of children from low- 
income families as is the average per- 
centage for the entire administrative 
unit. In North Carolina there are 1,300 
eligible schools, and 268,329 educa- 
tionally deprived students now partici- 
pating in the various special programs 
funded under Title I. 

Each program has as its primary 
component an educational activity de- 
signed to overcome deficiencies in 
basic learning skills. Most projects also 
provide needed health, medical, den- 
tal, social, and other services because 
the absence of these services may 
prevent academic success. Before the 
end of the 1969-70 school year Title I 
will have made available to North 

fife ftftf-toOK 


Carolina school systems more than 54 
million federal dollars to finance such 
educational programs and services. (In 
1968-69 $47 million was spent.) 

A Concept of Planning 

Identifying schools and students 
eligible for Title I programs is difficult 
in some instances. This is simple, 
however, when compared with the 
remaining steps required. It is not 
enough to know that eligible students 
cannot read well, or that they do 
poorly in school. Much more specific 
information is needed by project plan- 
ners if they are to develop a proposal 
which will alleviate the most pressing 
educational needs of eligible pupils. 

The first step in the planning pro- 
cedure, therefore, is to assess student 
needs. A thorough study of needs of 
eligible students must be made. Aca- 
demic, health, social, emotional and 
other needs must be considered. It is 
likely that a wide variety of needs will 
be found — more than can be attacked 
with the funds available. Thus the 
second step in the planning concept 
must be taken. 

Where needs are great, and funds 
for removing needs are limited, priori- 
ties must be set. Judgments must be 
made as to which needs are most 
pressing . . . most vital to the solution 
of academic problems. Once priorities 
have been set, programs must be 
planned which offer promise of meet- 
ing the most pressing needs. Perhaps 
several alternative proposals must be 
considered before the project design is 
set, and an evaluation design is drawn. 

The next step is to put the project 
into action. Every effort must be made 
to carry out the activities as planned. 
Of course, should evaluation indicate 
that a revision is required, changes can 
be made at any time. However, project 
administrators, supervisors, and teach- 
ers, must guard against the temptation 
to revise a procedure on the basis of a 
"hunch." Once underway the proced- 
ure should be given a fair trial. Efforts 
must also be made to monitor the 
project to see whether activities are 
being carried out as planned. 

A very important concept to be 
considered is evaluation. During the 
planning stage an evaluation design 

must be formulated. Evaluation con- 
tinues during the implementation and 
monitoring stage. At the close of the 
project period, evaluative information 
must be gathered, summarized, inter- 
preted, and used. Evaluation informa- 
tion may be used in two ways — to 
determine if progress was made toward 
meeting the students' most pressing 
needs, and to provide additional in- 
formation for use in planning the next 
year's project. Thus the Title I plan- 
ning- implementing-monitoring-evalua- 
ting concept actually involves a con- 
tinuous cycle. 


1 1 Project Cycl 
^Assess «^ 








*• Project d 



A Workable Concept 

The Title I Project Cycle works well 
when carried out as described. When 
vital steps are omitted, however, the 
outcome is usually unfavorable and al- 
ways unpredictable. 

In one rural school system, for 
example, despite persistent statements 
in annual evaluation reports that little 
progress toward stated objectives was 
being made, no major revisions have 
been attempted. The evaluation re- 
ports have stated for at least four years 
that project activities were too general 
in nature and were focused upon too 
large a segment of the student popula- 
tion. Each report recommended that 
consideration be given to employing 
special reading teachers rather than to 
continue the practice of employing 
more regular teachers and aides and 
purchasing more materials. Evaluation 
results from previous years have not 
been considered, and new educational 
activities have not been suggested. This 
has resulted in a poor project being 
continued, even though its general 
approach has not been successful in 
reaching the primary objectives stated 

each year in the project proposal - to 
improve the reading and language skills 
of eligible children. 

A much better outcome was re- 
ported by a city school unit where 
eligible students with reading difficul- 
ties were referred by the classroom 
teacher to special reading teachers. 
After the students were tested and 
their problems were diagnosed, a 
specially planned program was set up 
for each student. Instruction provided 
by the reading teacher was in addition 
to that provided by the regular class- 
room teacher. Each student attended 
special classes two or three times a 

The special attention given these 
students and the concentrated efforts 
made to assist them changed their 
attitudes toward reading and school. 
Reading test scores showed that on the 
average the 1,300 eligible students 
enrolled in grades 2-6 improved more 
than one full year. 

Each year the school district uses 
the previous year's evaluation when it 
reviews its Title I activities, determines 
whether objectives are being met, and 
makes needed revisions. Such a review 
of the 1968-69 Title I project resulted 
in the recommendation that the pro- 
ject be continued in 1969-70, but with 

greater effort to provide special educa- 
tional assistance as early as possible in 
the school career of students. 

The Title I objective of providing 
special educational programs designed 
to meet the needs of educationally 
deprived students living in areas with 
concentrations of low-income families 
can best be achieved through the 
application of systematic planning, 
evaluation, and replanning. In the ab- 
sence of such a cycle there is no 
guarantee that the efforts actually 
reach the target children, that the 
planned activities actually are carried 
out, or that project activities make a 
worthwhile contribution to the overall 
objectives of the Title I project. 
Rather than being incidental processes, 
planning and evaluation are an in- 
dispensible part of the Title I cycle. 

Prior to the advent of Title I, many 
local education agencies had few acti- 
vities directed toward planning for the 
future of their school programs. This 
was a neglected area. Therefore, the 
requirement in Title I for comprehen- 
sive planning has caused many local 
education agencies to begin making 
plans .... not only for Title I activi- 
ties, but also for their overall educa- 
tional programs. 

Using the same review procedures, 

it is possible to describe some common 
characteristics of the Title I projects in 
North Carolina which seem to have 
been most successful. These projects 
first of all were carefully planned to 
achieve a limited number of activities. 
Generally the more effective projects 
concentrated upon the elementary 
school level rather than upon the 
secondary level. 

The more effective educational acti- 
vities were those which emphasized 
developmental rather than remedial 
goals. Small group instruction by 
special teachers generally achieved bet- 
ter results than regular class instruc- 
tion by the regular teacher. To be 
effective, however, most activities re- 
quired a greater variety of instruc- 
tional materials than were available 
from regular sources. 

Also important was the question of 
coordination of the Title I program 
with the regular instructional program. 
Generally the more effective projects 
were able to achieve this coordination. 
Although the more effective projects 
had a limited number of activities 
funded under Title I, there usually 
were some supportive services funded 
as a means of assuring that those 
social, cultural, and health weaknesses 
contributing to educational depriva- 

Asix-year-old in Goldsboro's Followthrough project explores typewriter learning - a five-phase program which moves from finding the return button 
to writing a story - with his teacher, Mrs. Patricia Stanley. 

tion could also be reduced. 

The more successful projects also 
made a greater effort to involve the 
community and the ^school in the 
identification of needs as well as in the 
planning of the project. Many avenues 
to progress open when parent and 
community involvement are encour- 
aged. Local Title I advisory commit- 
tees "composed of parents, representa- 
tives from community agencies and 
other groups interested in education" 
should be called upon to work closely 
with the Title I director and the 
professional staff. The committees 
should be used in assessing the unmet 
needs of children and in planning and 
evaluating the entire program. Where 
such cooperation is present, and where 
well-prepared, sympathetic teachers 
focus their attention on the needs of 
target children, success will result. 

A final comment relative to an 
effective project also relates to the 
preparation of teachers for the special 
tasks assigned them. Most of the more 
successful projects had an in-service 
education component. In some in- 
stances this component has made it 

possible for a mediocre project to 
become a good project. 

Points to Ponder 

The establishment of an appro- 
priate cycle of planning, implementa- 
tion, and evaluation does nothing 
more than provide a procedural 
scheme. An effective answer to the 54 
million dollar question is dependent 
upon the quality of effort which goes 
into the work required in the planning, 
implementation, and evaluation pro- 
cedures. Of prime importance is the 
involvement of teachers, administra- 
tors, parents, consultants, and repre- 
sentatives of community agencies in 
the planning procedures. These in- 
dividuals must keep foremost in their 
minds the 54 million dollar question: 
"How can student needs best be met?" 
Teachers especially must express their 
ideas as to the best means of solving 
educational problems. Activities must 
be limited in number, and must focus 
on the needs of limited numbers of 
students. Constant effort must be 
made to prevent Title I projects from 
becoming general types of programs 

applicable to all students. 

Along with special programs in the 
public schools, Title I activities also 
are found in non-public schools and in 
institutions operated for neglected, de- 
linquent, and emotionally disturbed 
students. Each project in each school 
or institution is developed within the 
evaluating framework described 
earlier. Each project represents an ef- 
fort to contribute a partial answer to 
the 54 million dollar question. Each 
project administrator has the responsi- 
bility of sharing with others the results 
of the project . . . whether these re- 
sults show success or failure. 

The big question is still how can the 
educational weaknesses of educa- 
tionally deprived children best be over- 
come? Answers are being found 
through the cooperative, dedicated ef- 
forts of parents, the school, the com- 
munity, and the institutions serving 
the community. g 


Donald M. Causey, Principal 
Rich Square Elementary School 

The Breakfast Child Feeding Program reimburses to schools a 
maximum of 15 cents (not to exceed the cost of food) for each 
breakfast served that is not paid for by students. It is sponsored by 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture through the Division of School 
Food Services, State Department of Public Instruction. This year 
164 N.C. schools participated in the breakfast program. These funds 
are available for all children who travel by bus and are determined 
needy. More details on the program may be obtained from Ralph 
Eaton, Director, School Food Services, State Department of Public 
Instruction, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. 

School breakfasts without cooking? 
Without washing dishes? For 15 cents? 
We're doing it at Rich Square Elemen- 
tary School in Northampton County. 

It came about like this. Rich Square 
Elementary serves as a bus depot for 
three other schools. Many of the child- 
ren arrive by 7:30 a.m. — most with- 
out breakfast. By midmorning it was 
common to see students falling asleep 
at their desks. 

Teachers were aware that some of 
these students fell asleep because they 
lacked nourishing food. The free 
morning milk program had helped 
some of the students stay alert until 

lunchtime, but it wasn't enough. 

With an enrollment of 350 stu- 
dents, this school does not have facili- 
ties or finances to serve hot breakfasts 
to those who need it. In fact, the 
lunchroom can seat only 120 at a 

The modified requirements under 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 
Breakfast Program enable the school 
to provide a substantial balanced 
breakfast without using any of the 
kitchen equipment. Prepackaged food 
items are used; thus no experienced 
labor is required. In January one 
teacher's aide and three girls from the 

fifth grade began serving from 160 to 
200 breakfasts each morning in 30 
minutes without delay or loss of class- 
room time for the students. 

The menu usually consists of a 
choice of presweetened cereals (the 
greater the variety, the happier the 
students), one-half pint of whole milk, 
a small sandwich (often peanut but- 
ter), and four ounces of fruit juice. 

Homeroom teachers were pleasant- 
ly surprised to learn that the breakfast 
program did not require their super- 
vision. Each child picks up a breakfast 
ticket after he is marked present for 
the day. Children who can afford it, 
pay some or all of the 1 5 cents. 

Student's grades showed a marked 
improvement at the end of the first 
grading period after the breakfast pro- 
gram was begun. Three homeroom 
teachers who weigh their students each 
month have noted favorable gains by 
those who are participating in the 
program. These gains were not noted 
in children not participating. Despite 
the influenza attack that struck the 
community in February, attendance 
increased one percent above the pre- 
ceding month. 

The breakfast program is not a 
panacea, but teachers have noted a 
definite improvement in school morale 
and more participation in all school 


Who ever heard of teaching public school home economics in a 
real house? That's exactly what's happening at Southwood 
School in Lenoir County. Behind the school, but very close to it, 
is a small, clapboard house that used to be inhabited by the 
janitor. Students now use it to learn about the home arts 

"The house is equipped like the ones most of the students live 
in," said John Wooten, associate superintendent. It's being used 
for the practical arts end of the county's middle school 
occupational exploration project, one of 21 funded in North 
Carolina as a result of legislation of the 1969 General Assembly. 

Use of the house is a perfect example of the "hands-on" 
emphasis of the program. The act, supported heavily by Governor 
Robert Scott, states that "students need more opportunities and 
assistance for appraisal of their own abilities, potential, interests, 
desires, and needs." More specifically, the act states that 
"educational experiences need to be made more relevant to the 
students and more closely identified with the world of work." 

The project in Lenoir County, which began second semester, 
involves some 225 seventh and eight graders at Southwood 
School. And "involves" is, indeed, the word. The project — or 
course — includes instruction and lab experience in four basic 
work areas: introduction to vocations and occupational informa- 
tion, homemaking and consumer education, trade and industrial 
shop, and distributive business education. Plant and animal 
science will be added next year when the project will be 
broadened to a whole year and will include more children. 

The students spend an hour — or module, as Wooten calls it — 
per day in various areas of occupational exploration. There is a 
separate teacher for each of the exploratory "modules" and a lab 
area, too. 

The teachers and administrative staff (Wooten; the unit's 
guidance director, Mrs. Sue Sutton; and vocational director John 
Worthington) have worked out student and teacher syllaba for 
each of the basic "modules." In each module students spent the 
first few days on introductory experiences when they decide for 
themselves which of the mini-objectives they will fulfill during 
the next four and a half weeks (each area will be extended to nine 
weeks next year.) 

They then split into groups and rotate through each various 
experience areas in each module. In business, for example, 
students learn a little about duplicating, typing, and business 
machines through actual use of various machines. "But we're not 
teaching skills," said Wooten. "The use of the machines is strictly 
explorational." It also seems to be fun and rewarding for 
students; they express much pride in, for example, duplicated 
student artwork or a self-typed letter to a friend. 

When the students reach the module on introduction to 
vocations, they learn a great deal about the type of businesses 
that would use certain machines, and the types of jobs available 
using them. They're also given a unit on study skills, and they 
learn how important these skills are in any occupation. In 
addition, they learn the educational opportunities in high school 
and beyond that relate to the businesses and occupations they've 
learned about. 

The trade and industrial arts module covers electricity, tools 
and equipment, woodworking, and drawing. Girls have an 
opportunity to learn a little about what tools can do, how 
electricity works, and the jobs related to these fields. "Of course, 
they may never work in these areas, but at least they'll 

understand something about them," said Wooten. And what 
woman doesn't need to know how to hammer a nail or why the 
fuse blows? 

The same is true of the boys when they reach the home arts 
module which includes foods, child care, clothing, and housing. 
Few of them will spend a lifetime diapering babies, but the 
knowledge is almost essential in an age when more and more 
mothers work and fathers must share the household duties. The 
boys really like the foods unit; they even cook their own 
breakfast complete with pancakes and bacon. A few, of course, 
may want to become chefs someday. 

Others may take up teaching as a result of their experiences 
with smaller children. Several small preschoolers are enrolled in a 
nursery school that is a part of the project. Students learn to take 
care of the children, play with them, and supervise their activities. 

A partition has been removed from the home economics house 
leaving one large living room-kitchen area for foods and other 
activities. Two small bedrooms serve as nursery school and sewing 
room. It's small and busy, but somehow ordered. 

Discipline problems in the new project are almost not there. 
"With this type of program the students are supposed to talk and 
be busy," said one teacher. "So I don't have to be constantly on 
the watch for whispering or bad behavior caused by boredom," 
she said. Grades have been eliminated also. 

Each student keeps up with his mini-objectives and marks 
them off when completed. In the industrial arts module for 
example, large charts of student progress cover one wall. In other 
modules, students keep work sheets and turn them in when the 
module is complete. Each module allows time for evaluation at 
the end of the exploratory experiences. And records of progress 
and interest are kept that will help later teachers and allow 
students to make vocational choices with some objectivity. 

To help relate the exploratory activities to other class 
curricula, teachers work together and exchange information. 
Vocabulary lists, for example, are passed along to English 
teachers; math covered is sent to math teachers. The method of 
the project is being spread also. Wooten noted that other teachers 
had expressed interest in the "mini-objective" technique and 
some are using it. 

Wooten is quick to note that the project does not involve the 
teaching of skills or concrete occupational choices on the 
students' part. "This is not pre-vocational. We're simply allowing 
the students to see and understand, first-hand the choices that 
will be available to them at a later time," he said. ■ 


In kindergartens children play. Little girls tend their dolls, as 
their mothers tend them. Little boys build with blocks emulating 
their fathers whose blocks may be sheets of paper, thoughts, or 
even real building materials. It is only when man tires of his 
building or tending that "play" becomes an activity to fill his 
leisure hours rather than the stuff of living. 

Kindergarten children haven't learned to tell the difference. 
They play and learn and love it. They haven't lived long enough 
to find that the tending and the building, let alone the learning, 
are supposed to be apart from "play" and less than frolic. 

That's the interesting thing about kindergartens: the so-called 
play. At the Southern Pines Elementary School's kindergarten in 
Moore County, for example, the two kindergarten rooms are 
filled with colorful "playthings." Small furniture miniatures adult 
kitchens and dining rooms are complete with miniature fruit, 
vegetables, knives, forks, and plates. A tiny store fills one corner, 
a house another. Dolls with zippers, buttons, and lacing devices as 
well as dress-up clothes are there for make-believe that is not 
quite fantasy. 

In another corner, free of the thick carpeting that turns even 
the floor into a play area, small easels stand with smocks hung 
beside them. Wide windows bring the outside in, and, of course, 
there's music. "The Song of the Colors" comes from a record 
player, and a tiny parrakeet, tended each day by a different pair 
of hands, sings along with it. 

Add to it all 40 five-year-olds — split between the two rooms 
— a teacher and an aide, and you have what looks like the land of 
the Lilliputians with two female Gullivers. The adults look out of 
place. They're not, of course. Their skill is attested to by the fact 
that the children, and not they, are the center of attention. 
"Child-oriented" the initiated would say. 

In the center of the two kindergarten rooms is an observation 
facility with see-through glass on two sides and listening 
equipment so that visiting teachers and parents may hear what's 
said in the kindergarten rooms. They find it fascinating. But can't 
exactly agree on what "it" is. 

With the "Song of the Colors," for example, the children rise 
and dance in sequence as they sing with the record, "Red get up," 
or "Green get up" and so forth. 

"Oh," says one teacher, "the chairs are different colors. That's 
how they're all getting it so fast." She's amazed and may go home 
and devise a chair game of her own. 

Another teacher watches a small child offer her friend newly 
"cooked" popcorn. "It's soft," the child says pinching a piece 
which, by the way, falls in crumbs to the floor. The kindergarten 
teacher doesn't notice, it appears. 

"Yes, but it was hard before," the little friend replies. They 
look at one another with something akin to discovery as their 
kindergarten teacher beams. The visiting teacher sighs. Later she'll 
hear from that teacher how much work — time, patience, and 
imagination — it took to help the children develop their speaking 
skills, their concepts, their minds, and bodies. "But, of course, it's 
not work to the children. Or rather, they aren't aware of the 
concept yet," says the kindergarten teacher. 

'To me the most interesting thing is the freedom," says 
another visiting teacher. At home they're told to 'Put this away' 
or 'Pick that up' or 'Don't make so much noise.' And at school 
we tell them to sit in their desks and we scowl when they're loud 
or they drop something." 

"Children need freedom. Not to be destructive, you under- 
stand. But just to be free to express themselves," she said. 

"Yes, but you've got to have the materials to be free with," 
says another teacher eyeing the colors, the carpet, the equipment 
with envy. "You can't expect to get this kind of activity and 
involvement in a room with nothing but desks and books that 
might be beyond some of the children's level of understanding," 
she said. 

Another said it was attitude. "It's an attitude that we all need. 
Why should it be confined to young children. I know that 
because they're young, everything is new and exciting. But does 
this attitude have to die? It's something we all need." 


Interim Report by Jim Jenkins, Special Assistant, Elementary Education 

During the 1969-70 school year 
there were 320 five-year-olds enrolled 
in North Carolina's first eight State- 
supported kindergartens. The number 
will double next year in accordance 
with the 1969 General Assembly's 

There are, however, 93,000 five- 
year-olds in North Carolina. Some 
10,500 of them are enrolled in public 
kindergartens fundeo by ESEA Title I 
(Elementary and Secondary Education 
Act); an additional 17,500 five-year 
olds are enrolled in non-public kinder- 

These children represent only 29 
percent of the five-year-olds in our 
State. Continuous in-service training of 
leadership and teaching personnel — 

coupled with summer institutes — will 
help promote the kind of education 
needed for the other 71 percent. It is 
our goal to make — and as quickly as 
possible — good early childhood edu- 
cation programs available to all five- 

Eight early childhood demonstra- 
tion centers opened in December 1969 
and nine more will go into operation 
next fall. The function of these kinder- 
gartens, however, is more than just the 
education of the small number of 
children now enrolled. They serve as 
the nucleus for the development of 
good early childhood education pro- 
grams for the whole state. Objectives 
include developing kindergarten pro- 
grams as integral parts of effective 




education for children ages 5-8, effec- 
tive training programs for personnel, 
programs involving parents, inter- 
agency cooperation, comprehensive 
evaluation, and providing information 
about the program to others. 

The first eight centers are located at 
Chocowinity School in Beaufort Coun- 
ty; Beaufort Elementary, Carteret 
County; Jeffreys Grove, Wake County; 
Southern Pines Elementary, Moore 
County; Saxapahaw Elementary, Ala- 
mance County; Woodhill Elementary, 
Gaston County; East Harper 
Elementary, Lenoir City Schools; and 
Sylva Elementary, Jackson County. 
The nine to open next fall will be 
located at White Elementary, Bertie 
County; Brogden Primary, Wayne 
County; Aurelian Springs, Halifax 
County; Chadbourn Primary, Colum- 
bus County; Henry Grove Primary, 

Anson County; Mt. View Elementary, 
Wilkes County; Forest City Elemen- 
tary, Rutherford County; and Win- 
ston-Salem/Forsyth and Asheville City. 
Each of the centers was or will be 
allocated funds to employ two teach- 
ers and two assistants for each 40 
students enrolled as well as funds for 
materials and equipment, consultant 
services, professional materials and 
books, evaluation materials, and teach- 
er workshops. 

The children in each center — along 
with control groups not attending 
school — were selected on the basis of 
age, sex, race, and the socio-economic 
levels in the community to represent a 
cross-section of the population of each 
district. The programs in each center 
vary, of course, with physical differ- 
ences in the facilities as well as differ- 
ences among the children. Goals, how- 

ever, are the same for each center. 

The Learning Institute of North 
Carolina (LINC) was contracted to 
evaluate the programs, and a detailed 
evaluation began with the opening of 
the first eight centers. Base line data 
for the assessment of the children's 
growth has consisted of medical ex- 
aminations, the Caldwell Pre-School 
Inventory and the Draw-a-Man Test, 
interviews with the mothers, a home 
information scale that measured tests 
of basic experience in the areas of 
language, math, science and social 
studies developed by the California 
Test Bureau, Schaefer's Classroom Be- 
havior Scale, and the observations of 
sample children from each classroom. 

The choice of assessment materials 
was based upon their usefulness to 
teachers in diagnosing the needs of 
individual children as well as their 
overall evaluation use. Follow-up as- 
sessment tools were then administered 
as disabilities were discovered. Data 
will be collected again at the end of 
the school year to assess growth. The 
children from the control group are 
also being tested, and those in kinder- 
garten will be retested when they enter 
the first grade. 

The assessment program has pro- 
vided the teaching staff with oppor- 
tunities to gain a great deal of informa- 
tion about the children and their 
families. This information has proven 
valuable in individual planning — the 
rationale for the evaluation plan is 
based on the individual learning pro- 
gress of each child rather than the 
individual's standing within a group. 

Other overall emphases of the pro- 
gram include training of personnel. 
Due to the lack of trained specialists in 
early childhood education, learning 
experiences in various school systems 
were essential. Our first effort was a 
one-month summer institute at Tufts 
University sponsored by LINC. Later 
the education agency and LINC con- 
ducted a two-week institute in Greens- 
boro for all personnel involved in the 
project. The second phase of training 
was held at the centers where various 
consultants assisted with in-service 
activities. A third phase will begin this 
summer when new teachers and ad- 
ministrators are trained and those al- 
ready involved in the program are 
trained to carry out the demonstration 
school aspect of each center. ■ 


This winter a delegation of Ameri- 
can educators spent three weeks in the 
Soviet Union visiting schools of all 
kinds as the American component of 
an exchange arrangement in education 
between the U.S.S.R. and the United 
States. The delegation consisted of 
Miss June Gilliard, social studies con- 
sultant with the North Carolina State 
Department of Public Instruction, Dr. 
John Jarolimek, chairman of the dele- 
gation and professor and chairman of 
curriculum and instruction in the De- 
partment of Education at the Universi- 
ty of Washington, and Lee Smith, 
department chairman and social stud- 
ies teacher at St. Louis Park High 
School, St. Louis Park, Minnesota. 

While in Russia the educators re- 
ported that they were "treated with 
nothing but the finest in the way of 
hospitality." Their tour included 
schools in Moscow, Kiev, Yerevan, 
Tashkent and included pre-school 
establishments, elementary and secon- 
dary schools, vocational and technical 
schools, special schools, boarding, Pio- 
neer Palaces, universities, and pedagog- 
ocial institutes, rural and urban 
schools and schools on collective 
farms. Their observations were submit- 
ted to the U.S. Office of Education in 
a report compiled by Dr. Jarolimek. 
Excerpts follow: 

Pre-School Programs 

We were impressed with the extent 
of pre-school programs and the com- 
mitment of the Soviet Union to this 
level of education. Their involvement 
in pre-school establishments far ex- 
ceeds those found in the United 
States. As we understand it, these 
programs were established originally 
not so much to attain educational 
objectives but as ways of achieving 
certain social goals, as for example, 
providing an opportunity for women 
to be free to work outside the home. 
These programs begin as early as the 
age of two months for a child if the 
parents desire to enroll him. This 
infant school is called a creche school. 
The child is eligible to attend these 
schools, where they are available, be- 
tween the ages of two months and 
three years. At age three years he 
would begin kindergarten and could 
remain in kindergarten programs up to 
the age of seven, at which time he 
would begin the regular elementary 
school. Everywhere we went we saw 

these pre-school programs growing in 
size, and they appeared to be very 
popular with the parents. The Soviet 
Union is expanding its apartment 
housing facilities on a massive scale, 
and in these apartment complexes 
pre-school establishments are included 
along with shopping centers and other 
necessary services. Present thinking in 
the Soviet Union would seem to indi- 
cate that these programs will be ex- 
panded and that a very high percent- 
age of children will be in them in the 
years ahead. 

We visited several of these pre- 
school establishments, and in every 
case we found them in new, modern 
facilities and fully equipped. They 
include eating and sleeping accom- 
modations, appropriate play areas, 

work and study rooms. The instruc- 
tional program consists mainly of ex- 
periences designed to socialize children 
but also includes music, dancing, story 
appreciation, pre-reading experiences, 
art, and some work with quantitative 
relationships. The personnel were pro- 
vided in what seemed to me more than 
adequate numbers. We encountered no 
feelings of emotional coldness that one 
might expect in such institutional set- 
tings. The relationship between the 
teachers and children was warm and 

Foreign Language Programs 

We were much impressed with the 
extensiveness of foreign language pro- 
grams in the Soviet schools. In almost 
all cases the child is learning at least 
two languages, one of these being 
Russian and the other quite probably 
the language of the local republic. In 

addition, other languages such as Eng- 
lish, German, or French are introduced 
at some point along the way. In some 
cases schools are designated as special 
foreign language schools, in which case 
the foreign language is introduced as 
early as first grade and continued 
throughout the grades with some in- 
struction in regular subjects being 
given in that language. Moscow School 
No. 1 is an example of such a special 
school in which English is taught as 
the foreign language beginning in the 
first grade and continuing on through 
the tenth grade, the last of the com- 
pulsory grades. The American delega- 
tion had an opportunity to speak with 
a number of the children in the upper 
grades in that school and found them 
to be completely fluent in English. 

Coordination of Various Programs 

The extent to which the pre- 
schools, the schools, prolonged-day 
programs, vocational-technical pro- 
grams, special schools, boarding 
schools, and Pioneer programs are co- 
ordinated is very impressive. All of 
these various activities that deal with 
the education of children and youth 
come under the authority of the 
school officials. Thus, while the Pio- 
neer program is political in its over- 
tones and purpose, it nonetheless does 
have a relationship to the basic school 
program and comes under the authori- 
ty of the local school official. 

With the exception of local history 
and culture, the basic curriculum is the 
same throughout the fifteen republics 
of the Soviet Union. Students in the 
upper grades in some schools may take 
extra "optional" courses but these are 
always over and above the regular 
required courses. Optional courses can- 
not be substituted for required ones. 
Thus Soviet schools do not have elec- 
tive courses or extra-curricular activi- 
ties based on pupil interest, in the 
same way we have them in this coun- 

In order to allow for individual 
interests and to achieve certain politi- 
cal goals, the Soviets have instituted 
political groups for children known as 
Octobers (ages 7-8), Pioneers (ages 
9-15), and Komsomols (over 15). The 
largest and most highly developed pro- 
gram is the one for the Pioneers. These 
children form interest groups called 
"circles." These circles may deal with 
photography, astronomy, constructing 



models, driver's training, orchestra, 
ballet, chorus, cooking, dressmaking, 
and so on. The Pioneer program in 
Kiev has 126 different circles. The 
Pioneers do not meet in the school 
building but in very elaborate physical 
facilities known as Pioneer Palaces. 
These Palaces resemble modern junior 
and senior high schools in America. In 
areas where a Palace is not available, 
there are smaller facilities called Pio- 
neer Houses. The Pioneer Palaces and 
Houses are open during after-school 
hours seven days a week. 

The Pioneer program does three 
things: it (1) provides the "circle" 
work — enrichment, interest- based; (2) 
provides follow-up or remedial work 
to aid the child in school — this also 
includes political learning; and (3) 
provides recreational facilities — li- 
brary, chess, game room, concerts, 
lectures. It is clear that the Pioneer 
program parallels the school program 
and works toward the achievement of 
objectives that American education 
achieves through its extra-curricular 
program and its club groups such as 
Boy and Girl Scouts, 4-H, Indian 
Guides, and so on. Children are not 
required to participate in the Pioneer 
program although there are obvious 
social pressures that encourage involve- 
ment. Of course, the facilities are 
pleasant, the program interesting, and, 
therefore, the Pioneer work is attrac- 
tive to pupils. 

It was obvious that the Soviets take 
great pride in their Pioneer program. 
The physical facilities were in all cases 
superior to those in the regular 
schools. The requirements for teachers 
in the Pioneer program are the same as 
they are for teachers in secondary 
schools. Fundamentally, these pro- 
grams are politically oriented. Only 
the best Pioneers are selected for the 
Komsomol program. 

Teacher Load 

In general, the work load of teach- 
ers in the Soviet Union is more favora- 
ble than in the United States. Elemen- 
tary school teachers are scheduled for 
24 hours of teaching each week, i.e. 
four hours per day for six days. 
Secondary school teachers are sche- 
duled for 18 hours of teaching each 
week, i.e. three hours per day for six 
days. Not all classes meet every day; 
consequently, a secondary teacher 
might teach five classes on two days a 

week and none on one other day. 
Many secondary school teachers teach 
more than 18 hours per week, but 
when they do they are paid additional- 
ly for those over the basic 18 hours. 
Teachers are paid professional salaries. 
These compare with physicians, den- 
tists, and other professionals. 

Schools through the Soviet Union 
operate six days a week, although 
there is some thought now being given 
to reducing that to five days. 

Current Reforms 

There are a number of interest- 
ing developments now underway in 
the Soviet Union that portend big 
changes in education in the years 
ahead. For one thing, they have only 
recently moved from eight years of 

compulsory education to a ten-year 
program. Indeed, they are now in the 
transition and many students who 
were graduated from the eight-year 
compulsory program are completing 
the remaining two in the vocational 
and technical schools at night. With 
the implementation of the ten-year 
compulsory program, there is also a 
move to accelerate the program by one 
year. The Soviet educators have come 
to the conclusion that children today 
are more knowledgeable than they 
were in the past and, therefore, are 
able to move along more rapidly than 
previously. As a result, the program is 
being modified to move the present 
fourth grade into the early secondary 
program. Currently the first four 
grades are the elementary school; 
grades five through ten comprise the 
secondary school. This will soon be 
changed, and the work of the present 

first four grades will be compressed 
into the first three. The net result will 
be an acceleration of one year. This 
already is causing some problems, 
however, and we did encounter a few 
schools where, on an experimental 
basis, they were including what they 
called a "zero form" or a "pre-first 
grade" program that assisted children 
in developing a readiness for school. It 
seemed that the school officials were 
getting advice concerning the status of 
school children's progress from univer- 
sity researchers, and they, the univer- 
sity researchers, may have been over- 
zealous and over-optimistic about 
what children actually are able to 

Another very interesting develop- 
ment in Soviet education is the shift 
from what might be called an emphasis 
on memorization and rote learning to 
an emphasis on what they call creative 
learning, which in translation really 
means something of a guided inquiry 
approach. This new emphasis is to 
become fully functioning by 1972. We 
were surprised at this trend, but we 
encountered it in several places that 
we visited. It is to become a part of 
official policy. The difficulty as ex- 
pressed to us has been that students 
were able to memorize answers and 
learn the materials that were required, 
but when it came to generalizing from 
this or when they were faced with a 
new situation, they did not know how 
to respond. In an effort to combat 
these shortcomings, the new thrust 
will call for more independent study 
on the part of the pupil, more dis- 
covery and inductive learning. The 
officials who reported this to us were 
quick to point out that this would 
always be under the guidance of the 
teacher and not a free inquiry of the 
type we are accustomed to in this 

The Soviet educators as a matter of 
official policy cling to the notion that 
pupils tend to be much the same in 
intellectual capacity and that varia- 
bility in human productivity is mainly 
a function of the amount of work that 
the student is willing to put into his 
studies. They tend not to attribute 
pupil performance variation to differ- 
ences in innate intellectual capacity. 

There were some things we ob- 
served that rather surprised us. We 
were surprised in the sense that we had 
not expected to see these procedures 



in quite the way they were actually 
functioning. They are presented here 
without any value judgment as to their 
goodness or lack of same but simply as 
observations that we made in our visit. 

Special Schools for Children 
With Physical Disabilities 

If one visits an American elemen- 
tary or secondary school, he might 
expect to see some children with 
physical handicaps. He might encoun- 
ter children who are partially sighted, 
possibly blind. In the Soviet Union, on 
the other hand, it would be unlikely to 
encounter children with such physical 
disabilities in the regular elementary 
and secondary classrooms. When child- 
ren have disabilities they are placed in 
separate schools and are taught in 
accordance with their special needs. 
Usually these are boarding schools 
where the children stay six days a 
week and are allowed to go home on 
Sunday. We visited a school of this 
type in Yerevan where the children 
had back disorders and observed the 
program of the school being coordi- 
nated with physical therapy as needed 
for these youngsters. There apparently 
has been little done in the Soviet 
Union to integrate the disabled child 
into the work of the regular school 
with normal children. This is quite 
different from the current practice in 
the United States. 

Formality of the School Program 

We were surprised about the high 
degree of formality in Soviet schools. 
We realized that the program of in- 
struction in the Soviet Union would 
probably be more formal than that in 
the United States, but we were not 
prepared for the degree of formality 
that we observed. All children wear 
uniforms in the elementary and secon- 
dary schools, with the occasional ex- 
ception of the tenth grade, and these 
uniforms are the same throughout the 
Soviet Union. Hand raising is done in a 
formal manner, the child keeping his 
elbow on the desk and simply raising 
his forearm if he wants the teacher's 
attention. Children always rise when 
an adult enters the room. They also 
rise when responding to the teacher. 
Responses to teachers' questions are in 
a formal manner. The whole classroom 
climate tends to be rather rigid and 

Lenin Centennial Observance 

We were very surprised about the 
great amount of attention being given 
to the Lenin Centennial. The Centen- 
nial itself occurs in April of this year, 
but the entire school year is being 
devoted to an observance of the Lenin 
anniversary. Evidence of Lenin was 
everywhere. As soon as one entered a 
school, he would see displays and 

bulletin boards dealing with Lenin. 
Hallways were decorated. Entrances to 
classrooms were decorated. Special 
rooms were set aside as memorial 
rooms to Lenin. Classroom bulletin 
boards were covered with Lenin mate- 
rial. We were convinced that this ob- 
servance had religious overtones and 
we wondered how much of it went on 
routinely in years prior to the Centen- 
nial. It would be hard to believe that 
this amount of emphasis to Leninism 
could suddenly appear without pre- 
viously having a strong foothold in the 
school program. The Soviet Union 
likes to have itself thought of as a 
modern, scientifically-oriented nation, 
but this emphasis on a national hero 
seemed inconsistent with this national 
image. It is true, of course, that all 
nations have their national heroes and 
that some attention is given to these 
historical figures, but the extent to 
which Lenin is given attention goes 
beyond what one would normally ex- 
pect to find in the classroom of a 
modern nation. ■ 


Kindergarten Centers 

Nine new kindergarten centers were approved at the April 
meeting of the State Board of Education to join the eight which 
opened in December, in accordance with 1969 General Assembly 
action. One was named for each of the eight educational districts 
in North Carolina, with the exception of District 8, which will 
have two centers. Locations are Bertie County, C. G. White 
Elementary; Wayne County, Brogden Primary; Halifax County, 
Aurelian Springs; Columbus County, Chadbourn Primary; Win- 
ston-Salem/Forsyth; Anson County, Henry Grove Primary; Wilkes 
County, Mt. View Elementary; Rutherford County, Forest City 
Elementary; and Asheville City. Winston-Salem/Forsyth and 
Asheville will coordinate their programs with the Model Cities 

Eighty-one school systems had requested the Kindergarten- 
Early Childhood Demonstration Centers. State Superintendent 
Craig Phillips made the final decision about locations of the 
Centers based on guidelines developed by the State Board of 
Education and the results of team visits to each unit requesting a 

The new Centers will open this fall. 

Exceptionally Talented 

The Board approved a recommendation that a local adminis- 
trative unit so desiring may, with the consent of the Section for 
the Gifted and Talented of the Division of Special Education, use 
its allotment(s) for the exceptionally talented as itinerant 
resource teacher(s) . It was explained that most of the present 240 
allotted personnel teach in elementary self-contained classrooms, 
teach classes in a two- or three-hour block in junior high school, 
or teach a series of classes daily in high school. In September 
1 969 only 1 1 ,553 children were in these classes. Six reasons were 
given for the change: (1) to instruct more exceptionally talented 
children than the ones already in the classes; (2) to give more 
individual instruction within the classroom using the regular 
teacher plus, at times, a resource teacher; (3) to encourage the 
identification of more exceptionally talented children; (4) to 
allow bright children to receive additional instruction even if 
there are not enough to warrant a special allotment in a given 
school, opening up the program to smaller units; (5) to leave 
bright children in heterogeneous classes if desired; and (6) to aid 
regular teachers in developing techniques of education for bright 
youngsters by the use of these master resource teachers. Under 
this new Board policy, the itinerant resource teacher may not be 
used in an administrative capacity or as a supervisor. 



Hall received his Master's Degree from UNC-Chapel Hill and 
has done additional graduate work at East Carolina University 
and Queens College, Charlotte. 

Superintendents Conference Scheduled 

The annual superintendents conference will be held in Wil- 
mington this year. Assistant superintendents will meet first at the 
Timme Motel, July 19-21; superintendents will meet July 21-24. 

State Fair: 1970 

This year there will be something new every day in the 
Department of Public Instruction's exhibit at the State Fair, 
October 16-24, according to Tom I. Davis, director of public 
information for the State education agency and coordinator of 
the "Schools in the Seventies" exhibit. Spectators can observe 
kindergarten classes, students engaged in occupational education 
courses, student artists at work, choral groups, and the latest in 
communications equipment — as much school activity as can be 
shown in the two spaces (one 20 ft. x 80 ft.; the other 1 ft. x 70 
ft.) allotted to public education in the Industrial Building. 

School systems are invited to participate; Davis says lively 
exhibitions will be given prime consideration. Various school 
groups, including many student organizations, are also being 
invited to submit ideas and participants for the exhibit. 

A complete schedule of activities will appear in the October 
issue of North Carolina Public Schools. 

Cultural Arts Director Named 

James R. Hall, supervisor of the performing arts in Charlotte/ 
Mecklenburg Schools for the past seven years, has been named 
Director of Cultural Arts for the State Department of Public 
Instruction, effective May 1. 

According to State Superintendent Craig Phillips, Hall's appoint- 
ment is "the first step in an all-out effort to furnish leadership in the 
area of cultural arts — art appreciation, dance, drama, and music 
— and to promote large-scale involvement of North Carolina 
students in the arts." Among his first duties will be the naming of 
a special consultant for the public school art program in N. C. 

Mental Health Course 

Will a course in mental health change teacher attitude? 
Answers to this question were investigated by Dr. Vera Lentz, 
director of psychological services for the Greensboro Public 
Schools, according to a recent article in the Greensboro Public 
Schools Newsletter. 

During October, November, and December of last year, some 
38 elementary teachers, principals, supervisors, and counselors 
took part in a course in mental health sponsored jointly by the 
Guilford County Mental Health Society and the Greensboro 
Public Schools. The course emphasized an understanding of the 
psychological behavior of the elementary student. Topics dis- 
cussed during 10 class sessions included the elementary school 
and mental health, helping the primary age child develop a good 
self concept, maladjustments among elementary children, the 
exceptional child, techniques to promote good mental health, the 
cooperative role of the home, school, and community, sources of 
help for teachers, and the mental health of the elementary 

The course was taught by 16 specialists in various areas, most 
of them at the doctoral level of training. The Minnesota Teacher 
Attitude Inventory was administered at the beginning of the first 
class session and again at the last session. 

Twenty-two of the students made high scores the second time 
— thus showing favorable modification of attitudes. Dr. Lentz 
noted that the mean difference of the 38 scores was not found to 
be significant at the .01 level of confidence. 

On the basis of these test scores, however, Dr. Lentz feels 
confident that students like those in the group will modify their 
attitudes in a favorable direction following a similar course in 
mental health. 

Summer School Policies 

The Board approved the following standards for the operation 
of summer schools: 

1. Courses may be offered on either the elementary or secondary level, 
and may be credit or non-credit courses. 

2. The summer school shall operate under the direction of the county or 
city superintendent of schools, and shall be supervised by him or by a 
person recommended by him and elected by the county or city board 
of education. 

3. Teachers for a summer school shall be nominated by the county or city 
superintendent of schools and elected by the county or city board of 

4. All teachers employed in summer school courses for credit shall meet 
the certification requirements in effect for the teaching assignment 
area, or work directly under the supervision of a person so certified. 
County or City boards of education may require certification for 
teachers of non-credit courses. 

5. Salaries for all summer school personnel shall be determined by the 
county or city board of education. 

6. The curriculum, courses of study, textbooks, instructional services and 
materials, and library and other essential services shall, in all respects, 
be equal to those provided during the regular school term, and shall, in 
every instance, conform to the standards for such accreditation as the 
school may hold. 

7. Summer schools operated in accredited schools and conforming to 
these standards shall be accredited summer schools. Credit earned in a 
non-accredited summer school may not be transferred to an accredited 
school except under the legal authority of the principal to grade and 

classify pupils (G.S. 115-150). 

8. Assignment of pupils to summer schools shall be made by the city or 
county board of education under the provisions of Article 21 of 
Chapter 1 1 5 of the General Statutes of North Carolina. 

9. County or city superintendents of schools shall keep adequate 
academic and fiscal records on the operation of all summer schools in 
their respective administrative units, and shall make such reports as 
may be requested by the State Board of Education and the State 
Department of Public Instruction. 

1 0. Summer schools shall be financed in accordance with the provisions of 
G. S. 115-80 (e) and/or G. S. 115-116 provided that the county or city 
board of education may require the payment of reasonable fees to 
provide for adequate instruction in the summer schools established in 
the administrative unit. 
This is a revision of standards adopted March 7, 1963, in 

accord with the provisions of G.S. 11 5-80 (e) giving county and 

city boards of education the authority to operate summer 




A "grass roots" opinion survey, 
conducted recently by the North Caro- 
lina Federation of Republican Women 
has shown that Tar Heel citizens are 
deeply concerned about a wide range 
of educational problems. Their cares 
range from busing and drugs to over- 
crowded classrooms and poorly pre- 
pared teachers, according to Mrs. Wil- 
born S. Swaim of Salisbury, coordina- 
tor of the survey. 

The survey, which consisted of 
thousands of questionnaires circulated 
across the State, was taken this winter 
in an attempt "to obtain public opin- 
ion on crucial problems facing the 
field of education," said Mrs. Swaim. 
The survey asked three questions: 
"What in your opinion are the three 
most important problems in education 
today? Why do you consider each of 
these to be important problems? What 
do you believe should be done to 
remedy these problems?" 

Preliminary sorting of the 2,425 
"Lend an Ear" surveys first returned 
showed the greatest number of respond- 
ents concerned about teachers and 
their problems. The single problem re- 
ceiving the largest number of responses 
— 638 — was teacher-pupil ratio; 488 
said that teacher qualifications were a 
problem; and 490 people mentioned 
the need for additional teacher pay. 

Most often, said Mrs. Swaim, those 
answering the questionnaires said they 
considered these factors the most im- 
portant problems because too many 
students per teacher means that teach- 
ers can't give adequate time to each 
student and because unqualified 
teachers cannot give optimum oppor- 
tunity to each student. The remedy 
suggested most often — to all problems 

— was to spend a larger part of the tax 
dollar on education — 407 respon- 

In the State as a whole, according 
to Mrs. Swaim, the respondents over- 
whelmingly believed in continuing the 
upgrading of qualifications and stan- 
dards for teachers. Teacher aides, 
equipment, more clerical help, and 
higher salaries were seen as the answers 
to various teacher problems. 

Next priorities mentioned most fre- 
quently were the need for better dis- 
ciplined students — 336 respondents — 
and better facilities and less crowded 

— 275 respondents. 

Interest in expanding the curricu- 
lum was high throughout the State, 
she said. Some 235 people said that 
the need for additional programs for 
students with special needs was great. 
Many noted the need for additional 
vocational and technical training, 
especially in the lower grades. 

Numerous other suggestions were 
made by the respondents including the 
need for more parent involvement and 
sex education. The use of illegal drugs, 
according to Mrs. Swaim was an "out- 
standing concern" in the eastern part 
of the" State. Many citizens surveyed 
also showed an extremely high enthu- 
siasm for public kindergartens and the 
need for emphasis on the teaching of 
values and character. 

"There was some feeling against the 
way integration was handled," said 
Mrs. Swaim. Some 361 respondents 
had comments regarding integration. 
"Some thought it was a little hurried. 
But there was little resentment of 
racial mixing in the schools." 

Interest was extremely high, ac- 
cording to Mrs. Swaim, in the problem 
of motivation and improving attitude 
as a means of insuring better educa- 
tion. One woman said, "The one prob- 
lem that creates all etiier problems' is 
the apathy of parents and students." 
Through the replies, according to Mrs. 
Swaim, ran the thread that "each child 
is an individual. Treat him as such." 

Of the 16,000 questionnaires dis- 
tributed by some 40 Republican 
Women's Clubs, 2,800 were finally 
returned from 46 counties. The largest 
number of questionnaires were re- 
turned from Mecklenburg County — 
425 respondents — and Alamance 
County — 308. Many of the respon- 
dents wrote additional comments on 
the reverse side of their form and 
several attached typewritten sheets of 
additional suggestions. 


(editorial reprinted by permission from the 
Lexington (N.C.) Dispatch, March 14, 1970) 

Almost every member of the Senior Class at Lexington Senior 
High School must have breathed a sign of surprised relief 
yesterday when it was learned that the City School Board had 
approved of Supt. Jack Davis' proposal for eliminating final 
exams for seniors. Many undergraduates were made happy, too, 
with fervent hopes that the policy will be successful and will 
remain in effect when their years of caps and gowns and pomp 
and circumstances arrive. 

There is little reason to doubt that the plan will work, because 
it has been tried in quite a few school systems and we've heard of 
none where a return to the old system was made. 

Teachers of members of the Senior Class also are reported to 
be in pleasant agreement with the action of the local school 

The many good reasons for eliminating the seniors' final 
examinations were stated quite clearly by Supt. Davis in a news 
report yesterday. They were the same reasons he gave when he 
proposed the move to the school board, asking for a study. The 
board, however, realized at once the advantages and adopted the 
plan without delay. 

One unpleasant aspect of the former program was that each 
year at the end of the final exams, it was necessary to deny 

graduation to some six or eight students who failed. Perhaps one 
or two of these would go on to summer school to make up the 
required work, but the others just never got around to obtaining a 
high school diploma. This will not be the case anymore. 

The conclusion of Mr. Davis' statement bears repeating; 
"After all, it is the purpose of the public school system to educate 
its students and to graduate them as young people moving on into 
the adult world. To cull and eliminate someone from receiving his 
diploma after twelve or more years of work is a cruelty not 
admonished by the Lexington City School System." 

Now, the next logical step in this direction — but one which 
cannot be accomplished on a local level — would be the 
elimination of those infernal and unfair College Board or SAT 
tests, which are prime criteria for admission to college in most 
cases. Students who do well all during the high school can and do 
have "off days" when they take their tests, sometimes prohibiting 
them from continuing their education, or prohibiting them from 
attending the institutions of their choice. Conversely, students 
who are erratic about class attendance in high school and don't 
do well at all can come up with high grades on SAT tests and 
thereby be undeservedly qualified for higher education oppor- 

VOLUME 35 / NUMBER 1 / FALL 1970 

« § 

• • 

• 4 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Special Assistant for Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Information Specialist: Nancy Jolly 

Writer: Janice L. Narron 

Writer, ESEA III: Linda Gallehugh 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued quarterly by the State Department of 
Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at Raleigh, N. 
C. 27611. Unless otherwise noted, no permission is required for 
reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Manuscripts are welcomed. Mailing address: 
Editor, North Carolina Public Schools, Division of Public In- 
formation and Publications, Room 362, State Department of 
Public Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N. C. 27602. 
Telephone: 919-829-4258. 



Patterns from adire eleko cloth from the Oshogbo district of 
Nigeria. In a process similar to batik, cloth is painted with a 
starch compound, either free-hand or with a stencil. It is then 
dipped into the dye (traditionally indigo). Portions of the cloth 
covered with the starch resist the dye, and the pattern appears 
when the starch is washed from the fabric. See related article 
beginning on page 12. 

State Board of Education 

Dallas Herring, Rose Hill, Chairman, District 2 

John A. Pritchett, Windsor, Vice-Chairman, District 1 

Craig Phillips, Secretary, Ex Officio 

H. Pat Taylor, Lieutenant Governor, Ex Officio 

Edwin Gill, State Treasurer, Ex Officio 

G. Douglas Aitken, Charlotte, District 6 

R. Barton Hayes, Hudson, District 7 

Charles E. Jordan, Durham, District 3 

Mrs. Eldiweiss F. Lockey, Aberdeen, District 4 

William R. Lybrook, Winston-Salem, District 5 

John M. Reynolds, Asheville, District 8 

Mrs. Mildred S. Strickland, Smithfield, Member-at-large 

Harold L. Trigg, Greensboro, Member-at-large 





VOLUME 35 / NUMBER 1 / FALL 1970 

From the State Superintendent 

The State Fair: 
l\l. C.'s Noisiest, Smelliest, Largest Learning Lab 

Freddy Reeves and Associates 

by Wally McCullock 

Little Kids Go to High School 

College Students Tutor Disadvantaged 

The African Paradox, or All About Abebi 

Social Studies Curriculum Revised 

Who's George? Answer Epitomizes Governor's School 

Title III ESEA: Where We're Going 
by Dr. Edwin L. West, Jr. 

NTE Dates Are Announced 

Educational Television Gets New Outlets 

Drug Abuse: The North Carolina Effort to Control It 



New Certificate Renewal Plan 

NSPRA Chapter Meets 



American Education Week 
October 25-31 

REGULAR READERS of NCPS will notice the magazine hasa 
third more pages, a few format changes, and more features and 
news items concerning some of the things that are happening in 
our public schools. Some 50,000 teachers, administrators, public 
officials, and interested citizens will receive the publication four 
times during the school year instead of the usual nine issues. All 
of us hope you will like the new arrangement - in any event the 
staff wants to hear what the readers think. 

AND SPEAKING of the magazine - during the summer the 
members of the staff received three well deserved awards in the 
annual judging of education publications by EDPRESS, the 
national professional organization for education publication 
staffs. Recognition for tops in their classification of a state 
publication were first place awards for Best Cover, Best Feature 
Article, and Best Typography. This is the second straight year of 
national recognition for the outstanding work of Kay Bullock, 
editor; Pat Bowers, graphic artist; and Nancy Jolly, writer. 

EARLY IN SEPTEMBER some 75 members of the newly 
merged NCAE held the first meeting of the State Education 
Agency Unit here in Raleigh to make plans for the new 
organization year. After months of negotiations and working out 
many details the officers of the N. C. Teachers Association and 
the N. C. Education Association merged July 1 into one 
professional organization, the North Carolina Association of 

Since the merger, several of us have had the opportunity to 
meet with leaders of the NCAE to discuss ways and means SDPI 
and NCAE can best work together for the professional improve- 
ment of public education. 

Already leaders of NCAE have met informally with members 

From flie 
State Superintendent 

of the State Board of Education; regular monthly sessions with 
the ten members of the Department of Public Instruction 
Executive Staff and key staff leaders and officers of NCAE have 
begun; and the State education agency will be represented at all 
of the 15 district meetings. 

TELEVISION will be used extensively this year in order to 
acquaint more and more teachers with what is going on in public 
education on a State-wide basis. Not only will more television 
courses be taught on a regular basis directly to individual 
classrooms, but students, teachers, and the general public will be 
able to get a pretty good idea of what is going on through a 
special program every Wednesday at 3:30 p.m. These programs 
are being produced by staff members in cooperation with 
WUNC-TV, our State-wide educational television network. 

STATE FAIR - Part of the story of North Carolina Public 
Education will be told through the exhibits of Department of 
Public Instruction during the nine-day State Fair, October 16-24. 
This year, instead of having several exhibits scattered over the 
fairgrounds, all of them have been combined and will be located 
in the Industrial Building. Our people have been working on this 
for months and are excited over the possibilities. Among the 
features will be exhibits helping to tell the story of Early 
Childhood Education; Audiovisual Activities; Cultural Arts; Food 
Services; Student Teaching; Public Information; and the many 
areas of Occupational Education. 

Whenever possible, students, teachers, and staff members will 
participate in actual demonstrations. Be sure to drop by the 
Industrial Building - you may be amazed. 

NOW THAT the more than 2,000 public schools have opened, 
we must make sure that what happens in the classroom means 
something to the child. While many may feel it is "business as 
usual," we won't be accomplishing much if we continue, without 
improvement, to do things in the same old way. 

Those of us in the public education business know full well we 
cannot do the job that needs to be done without the help of large 
numbers of people throughout this State. Recently fingers of 
criticism have been pointed in the direction of the public school. 
Some of it is partially justified and some of it is based on 
confusion and misunderstanding. 

Perhaps it is the responsibility of the administrator, the board 
member, and the teacher to communicate - tell the story of what 
is going on now in the school, what can be accomplished, and 
what is necessary to do the job. None of us, especially the 
professional, should ever forget to play our part in keeping the 
public informed. A well informed public is a supporting public. 

A successful, meaningful, worthwhile program of learning to 
live, as well as learning to make a living, can best be achieved by 
all concerned having a part in the plans, the actual operational 
decisions, and the evaluation of the product. This partnership 
must continue. ■ 

North Carolina's Noisiest, Smelliest Largest Learning Lab 


If a learning laboratory is a place 
where you learn by doing, then the 
North Carolina State Fair is the largest 
one in the State. It's also the noisiest, 
smelliest, and most exciting for thou- 
sands and thousands of school children 
who crowd its gates each year to poke 
their noses and teeth into the rich 

It's easy to forget what acres and 
acres of carnival land look like to a 
child four feet tall who hasn't been to 
the fair since last year. And then it's 
all down there waiting - flags and 
tents and sawdust and music. 

Suddenly he's standing in front of a 
tent listening to a big, red-faced man 
selling vegetable choppers. "Awright 
folks," the man shouts, waving big oily 
hands. "This is the handiest little 
dandy in the WHOLE WORLD!" But 
he looks down at the children with a 


glare that says he knows they haven't 
got $2.98. 

"Aw, come on," one kid says, 
dragging his friend into the exhibit 
building he promised his teacher he'd 
see. Up and down and around the rows 
they trail, peeping into the booths, 
held spellbound by anything with 
moving parts or blinking lights. But 
then they spot a sign that says "Free 
Fudge." They return three times try- 
ing to look different, but the choco- 
late stuck to their chins and fingers 
gives them away. Finally the woman 
behind the counter says, "Little boys, 
you're gonna get plumb sick off all 
that candy." 

The next building is filled with 
rows and rows of cows, and in one 
corner a small boy scrubs a small, 
spotted calf. "That your cow?" the 
kids ask. "Yeh," the boy says, "but 

it's a steer!" The children leave, pre- 
tending they knew it all the time. 

Now the children head down the 
midway and buy a ticket for the big 
ride, the one that looks like a ferris 
wheel but spins over and over as well 
as round and round. As the engine 
starts and the machine begins to move, 
they look like they'd like to change 
their minds. But when it's all over, 
they troop down the ramp like so 
many conquerers and proceed to the 
next ride. 

The rides make them hungry, so 
they bet each other that they can't eat 
two foot longs, "all the way." One of 
them almost chokes getting down the 
last bite along with part of a dead 
yellow jacket. "Best part," he boasts. 

A pearl-handled pocket knife glints 
in the sun catching their eyes, and 
they toss rings for it until their pock- 
ets are empty. But the only prize is a 
plastic doll with feathers. 

And it's over. Time to find the gate 
where their mothers are waiting. "Aw, 
let's stay tonight," they beg. 

"It'll be here next year," one 
mother promises. But next year is 
almost never when you're four feet 
tall. (NJ) 

North Carolina's Noisiest, Smelliest, Largest 
Learning Lab: THE STATE FAIR 


A live kindergarten, closed-circuit 
television, a food service kitchen, and 
many other features will highlight the 
"Schools in the Seventies" exhibition 
at the N. C. State Fair in Raleigh, 
October 16-24. 

"We expect to display equipment, 
materials, and other teaching methods 
actually operated by students them- 
selves during our nine-day participa- 
tion. We feel that during this period 
thousands of citizens will be able to 
actually see and hear some of the 
exciting things that are being experi- 
enced in our public schools," State 
Superintendent Craig Phillips said. 

All areas previously allotted to the 
State school department will be placed 
together in two large spaces in the 
Industrial Building at the fairgrounds. 
The main education exhibit is 20 x 80 
feet and will be constructed as a 

"walk-thru." In this space the live 
kindergarten will be housed as well as 
the school food service kitchen. At 
scheduled times kindergarten classes 
will actually be in progress and staff 
members will prepare food samples for 
distribution to fairgoers. 

The Division of Educational Media 
will show the latest in audiovisual 
methods and explain how they are 
used in the classroom. The Division of 
Cultural Arts expects to have classes in 
art, demonstrations in music, and ex- 
amples of techniques used. Wall spaces 
will display examples of student work 
and photographs of the many facets of 
public school activity. 

A smaller area, 10 x 70 feet, will 
house Occupational Education activi- 
ties, student teaching, and exhibits 
from individual schools. 

Special activities, which will involve 
students, teachers, and citizens, will be 
featured daily. ■ 

Freddie Reeves and Associates 

by Wally McCullock, Public Information and Placement Officer, Division of Vocational Rehabilitation, State Department of Public Instruction 

Since June 3, 1920, when President 
Woodrow Wilson signed the Rehabili- 
tation Act, a total of 127,905 North 
Carolina citizens have been restored to 
gainful employment by the Division of 
Vocational Rehabilitation. Freddie 
Reeves, of Goldsboro, was chosen to 
represent all rehabilitants at the 50th 
Anniversary Celebration in Raleigh in 

A sign displayed in front of a place 
of business in Goldsboro, reads: 
"Freddie Reeves and Associates." Be- 
hind this sign is one of the most 
amazing stories in the files of the 
Division of Vocational Rehabilitation. 

When Freddie Reeves was in his 
early school years, he was taking part 
in one of his school's annual May Day 
programs. Full of energy as all young 
boys are and wanting to make a good 
impression on those watching, he was 
running and playing a little too hard - 
he fell and injured his back. From this 
injury he developed rheumatoid arthri- 
tis and a long series of hospital treat- 
ments followed. When the arthritis had 
run its course, Freddie was relegated 
to the role of a completely bedridden 

By 1948 lie had become so badly 
disabled that he could move only his 
arms; he was flat on his back, stiff as a 
board, unable to bend his knees, back, 
and his hips. Freddie was in no pain, 
but had become quite obese. 

In 1949 it was the opinion of an 
orthopedist that Freddie was too 
severely handicapped to attempt any 
type of rehabilitation. The statement 
was made to Freddie's Vocational Re- 
habilitation counselor, J. J. Beale (who 
is now retired), that it would be best 
to forget this client since rehabilitation 
was not feasible. 

However, Mr. Beale could see some- 
thing in this client that others could 
not. He saw a human being who had 
desire, drive, determination, and moti- 
vation. If he could only make these 
qualities work to the client's advan- 
tage, he sincerely believed that he 
could help the client make a useful life 
for himself. 

The counselor "pulled no punch- 
es." He told Freddie that if anything 
was to be done for him it would be 
necessary for him to lose weight - a 
lot of weight; he explained to him that 
his rehabilitation would depend largely 
upon his own will and actions. Freddie 
considered this advice very carefully - 
advice that could conceivably change 
his life. 

Beale states that "the key" to 
Freddie's success is that he denied 
himself because he "wanted to do 
something - anything." The client lost 
50 pounds in about three months. 

Freddie then traveled by ambulance 
from Goldsboro to Rex Hospital in 
Raleigh where he was again examined. 
According to the orthopedist, the out- 
look was not hopeful: "His spine is 
almost completely fused; he has little 
motion remaining in his neck ... His 
knees and hips are solidly fused in a 
straight position . . . The only prospect 
of any relief is to make false joints in 
both hips so that the patient can be 
raised to a sitting position and get 
about in a wheelchair ... but in all 
fairness I must say that the possibili- 
ties of rehabilitation in this case are 
rather remote in my opinion." 

An osteotomy of both hips was 
performed. This operation allowed 
Freddie to either lie down or sit - 
previously he had only been able to lie 
down. He could now use a wheelchair. 
The citizens of Goldsboro formed a 
"Freddie Reeves Club" and raised 
$600 to assist with the cost of the 
client's rehabilitation. With this money 
(plus State-Federal funds) the Division 
of Vocational Rehabilitation was able 
to complete his treatment and buy an 
electric wheelchair that enabled him to 
"get out" from the four walls of his 
home. His counselor stated in a con- 
tact report dated November 21, 1950: 
"I don't believe that I have ever seen 
any one piece of equipment mean 
more happiness to a person than this 

The client was then thoroughly 
tested by his counselor and found to 
have an aptitude for accounting or 
bookkeeping. He was enrolled in a 
twelve-month accounting course at the 
Crumpler Business School in Golds- 
boro. In January, 1951, Freddie began 
the greatest adventure of his young 

He continued to live at home and 
traveled the one mile to and from 
school via his electric wheelchair. The 
trip each day necessitated his riding 
down the streets of Goldsboro. There- 
fore additional equipment had to be 
ordered for his wheelchair: head and 
tail lights, a rearview mirror, and a 
double speed range switch (in order 
that he could climb the inclines that 
were between his home and the busi- 
ness school). A civic club constructed 
a ramp so that he could get into the 
school with his wheelchair. 

Freddie traveled back and forth to 
the business school for a full year. In 
spite of the distance, he was able to 
maintain good attendance, missing 
only a few days because of bad weath- 
er. Mrs. Crumpler, owner of the busi- 
ness school, reported that Freddie led 
his class the entire time he was en- 
rolled. He maintained straight A's. 

After his graduation from business 
school, Freddie won a local election 
for justice of the peace on a write-in 
ballot. He also became a notary public. 
He started soliciting business and the 
first year earned a total of $35 by 
filling out seven tax returns. Business 
was slow and Freddie and his family 
remained on welfare; however, in 1958 
he was doing so much better that he 
picked up the telephone one day, 
called the welfare office, and asked 
them to discontinue his check - he 
was now able to financially care for 
himself and his family. 

In 1964 Freddie's income totaled 
$20,000. Last year he earned and paid 
taxes on $30,000. He employs five 
people in his business, including four 
secretaries. He owns several pieces of 
property and his own home in Golds- 

Freddie's entire rehabilitation cost 
the taxpayers of North Carolina 
$1,491.58. He now pays, in the form 
of Federal and State taxes, much more 
than this amount each year. 

This forty-three-year-old man's re- 
habilitation was accomplished largely 
because of his own determination, 
willpower, and motivation. Due to his 
will to succeed against seemingly over- 
whelming difficulties, Freddie Reeves 
stopped the "poverty cycle" of an 
entire family. He has been freed from 
the confines of a bed and four walls 
and is now able to render valuable 
services to his fellow men. ■ 







When New Hanover High School 
opens every morning, passersby are 
likely to look a second time at some of 
the pupils going to class. Sighted 
among the knees of the 2,900 secon- 
dary students are 25 mini-pupils, ages 
two to five, also arriving for the school 

They are enrolled in a nursery 
school program operated by the Home 
Economics Department. Although the 
program has been functioning since 
1942, it was only four years ago that 
high school students began to study 
for credit in what now is called the 
Child Care Aide course. 

Mrs. Vivian Baynes opened the 
nursery 28 years ago at New Hanover 
High School and, except for a few 
years when her family was growing, 
she has continued to serve as its 
director. Along with her assistant, Mrs. 
Myrtle Harrell, and the nursery 
school's cook and maid, Mrs. Mary 
Gaines, she conducts a variety of daily 
educational and healthful activities for 
the children, many of whom have been 
on her waiting list since the day they 
were born. 

From the time they arrive, the 
preschoolers follow a flexible schedule 
which includes a check by School 
Nurse Mrs. Christine Boone, supervised 
play periods, educational television, 
music, stories, show and tell sessions, 
hot lunch, rest period, and outdoor 
play and exercise. 

With the increased emphasis on 
preparing high school students to be 
able to "do something specific" by the 
time they graduate, New Hanover High 
School began to allow academic credit 
for students who completed a year's 
instruction in child care, with Mrs. 
Baynes as the instructor. Students - 
boys as well as girls — had for years 

been allowed to work with the child- 
ren during free time before and after 
school, during study halls, and during 
lunch hour. Now the four-year-old 
course requires that credit-seeking stu- 
dents complete not only their class- 
time obligations but also 60 hours of 
nursery school work beyond those 
taken up in class. A new prerequisite 
also specifies that from now on, enroll- 
ees must first have satisfactorily com- 
pleted one year of Introductory Home 
Economics, Boys' Home Economics, 
or Family Life Education (the last not 
offered in New Hanover County, but 
included for the benefit of outsiders 
moving in who might not have had one 
of the other courses). 

So far no boys have enrolled, but 
Mrs. Baynes nevertheless encourages 
them to participate as non-credit help- 
ers. "I feel that their work is bene- 
ficial, particularly with children who 
are from fatherless homes," she says. 
Boys join the effort for a variety of 
reasons. One year, for example, Mrs. 
Baynes enlisted the aid of the football 
team captain. He agreed to try the 
situation, found he liked it, and with- 
out trying, attracted the help of other 
boys who decided that if an athletic 
star didn't object to spending spare 
time in nursery school, they saw no 
reason to either. 

"We do not consider this a baby- 
sitting situation," Mrs. Baynes notes. 
"The child is here to learn, and we are 
here to see to it that all the experi- 
ences are learning ones. Also, I want to 
be sure that the parents know that 
nursery schools are not supposed to 
take the place of the home. Parents 
have to understand that their children 
are dependent upon them for emotion- 
al stability." 

There are certain expectations of 
the children enrolled. Each must be 
able to do the following: 

1. Remove his own wraps and place 
them in his locker. 

2. Manage his toilet routine. 

3. Use his own towel and wash- 
cloth — effectively. 

4. Drink one small glassfull of juice 
a day. 

5. Taste everything on his plate at 

The child care aide trainees who 
assist in all of the daily activities are 
high school seniors. They learn not 
only how to entertain the preschoolers 
but also how to teach them skills 
appropriate for their ages. The five- 
year-olds, for example, are given ap- 
propriate kindergarten-level instruc- 
tion. Since there is always a possibility 
that the cook may have to be absent 
sometime, the girls learn, under the 
instruction of Mrs. Gaines, how to 
prepare hot lunches for the children. 
She boasts that some of them turn out 
to be quite proficient in the kitchen. 

Since the girls eventually become 

well-known to the children, some 
parents employ them as baby sitters. 
And since Wilmington is a resort city, 
Mrs. Baynes has helped several girls 
find summer jobs as baby sitters in 
nearby beach motels. 

Once a child is registered in the 
school nursery program, he usually 
goes back each year until he is old 
enough to go to school. The age 
bracket for enrollees is technically two 
to five, but no boy or girl who 
becomes six during the year is dis- 
missed. "We try to take four two- 
year-olds at the beginning of every 
year and maintain a general class bal- 
ance of 50 percent boys and 50 
percent girls. When we have an open- 
ing, we go to the waiting list, which 
now numbers 85, and select the first 
appropriate child — by that I mean a 
three-year-old boy, a two-year-old girl, 
or whatever." Some of Mrs. Bayne's 
present aide trainees were once en- 
rolled in the nursery and kindergarten. 

At New Hanover High School the 
weekly $8 fee for each child pays for 
food, toys, equipment, and salaries for 
the assistant and the maid/cook. Utili- 
ties are furnished by the school as is 
the space, which consists of a nap 
room and a lunchroom, in addition to 
the main school room used. 

Child care facilities are in growing 
demand throughout North Carolina. 
New provisions for center licensure by 
the North Carolina State Department 
of Social Services do not prohibit 
17-year-old graduates of such training 
programs from being employed as 
aides in licensed day care centers 
(licensure is a strictly voluntary meas- 
ure on the part of center directors). 
Issued in July, 1970, the only provi- 
sion regarding staff age is as follows: 

"General good health with plenty 
of energy; neither too young to exer- 
cise mature judgment in caring for 
children nor too old to function with 
physical and mental competence. The 
director shall be at least twenty-one 
years of age."* 

From now on, then, the girls who, 
upon graduation, have not turned 18 
will no longer have to delay their child 
care aide career ambitions for roughly 
one year, even where Social Services- 
licensed centers are concerned, accord- 
ing to Mrs. Patricia Gustaveson, licens- 
ing supervisor, Day Care Services Unit, 
State Department of Social Services. 

Mrs. Kitty Lyons, SDPI occupa- 
tional educational consultant, notes 
that 10 Tar Heel schools now have 
child care aide training courses similar 
to the one at New Hanover High 
School. (JLN) 

*From Day Care Center: Standards 
and Requirements for License, First 
Edition, North Carolina State Depart- 
ment of Social Services, 1970. 

College Students Tutor Disadvantaged 

The little boy who lives way back 
up in the cove is shy, pale, and very 
sad at times. He's been in the second 
and third grades twice now, and during 
the winter he's absent from school 
more than he's present. 

Nobody knows exactly why this is 
so. But they do know that he gets very 
excited sometimes. And happy. Espe- 
cially when his tutor visits twice a 
week. She helps him learn to read and 
understand numbers. And best of all, 
she talks to him. And listens. 

The two of them take walks and 
play games. And the little boy is 
excited beyond containment as he 
clings to his tutor during a visit to 
Mars Hill College. It's his first ice 
cream cone and the first time he's seen 
a swimming pool. He gets in, still 
clinging to Delores, his tutor. 

Delores was one of about 180 
student tutors at Mars Hill College last 
year. The Student Tutor Corps pro- 
vided about 4,320 contact hours of 
tutoring during one twelve-week peri- 
od at 23 different locations. 

The tutor program is just one as- 
pect of community involvement at 
Mars Hill College. It is operated under 
the Community Development Institute 
which was made possible by a grant 
from the Smith Reynolds Foundation. 
John M. Hough, Jr., is director of the 

The tutoring - or other field ex- 
perience - is required for all education 
students at Mars Hill prior to their 
student teaching experience. It gives 
them a 'first-hand' view of school from 
the child's point of reference and 
personal experience in relating to a 
child who has difficulty with school. 

The program began at Mars Hill in 
January of 1969. Within four weeks 
invitations to participate were given to 
30 students, responses accepted, or- 
ganizational meetings arranged, and a 
two-week orientation period com- 

Students were sent into diverse 
areas of the community: urban and 
rural black communities and low- 
income white areas of rural Madison 
County. Their orientation program 
was directed toward giving them a 
broad cross-cultural experience in the 
values and mores of each setting, said 
Dr. Hough. 

That first semester 10 students 
were assigned to an urban ghetto to 
relate to black children on a one-to- 
one basis. Two others tutored small 
groups of black children in "Long 
Ridge," a neighborhood adjacent to 

the town of Mars Hill. 

Ten students were sent to the iso- 
lated mountain area known as Spill- 
corn. Each was assigned to a family 
and was supposed to tutor one child. 
They ended up, said Dr. Hough, tutor- 
ing a family group of three to six 
children. A fourth group of students 
traveled to the public high school in 
Marshall where they tutored 55 high 
schoolers twice weekly in algebra, his- 
tory, biology, English, business, math, 
and science. 

Grover, the little boy mentioned 
earlier, and his tutor, Delores, are good 
examples of the two-fold purpose of 
the Mars Hill Program. It was meant, 
said Dr. Hough, first to help the Mars 
Hill students become better informed, 
more experienced teachers. "And if a 
tutor doesn't end up being a teacher, 
he will have a wealth of experience 
relating as a parent or concerned citi- 
zen to educational problems," he 
said. The second goal was to help the 
disadvantaged child learn the aca- 
demics of reading, writing, and arith- 
metic. "But more often the goal be- 
came one of helping change the child's 
attitude toward learning and school," 
said Dr. Hough. 

He feels that the relationship be- 
tween the tutor and his pupil is just as 
important as the actual "book learn- 
ing" that takes place. "Until the child 
trusts or even likes his tutor, he's not 
likely to learn a great deal or change 
an attitude very much. When the tutor 
has made the first hurdle in getting his 
little friend to respond to him as a 
person - relaxed, happy, and talking 
- then the two can work on numbers, 
games, words, etc. And finally there 
will be books to read, stories to tell, 
and things to write," he said. 

During the fall of 1969 the program 
grew to about 80 students from nine 
different academic fields. Each tutor 
spent an average of two hours each 
week tutoring disadvantaged children 
in Madison and Buncombe Counties. 
And many, according to Dr. Hough, 
spent as many as eight hours in travel 
time each week. The tutors are reim- 
bursed for their travel expenses, and 
those that travel any distance go in 

As the program grew the settings 
for tutoring grew even more diverse: 
mountain homes, public schools, city 
facilities such as orphanages, and the 
Mars Hill Baptist Church, where 
kitchen facilities and educational 
equipment allowed the students to 
plan a controlled tutoring situation 

two mornings and two afternoons each 

As the students ran into one diffi- 
culty after another, the tutor seminars 
became more and more important. 
"We learned from early experience 
that the seminar was absolutely essen- 
tial for the tutors," said Dr. Hough. 
Many of the tutors deal with problems 
the experts can't always solve: cultural 
versus mental retardation, for one. 

But despite the problems, the 
tutors like it. Most say that the semi- 
nar is the most important college class 
they've had. "It's really a seminar and 
not just a lecture," said one student. 

"I found out who I was," said 
another, and "This will affect every 
relationship I enter from now on," was 
yet another response. Some of the 
tutors, of course, will never enter the 
teaching profession. But Dr. Hough 
estimates that 75 percent have already 
entered teaching, and a few have 
changed majors to do so. 

The fall program is being spurred 
by another grant from the Reynolds 
Foundation - $65,000. The founda- 
tion has, in fact, given the Baptist 
senior college a total of $139,519 
since 1968 for various academically 
based programs in community service 
and off-campus learning. 

The current grant is being used to 
further the tutorial program, to recruit 
public school teachers to train the 
tutors, and to evaluate the impact of 
tutoring on student attitudes toward 
learning. There is more one-to-one 
tutoring, and both tutors and children 
are screened so that interests may be 

Other "service learning" projects at 
Mars Hill include an Upward Bound 
program for about 70 local high school 
underachieves, co-sponsorship of a 
VISTA program, and placement of 
students in public and private agencies 
for class-related observations. 

The college also offers its 1,300 
students a dozen service-learning 
courses along with standard studies. 

"What we are after," said Mars Hill 
College President Fred B. Bentley, "is 
an educational experience which has 
value - value to the student and to his 
society." The service-learning ap- 
proach doesn't imply that the college 
is going to remake the world or that all 
experience outside the classroom is 
meaningful or academically legitimate, 
he said. But it does imply, he feels, 
that education can't be kept in a 
neutral or objective vacuum. (I\IJ) ■ 


The magazine rack in the college 
bookstore could have been anywhere: 
the stacks of publications included 
Time, Newsweek, and The Reader's 
Digest. I reached for something a little 
different, a flashy magazine called 
Modem Woman. First came the ads: 
"A little love and Ferelan goes a long 
way," the children's vitamin supple- 
ment promised; and Blue Omo said it 
would "Wash frocks brightest." Then I 


I 1 **• _ or All About Abebi 


found Abebi. 

"If I don't marry Abebi, no other 
man will," the story began. "But 
another man did when Oyewas reject- 
ed by an Oracle." To Western eyes - 
mine - a clear paradox: a modern 
woman's magazine with a story involv- 
ing oracles? 

But the magazine and the book- 
store were African. Ibadan, Nigeria, to 
be exact. Last summer. 

Other than visiting a foreign coun- 
try, there's no better way for students 
to learn about another culture than to 
read their stories, books, and news- 
papers; listen to tapes of their people 
tell what they do and why; examine 
art objects, cooking utinsels, etc. 

And that is why, basically, 12 Tar 
Heel teachers spent almost seven 
weeks in West Africa last summer. 
Most of the information they gathered 
went into their eyes, ears, and nostrils. 
Much of it, however, came back in 
overweight suitcases, by mail, or by 
boat, and included everything from 
"stools" used as thrones by the 
Ashante people in Ghana to colorful 
leather goods sold by Hausa traders on 
the streets of Ibadan, Nigeria. 

Ibadan, like most things West Afri- 
can, is another paradox: the modern, 
multi-storied Cocoa Building towers 
above acres of tin-roofed shacks that 
are the City Market, where ball point 
pens are sold only a few feet from 
dried cockroaches, bought for protein. 
In the Cocoa Restaurant the rich can 
feast on pizza and hamburgers, made 
with bagel-like buns. But in the market 
a trademan pushes a fresh goat carcass 
beneath a shopper's nose. A few inches 
from his bare feet runs a small dark 


stream -- on closer examination, an 
open sewer. 

Following the meat industry 
further, one can discover the cattle 
market on the outskirts of the city. 
Hundreds of long-homed, thinnish cat- 
tle mill in a muddy field as the men 
argue in their native tongue, prodding 
the animals with sticks. Try to take a 
picture and the assistant veterinarian is 
liable to rush up and insist that you 
visit the veterinary clinic where the 
animals are innoculated. 

Nigerians - or the Yoruba who 
dominate the nation - are proud 
people. They're proud of their culture 
and they want visitors to see more 
than open sewers and muddy cattle 
auctions. And the teachers were will- 
ing to see. 

There's more, of course, to learning 
than just seeing. Leaving the cattle 
market, the teachers crowd into a 
lorry after bargaining for the price of a 
ride back to Queen Elizabeth Hall at 
the University of Ibadan. Cameras and 
tape recorders hang from their necks; 
wood carvings and lengths of cloths fill 
their arms. 

The North Carolinians were a part 
of a group of 132 teachers who visited 
West Africa last summer on an educa- 
tional program sponsored by the Afri- 
can-American Institute, a New York 
based, non-profit organization that 
promotes African-American exchanges. 
The Tar Heels' travel and study was 
funded through grants from the U. S. 
Office of Education, the Rockefeller 
Foundation, local school units, and 
private funds. 

The study program itself was 
unique. Never before had such a large 
group of American teachers visited 
Africa to study at African universities. 
North Carolina's part was particularly 
unique. The State is the only one in 
the nation introducing African studies 
into the social studies curriculum on a 
State-wide basis. Other areas have 
done it by city or system but North 
Carolina is the first State to put Africa 
into the curriculum across the board. 
H. Thomas Collins, director of School 
Services for the African-American In- 
stitute, calls the effort "a real break- 

According to John Ellington, social 
studies consultant for the State De- 
partment of Public Instruction and a 
member of the African "team," the 
introduction will take place at the 
seventh and tenth grade levels during 
the 1971-72 school year. The innova- 
tion, however, is just a part of an 

overall social studies revision for 
grades K-12. (See related story, page 

Ellington said that North Carolina 
history, traditionally studied at the 
seventh grade level, will be treated in 
both the eighth and ninth grades. In 
addition to Africa, seventh-graders will 
study Asia, and the Pacific Islands. 

Regardless, one might well ask, 
"Why Africa?" And one answer is the 
fact that Africa has long been over- 
looked in the Western curriculum. The 
standard joke goes, "Isn't Africa a 
country?" And much of what is stud- 
ied about Africa is all wrong or empha- 
sizes the exotic. Pigmies, wild animals, 
and safaris, for example, are all wrong 
- at least in West Africa. Pigmies, for 
one thing, comprise only a small part 
of the continent's population. And in 
West Africa the only wild animals to 
be seen are in zoos. All the wild 
animals have been eaten or shot. So 
one reason for an emphasis on Africa 
is to get the story straight; banish the 

The North Carolina teachers 
couldn't possibly accomplish this in 
seven short weeks. They could, how- 
ever, and did get sources of good 
materials from African experts, collect 
some materials themselves, and gen- 
erally prove to themselves that the 
myths are indeed myths. In addition, 
the group will be involved in develop- 
ing sample study units for the 1971-72 
inclusion as well as planning and parti- 
cipating in in-service activities for 
other teachers this year. They will also 
be used as resource persons for region- 
al workshops and conferences. 

"Since the African nationalistic 
movement came to a head in the late 
50's - Ghana, in 1957, was the first 
nation to achieve independence - 
Africa is growing in prominence in 
world affairs," said Miss June Gilliard, 
another State Department of Public 
Instruction consultant on the trip. 
"We cannot afford to overlook it," she 

Another basic reason for a study of 
Africa is the need for black identity 
and cultural definition in America. 
Whites can try to imagine a blank 
where European history exists, and the 
gap that exists for blacks is clear. 

"A man has to realize that he has a 
past before he can have a future. And 
you can't have an identity without a 
name ... a past," said Mrs. Margaret 
Cousins, a teacher at Hillside High 
School in Durham. 

During their summer experience the 

teachers were enrolled in universities 
in Ghana and Nigeria, living much as 
African students might: eating the 
same basic foods, prepared, perhaps, a 
little differently in deference to the 
Americans; sleeping in the same beds; 
and hearing the same professors lec- 
ture on everything from literature to 
religion, and economics to history. 

In addition to lectures, there were 
field trips to villages, various indus- 
tries, and cities. Many, however, and 
Mrs. Cousins is one, said they learned 
more from wandering in small groups 
or alone, making African friends, tast- 
ing their foods, smelling, seeing, and 

"It's not that I haven't studied 
about Africa before. But you can't 
form an opinion unless you get to the 
source yourself," she said. 

Mrs. Cousins was befriended by a 
woman who owns an import-export 
shop in Ibadan's Imperial Hotel. She 
closed down her shop one day and 
took Mrs. Cousins on a tour of the 
city. At a goldsmith's shop she saw 
jewelry made, from ore to finished 
product; in the market Mrs. Cousins 
discussed the use of cooking utinsels 
with the people who use them; and at 
the beauty parlor, saw women braid 
hair in the intricate, traditional Afri- 
can manner. "The newest style there is 
known as the Afro-cut, a very compli- 
cated arrangement. Our 'Afro' is the 
natural style to them," she said. 

From the beauty parlor they went 
to a seamstress. "Ready-made clothes 
are practically nonexistent in West 
Africa. People have their garments 
made at little shops, where an order 
can be completed in a day," said Mrs. 
Cousins. After the visit to the seam- 
stress, the two went to visit some of 
the woman's relatives for a "naming" 
ceremony. "There was a large crowd 
of women present, and they brought 
out a little eight-day-old baby to name 
it," she said. 

Her friend, said Mrs. Cousins, is "of 
the elite class since she's been able to 
set herself up in a shop. She has no 
working hours - opening and closing 
her shop whenever she's ready. A very 
independent Nigerian woman," she 

"I learned so much from the peo- 
ple. You've got to talk to them to get 
the feeling of the country," said the 
lively, petite teacher. One thing she 
found was that the concept of beauty 
is different. "Obesity is a sign of 
beauty. It shows that the husband 
keeps her well fed," she laughed. 


The group was in Kumasi, Ghana, 
for the "enstoolment" ceremony of 
the new Ashantehene, the titular head 
of the ancient Ashante people. (En- 
stoolment is an enthronement cere- 
mony with gold "stools" used instead 
of thrones. Chairs, for ceremonial pur- 
poses, are called "stools.") No one saw 
a "stool" at the ceremony, since that 
part of the ceremony is carried on in 
private. They did, however, witness a 
public festival in the city's sports arena 
with thousands of Ghanians gathered 
to honor their leader. 

Time magazine's account of the 
affair a week later drew the teachers' 
fire. Kumasi was called "a bejeweled 
city in the jungle moonlight." The city 
is located in the rain forest; however, 
much of the tall growth, such as 
mahogony, has long since been tim- 
bered and carried away to be made 
into Queen Anne tables. Then there 
were Time's "oiled skins of the tribes- 
men," most of whom probably lived in 
the city and were tribesmen to the 
degree that Scotsmen are clansmen. 
"Myths die hard," said one teacher. 
"One reason is that myths make good 
reading. But that doesn't let Time off 
the hook," he said. 

So does the truth. And the teach- 
ers' summer experiences may help to 
blow a few myths. The tapes and slides 
they made, for example, will be dup- 
licated by the State education agency 
for classroom use. Other materials like 
newspapers can also be compiled and 
duplicated for students. 

Paradoxes, however, remain. And 
many of the teachers concentrated on 
capturing them: a tape of a chief 
demonstrating talking drums and ex- 
plaining them in Oxford-style English; 
Coke signs as a background to women 
pounding wash in a stream; orange- 
headed lizards napping in the sun atop 
air conditioners; and "All About 

North Carolina teachers on the trip 
were Mrs. Clarice Sellers - Ranson 
Junior High, Mrs. Patsy Rice - John 
T. Williams Junior High, and Mrs. Eva 
Wylie - the Model Cities Project, all of 
Charlotte; Mrs. Ruby Murchison - 
Washington Drive Junior High, Fay- 
etteville; Mrs. Margaret Cousins- Hill- 
side High, Durham; Miss Harriet Par- 
rish - supervisor, Miss Jo Ann Easley 
- North Forsyth High, and Benjamin 
Henderson - Jefferson Junior High, all 
of Winston-Salem; and John Ellington 
and Miss June Gilliard, social studies 
consultants with the State Department 
of Public Instruction. ■ 


Editor's Note: The preceding article 
was written by Nancy Jolly of SDPI's 
Public Information and Publications 
staff, who joined the North Carolina 
group in West Africa for about three 
weeks. The trip, however, ended in 
tragedy. Mrs. Jean Poole of Rockwell, 
a teacher at John Knox Junior High 
School in Salisbury, died in the Uni- 
versity of Ibadan College Hospital on 
August 12 of a ruptured liver, accord- 
ing to the preliminary autopsy reports. 
The following is a tribute to Mrs. 
Poole written by Rose Post and pub- 
lished in the August 18 edition of the 
Salisbury Post: 

Jean Poole's body is being brought home 

But Jean Poole's message — that people 
who care can leave a better world than they 
found — was here when the news first came 
last week that she had died while on a study 
trip to Africa. 

The first reaction was shock. 

One boy's voice was horrified. 

"Mrs. Poole's dead." 

His face looked like his voice sounded, 
begging to be told it wasn't true. Jean Poole, 
Knox Junior High teacher, dead in Africa. 
Written down in black and white. 

But not to be believed. 

Not then. 

Not now. 

People like Jean Poole don't die. 

Not suddenly. 

Not in the middle of things. 

And she was always in the middle of 

For her to die, the boy said, was unfair, 
and she was never unfair. 

Not Mrs. Poole, with her pretty blonde 
hair and her short skirts ("because they help 
kids know I'm part of them, that I'm not 
condemning what they do," she said once, 
half apologizing for being a mother and a 
teacher with a skirt a couple of inches above 
her knee before other women had had the 
courage to fall in line.) 

Not Mrs. Poole, who always looked right 
at you and was never, never too busy to 
listen when something was bothering you. 
"She's the Dear Abby of Knox Junior 
High," someone said once, laughing. And 

Because it didn't matter what the trouble 
was — an assignment you couldn't under- 
stand, a friend you were having trouble 
talking to, something that happened at 
home, understanding a headline in the news- 
paper — you always KNEW that she had 
plenty of time to listen and to try to help 
work it out. 

"I knew she wouldn't ever say 'no' if I 
asked her," a student said. "She liked to 
help. She cared about me. And all the 
others, too. But she really did. She cared 
about me." 

And all the others, too. 

She was caring at Knox last year when 
she talked the student council into being 
concerned about safety at the corner of 
Parkview Circle and Mahaley Avenue. And 
she was understanding students when she 
agreed to go along with their plan to 
"shock" the student body into a realization 
of the danger by pretending that one of the 
popular, well-known boys had been hit at 
the corner and making an announcement — 
herself — about it on the intercom. 

Some people complained. It was a terri- 
ble thing to do, they told her. "It scared me 
to death." Well, she responded, that's just 

exactly what the kids wanted it to do, so 
their judgment — and her faith in them — 
was justified, and that one incident virtually 
corrected the safety problem. 

She was caring the day she took her 
lunch hour to knock on another teacher's 

"Mr. Banks," she said to the black 
teacher, right in front of the class, "may I 
borrow your knife?" 

"My knife?" he asked. "I don't have a 

"Sure you do," she said. "All black men 
carry knives." 

And if looks could kill, she said later, she 
would have been dead from the stares of 
students stunned that she had dared to 
insult their teacher. 

But they found out that one of their 
myths — that all black men carry knives — 
was a myth. 

And they forgave her while she contri- 
buted her lunch hour for two weeks so that 
she and Luther Banks, a black teacher, 
could explode all kinds of myths for a group 
of ninth graders taking civics. 

Those ninth graders spread the word — 
because human relations was something real 
when it was in her hands. There are those 
who say that two weeks helped change the 
climate at Knox Junior High School, which 
had been tense with the first year of full 

She cared when a new teacher needed 
help, when an organization said come, when 
her church said there was a job to be done, 
especially with children. Outstanding teach- 
er, loving wife and mother, active Christian, 
participating citizen, a "second mother" to 
hundreds of children she had taught . . . 

All the words were used as news of her 
death spread through the community last 

And none of them were enough . . . 

Jean Poole cared when she was asked to 
go to Africa, even though it meant seven 
weeks out of a summer she wanted to spend 
with her husband and three daughters. 

"Bill said I should go," she said one 
afternoon early in June, standing in the hot 
sun in front of Knox. "He said he and the 
children could get along all right for just 
seven weeks and it could mean so much to 
my students . . . ." 

And so she went, with all the zest she put 
into everything she touched. 

She always walked quickly, ready for 
tomorrow, sure that no matter what the 
problems — and she looked straight at them 
— that real people, caring about each other, 
could find good answers — and smile at each 
other while they found them. 

We'll miss her advice, a teacher said, and 
her sense of humor, and her settling influ- 
ence on sensitive situations. 

But believe that Jean Poole is gone? 

She wouldn't want that. 

Her message is still here, moving quickly 
toward a better tomorrow. ■ 


Social studies in North Carolina is taking on a new look. The 
entire curriculum (K-12) is undergoing revision. 

According to Jesse Vuncannon, social studies director for the 
Department of Public Instruction, some parts of the revision have 
been adopted by most school systems in the State. And the entire 
plan, according to Consultants John Ellington and June Gilliard, 
has been in the making for at least five years. 

The revised program, according to Miss Gilliard, is organized 
around major concepts drawn from anthropology, geography, 
sociology, economics, political science, and history. "A major 
goal of the program," she said, "is to enable students to develop 
an understanding of these concepts and to acquire the necessary 
skill in using them." 

The basic pattern for the new sequence is from "near to far." 
Traditionally, the idea has applied only to the vertical organiza- 
tion of the content with studies in the first grade beginning with 
the child's immediate surroundings and proceeding to areas less 

"But since children today are exposed to things outside their 
community at an earlier age, it is important that the 'near-to-far' 
approach be used in the horizontal organization as well," said 
Miss Gilliard. The kindergarten program, for example, begins with 
the child and his family and is then expanded to include children 
and families in other environments. 

Most schools, say the consultants, have adopted the K-6 
sequence. Textbooks for 4-6 were adopted for the 1968-69 
school year with calls based on the new curriculum. The basic 
change for K-6 is methodology, said Ellington. 

The largest content change, according to Ellington, comes at 
the seventh-grade level. The new program will include a study of 
Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. North Carolina history, 
traditionally studied at the seventh-grade level, will be moved to 
the eighth and ninth grades. 

The call for new seventh-grade textbooks went out this fall 
with classroom use slated for the 1971-72 school year. (Text- 
books for 8-12 will be called next year and in the classroom by 
1972-73.) In-service programs for this year will concentrate on 
the seventh-grade revision. Joining the African-American Institute 
last year, the State education agency began sponsoring a 
three-year program of in-service activities; college conferences and 
regional workshops will continue through 1971-72. (See related 
story, page 12.) 

In-service activities emphasizing the revision, however, began 
some years ago and included many hours of individual work with 
various administrative units. Pilot projects for the primary 
curriculum were located in 10 CSIP schools and 2 kindergartens 

last spring. In addition, prototype units for K-6 are now available, 
and units for higher levels are being prepared. 

The revision in most of the schools of the State, said 
Vuncannon, should be complete by the 1972-73 school year. 


K Family 

1 Home, School, and Home and School 



Our Community 

Neighborhood and Com- 

3 Community, Now Communities 

and Long Ago 

4 Communities Around State and Region 

the World 

The United States 

lorth, South, and 
Central America 

6 Eastern Hemisphere Europe and the U.S.S.R. 

7 N. C. History, Geog- Africa, Asia, and Pacific 

raphy, and Gov- Islands 

8 U.S. History and West- United States and North 

em Hemisphere Geog- Carolina Heritage 

9 Civics, Government, United States and North 

and Geography Carolina Heritage 

10 World History and World Cultures 
World Geography 

United States History World Cultures 

12 Economics and Socio!- The United States in 

ogy, Government, Today's World 

and Problems of 


Who's George? The question and its 
answers epitomize the Governor's 
School. George is the main character 
in a theater-of-the-absurd production 
presented last summer by students at 
the Governor's School in Winston- 

"George" was played by two stu- 
dents: a white boy and a black girl. He 
had no lines but "he" was the focus, 
whether center-stage or off-stage, of 
each scene. And the scenes, which 
ranged from mystic interpretations or 
stock settings to sharp characteriza- 
tions of archtypes, managed to give a 
panorama of, to be trite about it, life. 

The play would have confused the 
ordinary student. But Governor's 
School students loved it. It was an 
experience to which they could bring 
different knowledges and talents to 
bear and come up with different 
answers, all of which were valid. 
George, of course, was everyman. But 
figuring it out wasn't for everybody. 

And that's where Governor's 
School students part company with 
their fellows. They don't exactly part 
company. They go beyond. Each sum- 
mer 400 of North Carolina's most 
intelligent and talented high school 
students (juniors and seniors) gather 
for eight weeks of resident study on 
the campus of Salem College. The 
program, funded from 1963 to 1965 
by private foundations, has since been 
continued with public funds. 

The students who attend are select- 
ed each year, according to James Bray, 
superintendent, on the basis of supe- 
rior ability and quotas drawn from the 
pro-rated school population from the 
whole State. "From those nominated, 
State-level screening and auditioning 
teams select 400 with the greatest 
academic gift or artistic talent," he 
said. Tuition, room, board, instruc- 
tional supplies, and books are fur- 
nished free. And the school is also free 
of the usual requirements which may 
be a part of their local school program. 
Unit credit is not given. 

Many of the students interviewed 
last summer said that the experience 
was the first time they were allowed, 
demanded even, to let their minds 
soar, question anything, come up with 
anything they might, without being 
known as "eggheads," or lone wolves. 
"That's the best part," said one girl, 
"you can ask anything or say any- 

The idea of the school is to ac- 
quaint the students, who are con- 
sidered future leaders in their fields, 




with the latest in techniques and 
theories. "We want to show them the 
thorny problems in their fields that 
need solutions and inspire them to 
creative activity on their own," said 
Dr. H. Michael Lewis, coordinator of 

The school offers three main areas 
of learning activity, each with its own 
emphasis on an aspect of personality 
development. All three, however, are 
integrated and complementary. 

Area I is Special Aptitude Develop- 
ment. "This is the area of each stu- 
dent's special talent or giftedness and 
the basis for which he or she was 
chosen to attend the summer session," 
said Dr. Lewis. The areas include 
dance, drama, English, French, mathe- 
matics, music, natural science, paint- 
ing, and social sciences. 

Two thirds of the students' class 
time is devoted to Area I. Materials 
and methods for teaching are chosen 
to acquaint students with the latest 
developments in that field. Drama 
students, for example, worked with 
theater of the absurd ("George") and, 
as far as staging went, used multimedia 
sets and audience participation tech- 
niques. Music students studied Henry 
Brandt's "Voyage," a "space pro- 
duction," they called it, in which 
sections of the orchestra were placed 
in different parts of the auditorium, 
playing to one another and then to- 

Area II is general Intellectual De- 
velopment, in which students expand 
their interest and knowledge beyond 
their specialty to include as the school's 
descriptive literature calls it, "the 
whole spectrum of advancing knowl- 
edge." Dr. Lewis calls this area 
one in which "narrow specialities are 

transcended and seen as incomplete 
parts of a larger whole." A course in 
the "Logic of the Sciences and the 
Humanities" forms the nucleus, sup- 
plemented by readings from the Great 
Books of the Western World Series. 

Area III is Personal and Social 
Development. "Gifted people and 
leaders, by definition, are outstanding, 
and, many times, they are looked 
upon as being eccentric," said Dr. 
Lewis. "They often have special prob- 
lems of adjustment: understanding 
themselves and relating properly to 

Students also have opportunities to 
hear guest lectures; attend concerts, 
dramatic productions, and exhibits; 
take part in forums; and see films for 
cultural enrichment. "The program at- 
tempts to stimulate critical inquiry 
and to foster an interest in continuing 
education," said Bray. 

Two things usually happen to stu- 
dents who attend the Governor's 
School, according to Dr. Lewis. First, 
they mutually stimulate each other. 
"Especially those students who come 
from small schools or schools without 
special programs for the gifted. They 
find they're not alone in the world. 
Not the only eggheads," he said. 

Secondly, he said, the students are 
humbled by the experience, and per- 
haps for the first time. "For the first 
time in their young lives, they find 
there are other roosters in the barn- 
yard whose combs may be as bright or 
brighter than theirs!" 

Emphasis at the school in the past 
was on educational theory and curricu- 
lum development: it took trial and 
error to come up with the integrated 
"Area threesome," Bray said. Present 
emphasis, however, is shifting to train- 
ing teachers of the gifted and talented 
throughout the State. 

Last summer an in-service training 
program for 25 teachers ran concur- 
rently with the school, using students 
and faculty as a learning lab. All of the 
teachers were selected on their super- 
intendents' recommendation. Areas of 
study covered the psychology of the 
gifted, identification, guidance, and 
evaluation, as well as actual teaching 
methods, curriculum development, 
and promising practices in existing 
programs. The Institute was funded 
this year by the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation and operated under the 
supervision of the Division of Special 
Education (now the Division for Ex- 
ceptional Children) of the State De- 
partment of Public Instruction. ■ 


Where We're Going 

by Edwin L. West, Jr., Director of Development 
North Carolina Department of Public Instruction 

Of all the various titles contained in the Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act of 1965, Title III is, by far, the most 
unique. As originally written it does not provide for the 
perpetuation of existing programs. Rather, it is designed to 
encourage the development of exemplary and innovative educa- 
tional projects at the local level and to demonstrate the validity 
of such programs to other school units. 

Primary among the innovations initiated by Title III programs 
in North Carolina and which are now becoming everyday 
practices are non-gradedness; team teaching; in-service education; 
humanities programs; kindergarten and other early childhood 
programs; the cultural arts; micro teaching; modular scheduling; 
independent study; individualized instruction programs; occupa- 
tional education in the lower and middle grades; marine and 
environmental science programs; utilization of instructional re- 
source centers; programs for underachieves and the emotionally 

What is next on the horizon for Title III in North Carolina? 
Perhaps the answer to this question is best answered by an 
analysis of the role of the State Department of Public Instruction 
in innovation. The State educational agency is aware that it 
cannot escape the rapid and pervasive social and technological 
change facing society. Rather than be engulfed by it, we propose 
instead to initiate and manage change in the most effective 
possible manner. Thus, the role of Title III must be examined in 
light of efforts at the State level to foster desirable change. 

Prior to August 1970, all experimental programs under the 
auspices of the State Department of Public Instruction operated 
as separate independent entities. Such programs included Title 
III, CSIP, and others. Since that time all programs of an 
experimental nature have been placed under the Division of 
Development. This change was made to facilitate the coordina- 
tion of a State-wide system of approved experimentation and 

Included in the rationale for coordinating all experimental 
efforts is the fact that beginning with the 1971-72 fiscal year, if 
North Carolina's allocation for Title III is maintained at its 
current level, funds will be made available to initiate approxi- 
mately thirty new experimental programs. Additional innovative 
projects will be initiated with funds requested in the "B" budget 
for the next biennium. It is felt that through a well-coordinated 
system of experimentation desirable change can be more easily 
effected. In addition, duplication of efforts can be reduced. 

The first steps of the Title III and CSIP staffs will be to 
identify future priorities for education in North Carolina. Certain 
to be included in this listing are a twelve-month school year, 
differentiated staffing, and the community school concept. 

Following approval of these priorities by the State Board of 
Education, the Title III and CSIP staffs, as well as representatives 
from local school units, will visit locales across the United States 
where such experimental programs are in existence. Upon their 
return they will adapt and modify their ideas and observations so 
as to develop alternative approaches to implementing these 
innovative efforts in North Carolina. These persons will be 
available to local school units to assist them in the development 
of ideas and/or proposals for possible funding from either Title 
III or State appropriations for experimental programs. 

Rarely do educators have an opportunity to effectively plan 
future directions. Typically, time is spent "putting out fires" or 
writing a proposal that is due overnight. Hopefully, through 
systematic planning and development, North Carolina's State- 
wide system of experimentation, financed with Title III and State 
funds, will become a model for other states to follow. 


National Teacher Examinations will be given at 22 North 
Carolina locations during the academic year. Applications can be 

obtained from school superintendents, education departments in 
senior colleges, and the Educational Testing Service. The com- 
pleted forms should be mailed to the Educational Testing Service, 
Box 911, Princeton, New Jersey, before the registration closing 

For Tar Heel examinees, these are the dates to remember: 

Examination Date 

November 14,1970 
January 30,1971 
April 3, 1971 

Registration Deadline 

October 22,1970 
January 7, 1971 
March 11,1971 




By the end of 1970, North Carolina will have gained three new 
educational television channels, part of a plan by the University 

of North Carolina Educational Television (UNCET) network to 
make a usable signal available to everyone in the State. 

In combination with existing facilities, the new Farmville, 
Delco, and Sauratown Mountain transmitters will offer educa- 
tional viewing opportunities to 95 percent of all North Caro- 
linians who watch television. 

But that won't be enough, says Dr. George E. Bair, director of 
educational television for the University of North Carolina. 
"We're working as hard as we know how, indeed, with outside 
engineering consultants' help, to find ways to get signals into the 
hardest spots to reach - the mountains west of Asheville and 
Cartaret County to the east," Bair notes. 


It's 12:10 in the middle of the first 
lunch period at a junior high school. 
Outside the cafeteria a group of four 
boys are talking with their heads to- 
gether. As a teacher passes by, the 
boys stop talking and one of them 
attempts to stuff something in his 
pocket. He drops half a dozen red and 
yellow capsules on the pavement. 
What are the capsules? Is he taking 
medicine his doctor has prescribed for 
him or is he about to sell ampheta- 
mines or barbiturates to his class- 
mates? What does the teacher do? 

lina Pharmaceutical Association. 

During the week-long programs 
(one each for western, piedmont, and 
eastern North Carolina educators), 
speakers came from almost every 
specialty that would be directly con- 
fronted with drug abuse education: 
medicinal chemistry, pharmacognosy, 
pharmacology, pharmacy, pathology, 
psychiatry, psychology, epidemiology, 
pediatrics, environmental health, en- 
vironmental sciences, air hygiene, men- 
tal health, health education, theology, 
governmental agencies, and youth, 

Legislative Drug Abuse Commission 

The Legislative Drug Abuse Com- 
mission is a one-year study group that 
began gathering data last January. Ex- 
ecutive Secretary Donald Dunson, who 
has been both a teacher and a guidance 
counselor, serves as its coordinator. 

According to Dunson, the Raleigh- 
based Commission is doing much of its 
work through action of its three sub- 
committees. One of them is making a 
State-wide study of the drug problem 
from an educational point of view; the 

In an effort to help North Carolina 
educators look for some of the an- 
swers to the drug abuse problem, the 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion and UNC's School of Pharmacy 
co-sponsored three intensive five-day 
institutes in Chapel Hill last summer. 
One obligation of the 200 participants 
was to go back to their communities 
and pass their newly gained knowledge 
on to the teachers, counselors, and 
administrators whom they represented 
at Chapel Hill. 

George Shackelford, SDPI consult- 
ant for health education, and Dr. 
George P. Hager, dean of the UNC 
School of Pharmacy, planned the in- 
stitutes to help prepare teachers to 
deal with the drug problem. (Public 
School Law 115-37 requires city and 
county boards of education to provide 
efficient instruction in each grade 
about drug abuse, and Public School 
Law 115-198 requires that such in- 
struction be incorporated into the 
mandatory curriculum of one or more 
grades.) They also wanted to extend 
the School of Pharmacy's "Student- 
to-Student" program, in which ad- 
vanced pharmacy students travel to 
the schools to talk to pupils about 
drug abuse, and to extend the MOD 
(Misuse of Drugs) program of the 
Woman's Auxiliary of the North Caro- 

both pro- and anti-Establishment. 
Those who attended also had a chance 
to see Chapel Hill's "Switchboard," 
the State's only crisis center manned 
by former drug abusers who have 
health professions volunteers on call at 
all times. 

Now the institute participants are 
at home carrying out local drug abuse 
information programs. They were 
urged to use local experts wherever 
possible - the home town doctor, 
pharmacist, law enforcement officer, 
teenager, minister, psychologist, etc. - 
to help local educators come to grips 
with the problem. These local efforts 
are supported by the State Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction with a 
full-time drug training consultant, Bob 
Frye, who began traveling to com- 
munities across the State in September 
to help set up the local programs. 
Local planners can also turn for help 
in obtaining information and speakers 
to the "Student-to-Student" and MOD 
programs mentioned earlier, as well as 
other State agencies vitally interested 
in the problem, such as the Legislative 
Drug Abuse Commission, State De- 
partment of Mental Health, and the 
State Bureau of Investigation. An out- 
line of the drug abuse activities of 
these last three State groups follows. 

second, from a treatment standpoint; 
and the third, from the law enforce- 
ment angle. 

Although the Legislative Drug 
Abuse Commission has not officially 
endorsed any other action group or 
project, its members are constantly 
working with school personnel, clubs, 
health and law enforcement profes- 
sionals, and mental health organiza- 
tions to spread facts and combat mis- 
information about the nature and ex- 
tent of the problem. Commission 
members exercise extreme care in 
recommending printed and audiovisual 
materials for distribution. 

One central source of well re- 
searched and well prepared materials 
that the Commission has used exten- 
sively is the National Clearinghouse for 
Drug Abuse Information, 5454 Wis- 
consin Avenue, Chevy Chase, Mary- 
land 2001 5. Clearinghouse collects and 
disseminates materials and data taken 
from federal programs and appropriate 
private, State, and local projects. 

Last spring, the Commission con- 
ducted a State-wide conference on 
drug abuse at Memorial Auditorium in 
Raleigh. Some 2,000 educators, 
physicians, law enforcement officials, 
and youth attended. 

"Cool Line," too, is a product of 

the Study Commission. It is a general 
information service, not a crisis center. 
Commission office staffers answer calls 
during State employment hours. If the 
staff member answering a call can 
handle it alone, he does; if not, he has 
the proper consultant return the 
party's call via the State's WATS line. 
On weekends and at night, questions 
are recorded so that callers can have 
their answers called back during office 
hours the following week. So far, 
though, "Cool Line's" service is toll 
free only for callers in the Raleigh 
dialing area. 

The final task of the 11-member 
Legislative Drug Abuse Commission is 
twofold: it has been charged with 
submitting its findings to the General 
Assembly when it convenes in January 
and, at the same time, recommending 
specific legislation that eventually will 
help make drug abuse in North Caro- 
lina a thing of the past. 

State Department of Mental Health 

When drug abuse cases are dis- 
covered, the State Department of Men- 
tal Health has treatment available in 4 
hospitals and 41 clinics located 
throughout the State. According to 
Dr. Ben Britt, director of drug abuse 
programs, Mental Health staff mem- 
bers are hoping to have guidelines 
established before the 1971 General 
Assembly convenes. In the meantime, 
State office staff members are working 
closely with their local-level staffs and 
other organizations to strengthen their 
efforts in drug abuse education, re- 
habilitation, and counseling. 

State Bureau of Investigation 

State Bureau of Investigation offi- 
cials are concentrating as much as 
possible on filling speaker requests of 
numerous concerned groups who want 
to hear the law enforcement side of 
the problem. In their addresses, the 
speakers point out the fact that most 
successful Tar Heel drug pushers are at 
the high school and college levels. 

Even though the Bureau's chief 
responsibility comes after the problem 
has been discovered, its staff is as- 
sembling a mobile drug exhibit that, it 
is hoped, will have at least some 
preventive effect. Carrying samples of 
real drugs, pictures, and other forms of 
information, the mobile unit will 
travel throughout the State by invita- 
tion to areas requesting it. It is not 
certain when the vehicle will get on 
the road because a strike is holding up 
its construction. 

The Bureau of Investigation also is 
seeking more ways to gear information 
about drugs to youth — since much 
available material has been created by 
adults, for adults to use. 

"No area of this State, however 
small, is free of the problem," says 
Charles Dunn, director of the State 
Bureau of Investigation. "Wherever 
there are (1) money and (2) people 
with problems, we are finding illegal 
drugs in use." 

The Bureau opened up 787 drug 
cases in North Carolina during the first 
six months of 1970, as compared to 
270 cases during the same period last 
year - almost a 300 percent increase 
in known cases alone. With hard facts 
such as these glaring Bureau agents in 
the face every day, Dunn doesn't hide 
his feeling that too many well-meaning 
groups are planning to do something, 
but not enough are really acting. (JLN) 


American Pharmaceutical Association. Drug 
Abuse Education: A Guide for the Profes- 
sions. (2nd edition) Washington, D.C.: The 
Association, 1969. Available from the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, 2215 
Constitution Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

American Social Health Association. Speed 
Kills! The Amphetamine Abuse Problem.. 

New York: The Association, 1969. Avail- 
able from The American Social Health 
Association, 1740 Broadway, New York, N. 
Y. 10019. 20 cents per copy; 14 cents per 
100 copies; 10 cents per 500 copies. 

Blakeslee, Alton. What You Should Know 
About Drugs and Narcotics. New York: The 
Associated Press, 1969. Available from Drug 
Booklet, Box 5, Teaneck, New Jersey. 

Bludworth, Edward. 300 Most Abused 
Drugs: A Pictorial Handbook of Interest to 
Law Enforcement Officers and Others. Tam- 
pa, Florida: Trend House, 1970. $2.00. 

Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs/ 
U.S. Department of Justice. Fact Sheets. 
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, 1969. 50 cents per copy. 

Drug Abuse: Escape to Nowhere. Phila- 
delphia: Smith, Kline, and French Labora- 
tories, 1967. Available from NEA, Publica- 
tions and Sales, 1201 W. Sixteenth Street, 
Washington, D.C. 20036. $2.00. 

A Federal Source Book: Answers to the 
Most Frequently Asked Questions About 
Drug Abuse, Washington, D. C: U. S. 
Government Printing Office, 1970. 25 cents 
per copy; $18.75 per 100 copies. 

Food and Drug Administration/U.S. Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare. 
LSD: The False Illusion. Washington, D.C: 
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968. 15 
cents per copy. 

Hollander, Charles, ed. Background Papers 
on Student Drug Involvement. Washington, 

D.C: U.S. National Student Association, 
1967. 21 1 5 S. Street N.W. Washington, D.C. 

National Clearinghouse for Mental Health 
Information. Resource Book for Drug 
Abuse Education, PHS Publication No. 
1964. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government 
Printing Office, 1969. $1.25 per copy; 
$93.75 per 100 copies. 

National Institute of Mental Health. Adverse 
Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs, PHS 
Publication No. 1810. Washington, D.C: 
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969. 
$1 .25 per copy. 

.Drug Dependence, Issue No. 2. 

Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Print- 
ing Office, December 1969. 50 cents per 

.Before Your Kid Tries Drugs, 

PHS Publication 1947. Washington, D.C: 
U.S. Government Printing Office, 1969. 25 
cents per copy; $1 8.75 per 1 00 copies. 

. Don't Guess About Drugs When 

You Can Have the Facts: A Description and 
Catalog of the Current Drug Abuse Informa- 
tion-Education Materials. Available from the 
National Institute of Mental Health NCMHI 
Publication No. 1006. Washington, D. C: 
U. S. Government Printing Office, 1969. 20 
cents per copy. 

. Fables and Facts. NCMHI Publi- 
cation No. 5021. Washington, D.C: U.S. 
Government Printing Office, 1969. 5 cents 
per copy. 

. LSD, Some Questions and 

Answers, PHS Publication No. 1828. Wash- 
ington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing 
Office, 1969. 5 cents per copy; $3.25 per 
100 copies. 

. Marihuana: Some Questions and 

Answers, PHS Publication No. 1829. Wash- 
ington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing 
Office, 1969. 5 cents per copy; $3.25 per 
100 copies. 

. Narcotics: Some Questions and 

Answers, PHS Publication No. 1827. Wash- 
ington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing 
Office, 1969. 5 cents per copy; $3.25 per 
100 copies. 

. Recent Research on Narcotics, 

LSD, Marihuana and Other Dangerous 
Drugs, PHS Publication No. 1961. Washing- 
ton, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 
1969. 25 cents per copy; $18.75 per 100 

.. Students and Drug Abuse. Wash- 

ington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing 
Office, 1969. 25 cents per copy. 

_. The Up and Down Drugs: Am- 

phetamines And Barbiturates, PHS Publica- 
tion No. 1830. Washington, D.C: U.S. 
Government Printing Office, 1969. 5 cents 
per copy ; $3.25 per 100 copies. 

Nowlis, Helen H. Drugs on the College 
Campus. Garden City, New York: Anchor 
Books, Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1969. 
95 cents per copy. 

U.S. Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare and others. "Students and Drug 
Abuse," Today's Education, March 1969. 
Reprint available from U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 25 cents 
per copy. 



ILLICIT (PROHIBITED) DRUGS (Manufacture and distribution prohibited except for approved research purposes.) 


Slang names 
LSD, Acid 

What they are 

LSD-25 is a lysergic acid deriv- 

Mescaline is a chemical taken 
from peyote cactus. 
Psilocybin is synthesized from 
Mexican mushrooms. 

How taken 

In tablet, capsule, ampul (hy- 
podermic) form or in saturated 
sugar cubes. 


Snow, Stuff, H, Junk and 

Heroin is diacetylmorphine, an 
alkaloid derived from mor- 
phine; it does not occur in 
opium. A white, off-white, or 
brown crystalline powder, it 
has long been the drug of 
choice among opiate addicts. 
Its possession is illegal. 

May be taken by any route, 
usually by intravenous in- 



Joints, Sticks, Reefers, 
Weed, Grass, Pot, Muggles, 
Mooters, Indian hay, Loco- 
weed, Mu, Giggle-smoke, 
Griffo, Mohasky, Mary Jane 

Marijuana is the dried flower- 
ing or fruiting top of the plant 
Cannabis Sativa L., commonly 
called Indian Hemp. Usually 
looks like fine, green tobacco. 
Its possession is illegal. 
Hashish is a preparation of 
cannabis, taken orally in many 

Marijuana smoked in pipes or 


Hashish is infrequently made 

into candy, sniffed in powder 

form, mixed with honey for 

drinking or with butter to 

spread on bread. 


(Essential to the practice of medicine; legitimate manufacture and 


Bennies, Co-pilots, Foot- 
balls, Hearts, Pep pills 

Amphetamines are stimulants, 
prescribed by physicians chief- 
ly to reduce appetite and to 
relieve minor cases of mental 
depression. Often used to pro- 
mote wakefulness and/or in- 
crease energy. 

Orally as a tablet or capsule. 
Abusers may resort to intra- 
venous injection. 


Red birds, Yellow jackets, 
Blue heavens, Goof balls 

Barbiturates are sedatives, pre- 
scribed to induce sleep or, in 
smaller doses, to provide a 
calming effect. All are legally 
restricted to prescription use 
only. Dependence producing, 
both psychic and physical, with 
variable tolerance. Signs of 
physical dependence appear 
with doses well above thera- 
peutic level. 

Orally as a tablet or capsule. 
Sometimes intravenously by 
drug abusers. 


The Leaf, Snow, Speedballs 
(when mixed with heroin) 

Extracted from the leaves of 
the coca bush. It is a white, 
odorless, fluffy powder that 
looks like crystalline snow. 

A surface active anesthetic; by 
abusers, taken orally or, most 
commonly intravenously 
alone, combined with or alter- 
nating with heroin. The coca 
leaves are chewed with lime, 
producing the effects of the 
contained cocaine. 



A component of opium and a 
derivative of morphine, in most 
respects a tenth or less as ef- 
fective as morphine, dose-wise. 

Usually taken orally, in tablets, 
for pain; or in a liquid prepara- 
tion, of variable alcohol 'con- 
tent, for cough. Can be injected. 


Speed, Crystal 

Stimulant, closely related to 
amphetamine and ephedrine. 

Orally, as tablets or in an elixir, 
or intravenously. 


M, Dreamer, and many 

Chart reprinted by permission of the American Social Health Associa- 
tion from "A Guide to Some Drugs Which Are Subject to Abuse." 


The principal active component 
of opium. Morphine sulphate: 
white crystalline powder, light 
porous cubes or small white 

May be taken by any route; its 
abusive use is mostly by intra- 
venous injection. 

Primary effect 

All produce hallucinations, exhilara- 
tion, or depression, and can lead to 
serious mental changes, psychotic 
manifestations, suicidal or homicidal 

How to spot abuser 

Abusers may undergo complete 
personality changes, "see" 
smells, "hear" colors. They 
may try to fly or brush imagin- 
ary insects from their bodies, 
etc. Behavior is irrational. 
Marked depersonalization. 


Very small quantities of LSD may cause hallucinations 
lasting for days or repetitive psychotoxic episodes, 
which may recur months after injection. Permanence 
of mental derangement is still a moot question. Dam- 
age to chromosomes, and hence potentially to offspring, 
has been demonstrated. 

Like morphine in all 
and shorter acting. 

respects, faster 


Like morphine; dependence usually develops more 
rapidly. Dependence liability is high. 

A feeling of great perceptiveness and 
pleasure can accompany even small 
doses. Erratic behavior, loss of mem- 
ory, distortion of time and spatial 
perceptions, and hilarity without ap- 
parent cause occur. Marked unpre- 
dictability of effect. 

Abusers may feel exhilarated or 
relaxed, stare off into space; 
be hilarious without apparent 
cause; have exaggerated sense 
of ability. 

Because of the vivid visions and exhilaration which re- 
sult from use of marijuana, abusers may lose all re- 
straint and act in a manner dangerous to themselves 
and/or others. Accident prone because of time and 
space sense disturbance. Dependence (psychic but not 
physical) leads to antisocial behavior and could be 
forerunner of use of other drugs. 

distribution are confined to ethical drug channels.) 

Normal doses produce wakefulness, 
increased alertness and a feeling 
of increased initiative. Intravenous 
doses produce cocaine-like psycho- 
toxic effects. 

An almost abnormal cheerful- 
ness and unusual increase in 
activity, jumpiness and irrita- 
bility; hallucinations and para- 
noid tendencies after intraven- 
ous use. 

Amphetamines can cause high blood pressure, abnor- 
mal heart rhythms and even heart attacks. Teen-agers 
often take them to increase their "nerve." As a result, 
they may behave dangerously. Excess or prolonged 
usage can cause hallucinations, loss of weight, wake- 
fulness, jumpiness and dangerous aggressiveness. 
Tolerance to large doses is acquired by abusers; psychic 
dependence develops but physical dependence does 
not; and there is no characteristic withdrawal syndrome. 

Small amounts make the user relax- 
ed, sociable, good-humored. Heavy 
doses make him sluggish, gloomy, 
sometimes quarrelsome. His speech 
is thick and he staggers. Sedation 
and incoordination progressive with 
dose, and at least additive with 
alcohol and/or other sedatives and 

The appearance of drunken- 
ness with no odor of alcohol 
characterizes heavy dose. Se- 
dation with variable ataxia. 

Sedation, coma and death from respiratory failure. 
Inattentiveness may cause unintentional repetitious ad- 
ministration to a toxic level. Many deaths each year 
from intentional and unintentional overdose. Potentia- 
tion with alcohol particularly hazardous. The drug is 
addictive, causing physical as well as psychic depend- 
ency, and withdrawal phenomena are characteristically 
different from withdrawal of opiates. 

Oral use is said to relieve hunger and 
fatigue, and produce some degree 
of exhilaration. Intravenous use pro- 
duces marked psychotoxic effects, 
hallucinations with paranoid tenden- 
cies. Repetitive doses lead to mani- 
acal excitation, muscular twitching, 
convulsive movements. 

Dilated pupils, hyperactive, ex- 
hilarated paranoic. 

Convulsions and death may occur from overdose. 
Paranoic activity. Very strong psychic but no physical 
dependence and no tolerance. 

Analgesic and cough suppressant 
with very little sedation or exhilarant 
(euphoric) action. Dependence can 
be produced or partially supported, 
but large doses are required and risk 
is minor. 

Unless taken intravenously, 
very little evidence of general 
effect. Large doses are mor- 

Occasionally taken (liquid preparations) for kicks, but 
large amount required. Contribution of the alcohol con- 
tent to the effect may be significant. Degree and risk 
of abuse very minor. Occasionally resorted to by opiate- 
dependent persons to tide them over with inadequate 

Effects resemble amphetamine but 
are more marked and toxicity greater. 

Extreme restlessness and irri- 
tability; violence and paranoid 
reaction possible. 

Excessive psychotoxic effects, 

sometimes with fatal 

Generally sedative and analgesic 
(rarely excitatory). The initial reac- 
tion is unpleasant to most people, 
but calming supersedes and, depend- 
ing on dose, may progress to coma 
and death from respiratory failure. 

Constricted pupils. Calm, inat- 
tentive, "on the nod," with 
slow pulse and respiration. 

Man is very sensitive to the respiratory depressant 
effect until tolerance develops. Psychic and physical 
dependence and tolerance develop readily, with a 
characteristic withdrawal syndrome. 




The Washington County and Goldsboro boards of education 
won recognition in the fifth annual National School Board 
Awards Program sponsored by the Association of Classroom 
Teachers of the I\IEA and by the Thorn McAn Shoe Company. A 
lamp-of-learning trophy and $500 went to the Washington 
County Board for its successful community efforts toward 
"peaceful implementation of a school integration plan." Golds- 
boro's Board was awarded a Distinctive Merit trophy for its 
community efforts in accomplishing peaceful and satisfactory 
consolidation of its schools into an integrated system. 


Junior high school history buffs who excelled last year in 
research and project making will receive 1970 Junior Tar Heel 
Historian awards in Greensboro during Culture Week this De- 
cember. The competition is sponsored annually by the State 
Department of Archives and History and the State Department of 
Public Instruction. 

Contest entries in five categories were rated according to (1) 
historical accuracy, (2) contribution to State and local history, 
(3) workmanship, and (4) style of presentation. History teachers 
served as advisers to the students who competed. 

Only schools that have won recognition in three previous 
contests are eligible for awards in the special achievement 
category. This year's first place winners were the Curious 
Carolinians (LeRoy Martin Junior High School, Raleigh; Mrs. 
Anne Kennedy, adviser) for their project Salute to Statues. The 
Silk Hope Junior Historian Club (Silk Hope School, Siler City; 
Jim Watson, adviser) received honorable mention for the History 
of St. Bartholomew's Parish. 

In the individual arts competition, Dean Berry (Horace Sisk 
Junior High School, Fayetteville; Gay Watson, adviser) took first 
place for his project The Fall of Fort Fisher. Honorable mention 
went to Debbie Plyler (Albemarle Junior High School, Albemarle; 
Mrs. Betty Kluttz and Jim Yandle, advisers) for The Kron Estate. 

Top group arts project was Herring Fishing by the Chief 
Rockahock Historical Association (Chowan Academy, Edenton; 
Mrs. Virginia H. Wood, adviser). Pool Rock Plantation, entered by 
the Vance Junior Historian Club (E. M. Rollins School, Hender- 
son; Ted Scott Henson, adviser) won honorable mention. 

First place honors in the individual literary division went to 
Bill Morgan (Albemarle Junior High School, Albemarle; Mrs. 
Betty Kluttz and Jim Yandle, advisers) for History of Tobacco in 
North Carolina. Martha Joe Hollowell (Chowan Academy, Eden- 
ton; Mrs. Virginia H. Wood, adviser) won honorable mention for 
The Restoration of the Barker House. 

Group literary winners included the Corriher-Lipe Junior 
Historians (Corriher-Lipe Junior High School, Landis; Mrs. Beulah 
Davis, adviser) who took first prize for Rowan County: 
1753-1970. The Turrentine Junior Historian Club No. 1 (Turren- 
tine Junior High School, Burlington; Martha Moseley, adviser) 
won second place with its project Burlington. 



Tar Heel High School delegates earned recognition in five 
categories at the National Vocational Industrial Clubs of America 
Convention in St. Louis last June. Jay Setzer of the Bunker Hill 
High School VICA Club in Claremont (Vance Hollar, supervising 
teacher) took first place in the carpentry contest. Top honors also 
went to members of the Independence High School VICA Club in 
the opening and closing ceremony event. Members of that 
Charlotte delegation were Donald Wallace, Robert Dulin, Bradley 
Cook, Robert Dixon, Nita Little, Larry Benton, and Phyllis 

The second place prize for bricklaying went to Joe Dellinger of 
the Newton-Conover High School club. Guy R. Miller was his 
instructor. Machine shop competition resulted in a third place 
rank for Dwight Morgan of West Mecklenburg High School, 
whose teacher was Stephen Nance. North Carolina also had a 
successful "job seeker," Sharon Caldwell, who tied for third place 
in the job interview competition. Her instructor at Monroe High 
School was John M. Fulghum. 


North Carolina school pupils claimed 34 prizes in national 
competition conducted by Scholastic Magazines, Inc. in New 
York. The contests, for work completed during the past academic 
year, were offered in three categories: (1) creative writing, (2) art, 
and (3) photography. Royal Typewriter Company and Eastman 
Kodak Company were sponsors for the writing and photography 

Top creative writing winners from North Carolina were as 
follows: Third award: Gregory Gidney (West Cleveland School, 
Boiling Springs), junior article. Fourth award: Amy Louise 
Tedder (East Rutherford High School, Forest City), senior 
short-short story. 

Art winners trom North Carolina included: Scholarship: 
Rebecca Padgett (East Mecklenburg High School, Charlotte) to 
Philadelphia College of Art and Michael Peterson (Northern High 
School, Durham County) to Parsons School of Art, New York. 
Gold medal: Emily Wheatly (Myers Park High School, Charlotte), 
polymer; Stephen Uhalley III (School of Design, Durham 
County), ink drawing; Karyl McArthur (Frank Ashley High 
School, Gastonia), opaque water color; David Sails (Grimsley 
Senior High School, Greensboro), sculpture; Karen Colvard (Rose 
High School, Greenville), print; Heather Menzies (Quail Hollow 
Junior High School, Pineville), block print; and Christie Taylor 
(Richard Reynolds High School, Winston-Salem), pencil drawing. 
Hallmark honor prize: Bill Lands (Independence Senior High 
School, Charlotte), oil; Bruce Lemerise (Sanderson High School, 
Raleigh), transparent water color; and Rennick Hoyle (Kennedy 
Junior High School, Winston-Salem), mixed media. 

In the photography competition, North Carolina's Bob Webb 
(Needham Broughton High School, Raleigh) won the top award - 
a $1,000 Kodak scholarship grant. Bob plans to attend Appala- 
chian State University and become a press photographer. 



Two new reading consultants will be responsible for evaluating 
present reading programs, initiating new programs, and consulting 
with higher education personnel concerning teacher training in 
the area of reading. Mrs. Mary Catherine Purnell of Greensboro 
has been a demonstration teacher at the Greensboro Model 
Reading School, a corrective reading teacher, and a language arts 
coordinator in Greensboro. She received B.S. and M.A. degrees 
from A & T University and has done postgraduate work at 
Temple University, UNC-Greensboro, and N.C. Central Univer- 
sity, and the University of Chicago. 

Kimble Oliver, III, is a graduate of the University of the South 
and holds the M.A.T. degree from Duke University. He has 
completed further graduate work at UNC-Chapel Hill. Prior to 
joining the State education agency, Oliver taught English in 
Raleigh and San Antonio, Texas. 

A State-wide Advisory Council to the Division of Language 
Arts was appointed by the State Board of Education in July as 
another aspect of the increased emphasis on reading. The group 
met for the first time in August in Raleigh and is composed of 
laymen, teachers, and students. Other program activities include 
the development of a reading center at UNC-Chapel Hill to assist 
in pre-service and in-service programs for teachers and in diagnosis 
of students' reading problems. 

Additional aspects of the State-wide reading program include 
ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) Title I 
programs designed to improve reading instruction; the ESEA Title 
III Model Reading School in Greensboro, which serves 21 school 
units; strengthening of library and media centers through federal 
funds; adoption of multiple reading textbooks for elementary 
students; preschool and summer readiness programs; experimental 
projects such as the IM. C. Advancement School and the 
Comprehensive School Improvement Project; and in-service and 
pre-service activities for teachers including workshops, demonstra- 
tions, and television courses. 


Festivals and exhibitions will be the order of the day when 
North Carolina Heritage Week, April 18-25, 1971, is observed. 
Sponsored by the Cultural Arts and Social Studies Divisions of 
the State Department of Public Instruction, Heritage Week will be 
eight days of focus on the history and culture of the people of 

According to Melvin L. Good, cultural arts consultant and 
general coordinator of Heritage Week, the Department of Public 
Instruction is encouraging all schools and colleges within the 
State to cooperate in the project by giving special emphasis to the 
study of North Carolina history and culture. Special recognition 
will be given to the historical and cultural heritage of major racial 
and ethnic groups. 


Through the Division of Cultural Arts, the Department of 
Public Instruction has initiated a promotional effort known as 
MISSION '70/Decade of the Arts. MISSION '70 is an invitation 
to all North Carolina citizens to make better use of our State's 
wealth of programs and talents now available and to create vital 
new ways of making the arts come alive for all young people. 

"Within the next ten years, we want every North Carolina 
child to have a living experience with the arts of man under the 
guidance of a professional teacher," according to Superintendent 
of Public Instruction Craig Phillips. "Our goal is the enrichment 
of the life of our citizens in such a way that we may take pride in 
our regional, racial, and cultural distinctions while uniting our 
hearts and efforts to bring about a peaceful and productive life 
for all our people," he said. 


Six of the State's public school systems have had superinten- 
dent changes since last year. In the list below, the name of the 
system's new superintendent and his previous position are given 
first, followed by the name and present position of the former 

Henderson: Glenn C. Marlow, associate superintendent, Hender- 
son; replaced J. M. Foster, retired. 

Iredell: William T. Poston, associate superintendent, Iredell; 
replaced T. Ray Gibbs, retired. 

Macon: Kenneth S. Barker, assistant superintendent, Transyl- 
vania; replaced H. Bueck, retired. 

Rockingham: Richard H. Schultz, assistant superintendent, Rock- 
ingham; replaced J. Allan Lewis, resigned. 
Stokes: William F. Davis, superintendent, North Wilkesboro; 
replaced W. E. Terry, resigned. 

N. Wilkesboro: Grier Bradshaw, principal, C. F. Tomlinson 
Elementary School, High Point; replaced William F. Davis, now 
superintendent, Stokes County. 


About 300 North Carolinians, representing all sections of the 
State, gathered in Raleigh late in the summer for the first general 
meeting of the Advisory Councils to the Program Services 
Divisions of the State Department of Public Instruction. Addres- 
sing the general meeting, State School Superintendent Craig 
Phillips called the Councils "a grass roots movement to find the 
answers to public school problems and to chart the course people 
want for the children of North Carolina." 

Those attending represented some 13 councils appointed at 
the July meeting of the State Board of Education to serve as 
liaison groups with various divisions in the Program Services 
section of the State Department of Public Instruction. Each 
council consists of from 20-25 citizens representing professions, 
students, industry, and business. 

Phillips and Assistant State Superintendent Jerome Melton 
briefed the group on current educational goals and asked that 
they serve as "sounding boards" to each division - math, English, 
science, social studies, etc. Council members were also charged to 
promote more active leadership in education at the local level in 
program planning, curriculum development, and in all phases of 
instruction. The group as a whole will meet two or three times 
per year. 

Phillips noted that public education in North Carolina is 
moving toward a permanent structure of advisory councils - 
local, regional, and State level - that will be appointed by and act 
as liaison groups with various school governing bodies. 


New Certificate Renewal Plan 

With few exceptions, North Carolina teachers and other 
educators will look from now on to their superintendents, rather 
than to State-level officials, for approval of their certificate 
renewal plans. 

Under the new plan which became effective July 1 the 
determination of credit appropriateness is done at the local level 
and is reported to the State certification office only once per 
teacher during each five-year period. 

New emphasis on the use of workshops created, funded, and 
executed at the local level for renewal purposes is expected to 
make the teacher's output more relevant and his immediate use of 
what he learns more likely. (The State has been providing such 
in-service education programs since 1961.) Teaching experience, 
as well as approved travel and college credit, will also be recorded 
in the superintendent's office. 

In fact, the basic requirements for acceptable renewal experi- 
ences have not been changed. It's mainly the process of approving 
and recording them that has been redesigned. Educators with 
questions about their renewal plans should consult their superin- 
tendents, of course, but many of the procedural changes are 
explained in the following rationale for the new program, 
prepared by Dr. J. P. Freeman, director of the Division of 
Teacher Education and Certification. 

1 . It makes the certificate renewal program more meaningful: 
The local superintendent's office is in a much better 
position to determine the needs of individual teachers, and 
to organize and implement programs to meet those needs, 
than is the State's Division of Teacher Education and 
Certification. Therefore, the appropriateness of credit is 
now determined by the local superintendent's office (ex- 
cept in those cases that still require State approval prior to 
renewal, such as travel). 

2. It places responsibility on the local administrative unit as 
authorized by the General Statutes: The General Statutes 
of North Carolina authorize city and county boards of 
education to provide for the professional growth of their 
teachers. Under this program, the full responsibility for 

planning and maintaining in-service activities, as well as 
approving the appropriateness of college credit for renewal 
purposes, rests with the local administrative unit. The 
superintendent establishes procedures for counseling teach- 
ers and other professionals about renewal activities. 

3. It emphasizes professional growth on a continuing basis: 
The renewal regulations call for a minimum of six semester 
hours (or units) of appropriate renewal credit for each 
professional person during each five-year period. This plan 
discourages the old hit-and-run process whereby a teacher 
could, for example, earn sufficient credit during the first 
term of summer school in 1970 to renew his certificate 
through June 30, 1975, and by taking an additional six 
units of credit during the second term, renew his certificate 
to 1980 — in effect, doing a decade's worth of "profes- 
sional growing" in just one summer. 

4. It provides for the maintenance at the local level of a 
complete record of the professional growth activities of 
each educator: The new, simplified form on which in- 
service activities are filed now is maintained at the local 
level, as well as in State headquarters. Keeping locally 
maintained records should help local authorities counsel 
with individuals concerning their renewal activities. It 
should be noted that the above procedure applies only to 
renewal credit. All college credit involved in changing the 
certificate by (1) raising it to a higher level or (2) 
broadening it to include other areas will still be handled 
directly by the State certification office. This credit is to be 
handled directly by the State certification office. This 
credit is to be filed with the State office by the college 

5. It reduces clerical operations at both the local and State 
levels: Under the old reporting system, Form No. 12 was 
required for each person as each activity was completed. 
This type of reporting required a tremendous amount of 
clerical time for both local and State staffs. The new 
method requires only a one-line entry on a Revised Form 
12 (to be filed in the superintendent's office) for each 
renewal activity. This form is filed with the State office 
after the individual has completed his renewal require- 

Additional information can be supplied by unit superinten- 
dents and the Division of Teacher Education and Certification, 
State Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, North Carolina 

NSPRA Chapter Formed in N.C. 

The first meeting of the North Carolina Chapter of the 
National School Public Relations Association was held in Greens- 
boro in August. Owen Lewis, public information officer for 
Greensboro Public Schools, was elected president; Tom I, Davis, 
special assistant for public vice-president and membership chair- 
man; and Dr. E. T. McSwain, retired UNC-Greensboro professor, 
secretary-treasurer. Speakers were John Harden of Harden & 
Associates, Greensboro; Ed Campbell, information director for 
LINC; and Paul Brandes, head of the Speech Department at 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 

Designed to aid educators and administrators in their public 
information efforts, the 35-year-old national organization pub- 
lishes newsletters and handbooks and sponsors national seminars 
which tackle public information problems. 

Only membership in the national NSPRA organization is a 
prerequisite for becoming a member of the N.C. chapter. Persons 
eligible for active membership include those who serve in an 


administrative position in a public or private school or school 
system or in a local, regional, state, or national educational 
agency or association; an administrator or teacher in a college or 
university preparing persons for careers in education; or a person 
who performs public relations functions in a staff capacity with 
any of these agencies. Anyone who is actively interested in 
advancing the cause of education but who is not eligible for active 
membership may become an associate member. The annual rate 
for national membership is $15, payable to the National School 
Public Relations Association, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., 
Washington, D. C. 20036. Any NSPRA members interested in 
becoming members of the N.C. Chapter should write Tom I. 
Davis, Special Assistant for Public Information, State Department 
of Public Instruction, Raleigh, N.C. 27602. North Carolina dues 
will be set at the next meeting, scheduled November 5 at the 
offices of the Greensboro City Schools, 712 N. Eugene Street, 


"*> -7/2- 






State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Special Assistant for Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Information Specialist: Nancy Jolly 

Writer: Janice L. Narron 

Writer, ESEA III: Linda Gallehugh 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued quarterly by the State Department of 
Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at Raleigh, N. 
C. 27611. Unless otherwise noted, no permission is required for 
reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Manuscripts are welcomed. Mailing address: 
Editor, North Carolina Public Schools, Division of Public In- 
formation and Publications, Room 362, State Department of 
Public Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N. C. 27602. 
Telephone: 919-829-4258. 








The number of career choices confronting today's students is stagger- 
ing. Behind each door can lie disappointment as well as opportunity. The 
occupational exploration program gives young people a chance to take a 
peek behind these doors — to find out more about what careers that 
interest them are really like. See "Occupational Exploration Reaches the 
Middle Grades," page 8. Cover art by Elise Speights, Raleigh. 

Photo Credits: page 3, Nancy Jolly; pages 8, 9, and 14, Bruce Clark; and 
page 17, Jan Narron, all N. C. Department of Public Instruction staff. Page 
20, Jim Page, N. C. Department of Conservation and Development. 

State Board of Education 

Dallas Herring, Rose Hill, Chairman, District 2 

John A. Pritchett, Windsor, Vice-Chairman, District 1 

Craig Phillips, Secretary, Ex Officio 

H. Pat Taylor, Lieutenant Governor, Ex Officio 

Edwin Gill, State Treasurer, Ex Officio 

G. Douglas Aitken, Charlotte, District 6 

R. Barton Hayes, Hudson, District 7 

Charles E. Jordan, Durham, District 3 

Mrs. Eldiweiss F. Lockey, Aberdeen, District 4 

William R. Lybrook, Winston-Salem, District 5 

John M. Reynolds, Asheville, District 8 

Mrs. Mildred S. Strickland, Smithfield, Member-at-large 

Harold L. Trigg, Greensboro, Member-at-large 

From the State Superintendent 3 

Budget Increases Requested for Schools 4 

Kindergarten Evaluation: Preliminary Report of 

LINC By Betty Landsberger 6 

Occupational Exploration Reaches the Middle Grades 8 

SEIMC Network: Help for Special Education Teachers 11 

Senate Youth Delegates Announced 13 

Drama Clinic Treats Eager Patients 14 

Teenagers Build Houses 16 

English Mini-Courses: Solution to Maxi Problems? 18 

Community Effort Brings Heritage to Life 20 

Hough Named Principal of the Year 21 

They're All Bright Kids 22 

Contest, Other Heritage Week Events Planned 23 

Lexington Gets Pass-Fail Option 24 

DAVE Winter Conference Planned 24 

From the 
State Superintendent 

/ / 

About this time last year staff members began the long process 
of preparing what is now the thick document that has been 
presented to the Advisory Budget Commission for their recom- 
mendations to the 1971 General Assembly. 

This was not an easy task. 

The first step was to determine the basic needs for the million 
and a quarter children who attend our public schools. Countless 
meetings were held all over the State with teachers, administra- 
tors, staff members, parents, government officials, legislators, and 
representatives of business and industry. The students themselves 
were involved in the decisions which resulted in these monetary 
requests. The question all of us asked ourselves was, "What can 
we do during the next two years to make what happens in the 
classroom a meaningful and exciting experience for every child 
entrusted to our care?" 

The answers were many and varied and have been translated 
into dollars and cents, which can be seen on a line by line basis. 
(See page 4.) The decision now is up to the 170 dedicated men 
and women who will make up the 1971 General Assembly. 

But our job is not yet over - in some instances it hasn't even 
begun, since there are those who feel that public education is a 
failure and should be abolished. There are those of us who know 
different, but we also know we have a long way to go. We just 
must continue to take an active part. 

If those charged with legal mandates for fiscal decisions are to 
make these decisions intelligently, creatively, and productively, 
then all of us who are concerned must continue to help them 
make these decisions. 

Perhaps our objectives should be 

1. To publicize individual and social benefits which accrue 
from investment in the right kind and the right amount of public 

education. We must let people know what the return from the 
investment can be - must be. 

2. To focus attention on individual and social problems 
associated with inadequate schooling of a considerable percent of 
our citizens - to tell it like it is. 

3. To point out areas of educational policy and action 
sufficient for full development of human resources. 

4. To identify fiscal action essential to adequate financial 
support for effective public education at all levels. 

In short, this means that those of us who have had a part in 
putting requested dollar signs in front of practical and attainable 
goals must also continue to be a part in the entire process. The 
degree to which we meet these four objectives effectively will 
correlate with the momentum achieved for positive change and 
improvements in our schools. 

The next few months, our help in assisting the shaping of 
responsible fiscal decisions may very well determine the shape 
and direction of the future for every child in every public school 
throughout this State. 


The State Board of Education has presented its B budget 
proposal to the Advisory Budget Commission. Making the 
presentation for the Board on September 23 were Controller A. 
C. Davis, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Craig 
Phillips, and State Board of Education Chairman W. Dallas 

The B budget requests, which represent those anticipated 
monetary needs for the next biennium over and above the A 
budget requests (for current allotments) total $362 million for 
public education in the 1971-73 biennium. Of this amount, $66.4 
million would go to the Department of Community Colleges, 
$295 million to the public schools, and $665,074 to the State 
Department of Public Instruction for improving State educational 
leadership and expansion of services. 

Eleven objectives were listed in the $295,007,968 request for 
public schools: 

Providing improved classroom teaching conditions so that stu- 
dents will have a better chance to learn. $55,352,305 (18.76 
percent of the requested appropriation for public schools). 

$3,863,043 to provide for improvements in the teacher 
allotment formula. 

$24,837,372 to provide for reduction in class size by one 


$9,160,636 to provide additional special education teachers in 
a non-categorical allotment. 

$17,491,254 to provide instruction assistance to the classroom 

Securing and holding better qualified teachers and principals. 
$136,017,089 (46.11 percent of the requested appropriation for 
public schools). 

$61,309,173 to extend the employment of classroom teachers 
from 9% months to 10 calendar months. (See article in Spring 
1971 issue of North Carolina Public Schools.) 

$59,504,570 to raise teachers salaries approximately 5 percent 
in 1971-72 and 10 percent in 1972-73 over the 1970-71 

$2,240,808 to increase the rate of pay of substitute teachers 
from $15 to $20 per day, which requires additional funds for 
sick leave. 

$11,470,163 to extend the term of employment of principals 
to 12 calendar months and provide a salary increase of 
approximately 5 percent in 1971-72 and 10 percent in 

1972-73 over the 1970-71 schedule. 

$898,375 to provide compensation, in addition to salary as a 
teacher, for assistant principals in schools with 30 or more 

$594,000 to provide additional scholarships for students 
preparing to teach. 

Providing professional help for teachers to enable them to do a 
better job teaching children. $2,531,836 (0.86 percent of the 
requested appropriation for public schools). 

$2,106,581 to extend the term of employment of supervisors 
to 12 calendar months and provide a salary increase of 
approximately 5 percent in 1971-72 and 10 percent in 
1972-73 over the 1970-71 schedule. 

$425,255 to reorganize and expand services in education by 

Furnishing teachers and students the tools they need. 
$16,443,918 (5.57 percent of the requested appropriation for 
public schools). 

$2,313,450 to provide additional funds for new adoptions of 
basic textbooks and rebinding of basic textbooks. 

$14,130,468 to provide funds to increase the allotment for 
instructional materials by $6 per pupil. 

Improving and expanding a program for mentally handicapped 
children and improving vocational rehabilitation services for the 
handicapped. $2,752,257 (0.93 percent of the requested appro- 
priation for public schools). 

$822,520 to increase State aid for vocational rehabilitation to 
provide for services to more of the disabled citizens of the 

$540,000 to provide additional State aid to local school units 
for more children in the program for trainable handicapped 

$1,389,737 to provide for improvements in payments from 
$675 to $855 per year per child and to provide salary increases 
of approximately 5 percent in 1971-72 and 10 percent in 
1972-73 for the trainable handicapped program. 

Improving local educational leadership. $4,459,008 (1.51 percent 
of the requested appropriation for public schools). 

$749,466 to provide salary increases for superintendents, 


associate and assistant superintendents of approximately 5 
percent in 1971-72 and 10 percent in 1972-73. 

$3,623,782 to revise and substantially improve the allotment 
formula for clerical and secretarial assistance in the superinten- 
dents' and principals' offices and to provide a 5 percent salary 
increase for attendance counselors in 1971-72 and 10 percent 
in 1972-73. 

Improving State educational leadership under the State Board of 
Education. $1,705,426 (0.58 percent of the requested appropria- 
tion for public schools). 

$423,627 to improve administrative services in the Controller's 

$605,125 to improve State-level services for the handicapped 
under vocational rehabilitation. 

$676,674 to provide for additional administration and to 
expand in-service training for teachers in the program for staff 

Increasing State financial help to local school units in plant 
operations, transportation, driver training, and food services. 
$28,822,329 (9.77 percent of the requested appropriation for 
public schools). 

$5,880,983 to provide additional funds for salaries of janitors 
to raise minimum salary to $2 per hour and employment to 10 

$4,384,310 to provide for improvement in allotments for fuel, 
water, light, power, janitorial supplies, and telephones. 

$3,176,749 to provide 78 additional school bus mechanics and 
salary increases for school bus drivers and mechanics of 5 
percent in 1971-72 and 10 percent in 1972-73. 

$3,652,034 to provide urban school transportation for 56,708 
pupils in 1971-72 and 56,708 in 1972-73. 

$6,583,786 to provide separate transportation for specific 
grade levels. 

$684,470 to extend the term of employment from 9 1 /4 school 
months to 10 calendar months and to increase salaries 5 
percent in 1971-72 and 10 percent in 1972-73 for full-time 
teachers in driver education. 

$4,459,997 to provide funds for 10 directors, 85 supervisors, 
and 2 cents per free lunch to meet rising costs. 

Continuing and expanding the kindergarten programs as a part of 
the public school system to meet 25 percent of the total needs. 
$21,000,000 (7.12 percent of the requested appropriation for 
public schools). (See page 6.) 

Improving and expanding occupational education. $20,950,216 
(7.10 percent of the requested appropriation for public schools). 

$9,306,388 to provide additional teachers for the regular 
program of occupational education. 

$4,000,000 to provide additional funds for middle grade 
projects in occupational education. (See page 8.) 

$214,803 to extend the term of employment of occupational 
education teachers from 9% school months to 10 calendar 

$3,733,974 to raise occupational education teachers' salaries 
approximately 5 percent in 1971-72 and 10 percent in 
1972-73 over the 1970-71 schedule. 

$275,000 to provide additional teacher training in occupa- 
tional education. 

$49,902 to increase salaries of local directors in occupational 
education approximately 5 percent in 1971-72 and 10 percent 
in 1972-73. 

$828,000 to provide teaching materials in areas of occupa- 
tional education. 

$2,300,000 to assist the counties and cities in providing 
adequate equipment for an expanded program of vocational 
education in the high schools. 

$242,149 to improve State services in occupational education. 

Improving education by experimentation, research, special 
schools, and projects. $4,973,584 (1.69 percent of the requested 
appropriation for public schools). 

$137,054 to provide additional funds for programs of the 
Advancement School. 

$741,300 to increase financial assistance to hospitals for 
programs of nursing education. 

$4,095,230 to provide funds for replacement of the compre- 
hensive school improvement program and for establishing a 
program of planning, research, and development. 



Betty Landsberger 

This report presents an analysis on information available on 
the effects of kindergarten attendance. The information comes 
from the eight Early Childhood Demonstration Centers named by 
the State Board of Education at its meeting in August 1969. 

Scores made by the children on tests at the beginning of 
kindergarten attendance - December 1969 - are compared with 
their scores at the end of the term - May 1970 - for all 320 chil- 
dren who attended. In addition, scores from the May testing of 
these 320 kindergarteners are compared with scores from a group 
of 52 children who did not attend kindergarten (the Control 

The first information regarding the gains made by the group 
attending kindergarten are the before and after scores of the total 
group (320) on the four TO BE** subject matter knowledge tests. 
These scores are stated in their percentile values: 

TOBE Scores of 320 Children Attending Early 
Childhood Demonstration Centers 

Language Studies Mathematics Science 


Dec. 1969 


May 1970 64th 






These show that the total group attending kindergarten 
moved, roughly, from averages around the 35th percentile to 
averages around the 65th. Another way to say this is that at the 
beginning of kindergarten, two thirds of the national sample 
scored better than our group's average, while at the end of their 
five months of kindergarten, our group had brought its average up 
to the top one third of the national sample. According to the 
theory of the TOBE test, this means that this group is in good 
shape to learn well in the first grade. 

But is this improvement due to kindergarten - or at least very 
probably due to kindergarten? The control group provides a 
partial answer to this. This group of about 50 children did not 
attend kindergarten, but are otherwise about the same as the 
children who did attend. They were tested at the same time as the 
kindergarteners' end-of-term testing, in May 1970. Here is the 
way percentile values of the two groups' averages compare on the 
same TOBE tests: 

Comparison of Kindergarten and Control Groups' 
TOBE Scores 


















As stated above, the kindergarten attenders have moved their 
average to the top one third of the national sample, while the 
average of the non-attenders is close to the bottom one third of 
this sample. 

The same kinds of differences appear on the average scores on 
the Preschool Inventory,*** an individual test tapping the areas 
of vocabulary, number concepts, perceptual-motor skills, and 
ability to follow directions - all of which are related to school 
achievement. The highest possible score on this test is 64 points. 
The average for the 320 children coming into kindergarten in 
December was 46 points. When the same children were retested in 
May, their average score was 57 points. The average for the 52 
Control group children, tested in May, was 48 points. 

On the Draw-a-Man test the same differences occurred. The 
Mental Age equivalent for the 320 kindergarten children in 
December was 5 years, 1 month. Their average in May at the end 
of the five months of kindergarten attendance had risen by ten 
months, to five years, 11 months. The Mental Age equivalent at 
the May date for the average of the 52 Control group children 
was 5 years, 8 months. 

Our preliminary examination of results by Center and class- 
room indicates one other fact about the program that is especially 
relevant to the importance of the State-supported kindergarten 
program for the problems of disadvantaged children. 

777e Demonstration Center with the lowest averages at the 
beginning made the greatest gains on the TOBE scores as well as 
on the Preschool Inventory test. The percentiles for the TOBE 
Language test and the Preschool Inventory scores for this Center, 
as well as the total kindergarten group, are as follows: 

*A more comprehensive presentation of this Kindergarten data 
may be obtained by writing LINC, 1006 Lamond Ave., Durham, 

**Test of Basic Experiences, published by the California Test 
Bureau, McGraw-Hill, Del Monte Research Park, Monterey, 
California, 1970 

^Cooperative Preschool Inventory (formerly called Caldwell 
Preschool Inventory) published by Educational Testing Serv- 
ice, Princeton, N.J. 

Gains Made by Kindergarten Center 
with Lowest Scores 






Lowest Center Total Group 
Average Average 

24th Percentile 28th Percentile 

66th Percentile 64th Percentile 

42 Percentile 

41 Points 

59 Points 

Difference 18 Points 

36 Percentile 

46 Points 

57 Points 

11 Points 

Inspection of the record of other Demonstration Centers and 
individual performances also makes it appear that the ones who 
gained the most are the ones who needed to gain the most - the 
ones who would have been poor school performers without this 

Parents of the children attending the Early Childhood Demon- 
stration Centers were given a questionnaire to help evaluate the 
effect kindergarten had on their children. These written evalua- 
tions were collected by Jim Jenkins, special assistant for 
elementary education for the State Department of Public 



Figure 1 













Group Averages 

■ 111 l»*l 1)11*1 

,"\« •*/«,»» •««•"• 

- -#%'■ •#»«■•»». 





Instruction. One of the questions the parents were asked was this: 
"Do you recommend that the State of North Carolina spend the 
necessary money to provide this kind of experience for all 
five-year-olds?" There were 130 parents who responded to the 
question. Two of the parents said "No," and one was undecided. 
The rest answered "Yes." Furthermore, they make the impor- 
tant point that it is the quality of these Early Childhood Centers 
that has made the difference. Some of their comments follow: 

"If this kindergarten could help other five-year-olds as our child 
has been helped, it will be more than worthwhile to continue this 

"There are private kindergartens for those who can afford them 
and Head Start for the poor, but no help for the family who 
cannot afford private kindergarten and yet aren't eligible for 
Head Start." 

"This has definitely been a wonderful experience for my child. I 
feel he is ready to start first grade work. He understands what is 
expected of him as one in a group. He knows what it is to work 
on a schedule and routine. He has discovered that it's fun to learn 
and I think he is eager to learn. I do hope that soon all 
five-year-olds will be given the opportunity of this experience." 

"This is one time that anyone can just look and see where the 
money is and what it's being used for and also see the good 

Yr.— Mo- 

6 2- 
6YRS - 

5 10 — 

5 8- 

5 6 — 

5 4- 

5 2 — 
5YRS — 

4 10- 

4 8 — 

4 6- 

Figure 2 

Draw-A-Man Test 

Group Average In 
Mental Age Equivalents 




. i > » ii i 





».«•«#•• AV««.» A 
« i YV *•« W • 


:v«l» w»"'v 

Cs» i , » t\if* > • » A 



.v.<. wv,« ,» A 









Occupational Exploration 

The Middle Grades 


M itmm 


Over the bridge table and down the 
fairway, as well as around school 
lockers, word has spread that Rocky 
Mount's junior high school students 
are finding school more important 
these days. One of 43 administrative 
units with Middle Grades Occupational 
Programs funded for the 1970-71 year, 
the Rocky Mount system is building in 
opportunities for students to see the 
distinct correlation between their pres- 
ent school subjects and possible future 
occupations. Education paves the way 
to employment, and the new program 
is attempting to show students how. 

Teachers in all subject areas are 
placing classwork emphasis on occupa- 
tions. Mrs. Priscilla Sykes, a language 
arts/social studies teacher, literally 
took her students to court recently. 
From a social studies viewpoint, the 
domestic relations witnesses saw not 
only how the judicial branch of local 
government works, but also the many 
different kinds of employees required 
to keep it in operation. Hosting the 
tour was a detective, the father of one 
of the courtroom visitors in the sev- 
enth grade class. 

Resource persons brought into Mrs. 
Sykes' classroom, including a pharma- 
cist, astronomer, bookkeeper, and sav- 
ings and loan lady executive, prompt- 
ed language arts research projects on 
these and other occupational possibili- 
ties. Students' written reports revealed 
investigation of education prerequi- 
sites, salaries, fringe benefits, working 
conditions, and employment oppor- 
tunities in the fields they now find 
most appealing. 

Eighth graders in Mrs. Mable Wil- 
liams' class recently experienced the 
pocketbook effect of markups, profit, 
and overhead by setting up a class- 
room grocery store, complete with 
cash register and adding machine. By 
marking canned goods up and down, 
promoting sales, and trying to satisfy 
customers, "they became more con- 
scious of business methods, fluctuating 
economy, and true bargains. It wasn't 
long before the students were bringing 
in examples of good deals offered by 
area stores, such as quality carpeting at 
40 percent off the regular price." 

In home arts study, Mrs. Mary Alice 
Brinn's seventh graders learn to sew, 
but they also have seen industrial 
stitchery in action, via a trip to a 
nearby plant that manufactures bed- 
spreads and draperies. In addition, 
they have heard bank employees stress 
the importance of good personal 
grooming in both public contact and 
behind-the-scenes jobs, as well as on 
job interviews. They later toured a 
local beauty culture school for some 
professional grooming secrets. 

When industrial arts and home arts 
classes switch places for a week, the 
boys learn to sew on a button and fix 
a simple breakfast. During the switch 
the girls learn how to use tools. 

All eighth graders get practical ex- 
perience in exploratory typing during 
one nine-week period as part of their 
hands-on experience with occupational 
tools. Mrs. Corrine Landis, who teach- 
es the course, stresses the use of the 
typewriter as a communications instru- 
ment, one that is used in nearly every 



business office. Exploratory typing is 
offered in combination with the lan- 
guage arts program, and students fre- 
quently type their compositions for 
additional practice. Ninth graders, hav- 
ing learned proper keyboard tech- 
niques the previous year, may eai n one 
credit by electing a course that com- 
bines personal typing and basic busi- 
ness, with particular emphasis on the 
free enterprise system. 

Middle grades occupational explora- 
tion programs such as the one in 
Rocky Mount stress five general objec- 
tives: (1) hands-on experiences that 
give students the "feel" of useful 
application; (2) occupational guidance; 

(3) introduction to the world of work; 

(4) relevance of academic programs to 
various occupations; and (5) in-service 
training designed to re-orient teachers 
and teaching so that school experiences 
can be more applicable for students. 

In Rocky Mount, guidance is an 
especially important factor, according 
to Mrs. Sally Bass, coordinator for 
occupational programs, who sees occu- 
pational interests as "another line of 
communication between parent and 
child." Occupational exploration is in- 
tended to be exactly what the term 
implies - investigation into types of 
jobs. Mrs. Bass, Mrs. Noel Moore (di- 
rector for guidance services), and the 
three school guidance counselors do 
not try to get students to decide at the 
junior high level what jobs they will 
apply for several years later. Nearly all 
of them will change their minds several 
times before then. Rather, occupation- 
al guidance tries to show where a 

student's most realistic potential lies. 

Using guidance tools such as inter- 
est and aptitude indicators (in addition 
to face-to-face discussions), the coun- 
selors can help students and parents 
plan appropriate academic scheduling 
at the senior high school and post- 
secondary levels. Although the validity 
scores of such instruments are not 
always reliable, an eighth grade boy 
may determine that his occupational 
interest definitely does not lie in art or 
social work, but in science. 

Even the guidance staffers them- 
selves, according to Mrs. Moore, have 
multiplied their knowledge of occupa- 
tional possibilities, particularly in re- 
gard to local industries and businesses. 
By becoming better informed, they are 
able to convey to students more com- 
plete information about a wider varie- 
ty of jobs that one day will be waiting 
for today's junior high schoolers. 

Take the case of a girl who recently 
expressed her desire to train for secre- 
tarial career. Her counselor, Mrs. Dot 
Knight, helped her realize that nowa- 
days "secretary" might not be enough 
of a goal. There are so many different 
kinds of secretaries. After examining 
several data sources, with Mrs. 
Knight's counsel, the girl realized that 
she would need more than traditional 
school business courses. By enrolling 
in French, she is preparing herself for a 
bilingual secretarial position, in addi- 
tion to learning a foreign language. She 
may even discover that her eighth 
grade occupational exploration, nur- 
tured by enlightened guidance, has 
opened the door to several other ca- 
reer possibilities that require a foreign 
language background. 

In-service workshops for teachers 
are another key way of strengthening 
the occupational exploration approach 
in Rocky Mount. With certain excep- 
tions, the deliberate concentration on 
relating school projects and assign- 
ments to the world of work is probab- 
ly as new for most teachers as it is for 
students. The workshops give teachers 
a chance to pass their secrets of success 
along to their colleagues, as well as to 
reveal where help is needed most in 
correlating occupational thinking with 
academic work in the classroom. 

The schools are keeping parents 
informed, too, about the system's new 
educational thrust. Group sessions 
have offered general information 
about the program; individual confer- 
ences with parents reveal the indicated 
mental abilities, achievements, inter- 
ests, and aptitudes of their children; 
and printed information is distributed 

from time to time. Workshops for 
parents were held during the summer, 
after the first semester of the pilot 
program had been completed. 

Also during the summer, a three- 
week session of fun learning for sev- 
enth and eighth graders gave students a 
chance to "do their own educational 
thing" and featured a negative drawing 
card: no lectures, no grades, no tests, 
and no homework. Every student was 
permitted to follow his own bent, with 
supervision from interested teachers 
who also enjoyed "exploring." While 
some were studying health occupa- 
tions, others were stripping down lawn 
mower engines and rebuilding them. 
Some staged a musical play complete 
with pit orchestra and chorus, and 
others learned to type. 

Cliches such as "learning by doing" 
and "experience is the best teacher" 
have found new respect through mid- 
dle grades occupational exploration in 
the schools, which resulted from Gen- 
eral Assembly action in 1969. Nobody 
seems ashamed that more learning is 
going on outside classroom walls now 
than in previous years. Field trips that 
used to take students only to fields 
and museums now take them to stock 
brokerage houses, automobile dealers, 
sewage plants, bakeries, scientific 
laboratories, department stores, col- 
lege drama departments, and airports 
- all of which offer employment 
opportunities for students, who, these 
days, are preparing for them with the 
active assistance of the public schools. 

Occupational exploration in Rocky 
Mount cannot be pegged as a program 
for potential dropouts because all 
junior high school students are in- 
volved. Nor can it be regarded as a 
series of special vocational courses 
because all the middle grades subjects 
are being related to the world of work. 

Students, of course, are the ones 
most affected by the program, and 
they seem to find school more relevant 
because of it. A study done in Rocky 
Mount by the State Department of 
Public Instruction's Occupational Re- 
search Unit brought these attention- 
getting responses from those seventh 
and eighth graders who had been 
exposed to occupational explorations 
for only one semester. In Rocky 
Mount 50 percent were included in the 
first phase last year; this year all 
seventh, eighth, and ninth grade stu- 
dents are included.) 
Has school been more interesting for 
you since February? (Seventh graders: 
78.6 percent, yes; 12.5 percent, no; 
8.9 percent, no difference. Eighth 

graders: 82.5 percent, yes; 5.3 percent, 
no; 12.3 percent, no difference.) 

Have you been helped in learning more 
about the kind of work that is done in 
different jobs? Some of the yes an- 
swers were these (the first figure for 
seventh graders, the second for eighth 
graders): by field trips to businesses? 
78.6 percent and 80.7 percent; by 
regular classes in school such as Eng- 
lish, math, and social studies? 75.0 
percent and 84.2 percent; by guest 
speakers? 82.1 percent and 56.1 per- 

Have you been helped in learning more 
about the education or special training 
that is needed for different jobs? Yes 

responses for seventh (first figure) and 
eighth (second figure) graders were as 
follows: by special classes about occu- 
pations? 67.3 percent and 70.2 per- 
cent; by shop work or laboratory 
practice? 38.2 percent and 37.5 per- 
cent; by field trips to businesses? 69.1 
percent and 76.8 percent; by other 
regular classes in school (English, 
math, social studies, etc.)? 67.3 per- 
cent and 81.8 percent; by guest speak- 
ers? 75.9 percent and 53.6 percent; by 
other special occupational activities? 
55.6 percent and 63.2 percent. 

The last of 16 questions the stu- 
dents were asked - Are you satisfied 
with the way your school is helping 
you? offered 10 types of specific 
answers, but 3 seem especially signifi- 
cant; to learn more about jobs or 
careers that you may like? 87.5 per- 
cent and 89.5 percent; to begin think- 
ing about jobs? 94.6 percent and 89.5 
percent; and to see how what you 
learn in your school subjects can be 
used in a job? 89.3 percent and 89.5 

Occupational exploration, accord- 
ing to responses such as these, has had 
its intended effect on Rocky Mount 
students and on students in the State's 
other middle grades projects, who gave 
similar answers. 

With increasing emphasis being 
placed on education - by everything 
from public service announcements to 
the tax-dollar pie - it helps if students 
can see why education is so important. 
With this new approach in public 
school learning, the schools are show- 
ing them more specific reasons. And 
future members of the work force are 
seeing for themselves that those rea- 
sons make pretty good sense. (JLN) ■ 

More determined than ever before, 
public education is trying to catch up 
with the needs of "exceptional chil- 
dren." Although that term has long 
been associated with the mentally re- 
tarded, it covers other types of learn- 
ers as well. The visually and hearing 
handicapped, for example. The aca- 







demically gifted. The emotionally dis- 
turbed. And others. 

In North Carolina, one of the be- 
hind-the-scenes forces helping the 
teachers of exceptional children is the 
Special Education Instructional Mate- 
rials Center (SEIMC) Network. Now 
seven years old, the Network not only 
lends instructional materials (books, 
educational games, slide-tape presenta- 
tions, etc.) to such teachers, but also 
offers them in-service training oppor- 
tunities. Special educators can become 
SEIMC clients with borrowing privi- 
leges simply by completing an applica- 
tion form. The services are free. 

In 1963, the North Carolina IMC 
Network was started in Raleigh. Since 
then, other offices have been opened 
at Asheville, Grifton, and Winston- 
Salem. IMC spokesmen hope later 
growth will result in an area center for 
each of the State's eight educational 

Three of these centers now act as 
circulation points from which the in- 
structional materials are loaned to 
teachers in their respective locales; 
each of them serves approximately one 
third of the State. The fourth, the 
Winston-Salem IMC, prepares materials 
and orders others from commercial 

One such item is a multipurpose 
vinyl jacket equipped with almost 
every common type of clothes fastener 
known. Constructed in a teachable 
put-it-on-and-wear-it size and sleeveless 
style, the jacket can be donned easily 
by trainable and low educable mental- 
ly retarded boys and girls, who can 
practice the motor processes of zip- 

ping, buttoning, snapping, and buck- 
ling without having to unfasten their 
own clothing. The jacket idea was 
generated, in fact, by a special educa- 
tion teacher. She had a pupil who 
could not seem to master the buckling 
of his own shoes and asked the IMC 
Network for help. About the same 
time, it was reported that another 
pupil in the State was having difficulty 
with zippers. 

Here, then, is the beginning of one 
of three cycles in which the Network 
operates. If a teacher sees the need for 
an instructional aid in his classroom, 
he fills out a brief questionnaire (avail- 
able in every school system) or calls in 
his request to his area center. Through 
a nation-wide hook-up, a Texas-based 
computer reveals which, if any, of 
some 5,000 items in stock could help 
that particular teacher with his parti- 
cular instructional problem. When the 
computer does name certain items 
already in stock within the area serving 
North Carolina, the teacher's request 
can be processed in two to three 
weeks. Orders filled directly from the 
Raleigh office take only a few days. 

If the computer can come up with 
no in-stock suggestions, the second 
IMC cycle begins to function, when 
the teacher's query comes up for 
review at the next monthly meeting of 
the Network's Production Approval 
Committee. The committee consists 
primarily of the Network's field serv- 
ices coordinators, whose duties are 
fourfold: (1) demonstrating new edu- 
cational materials in the area of special 
education; (2) assisting teachers, ad- 
ministrators, and other school person- 
nel in locating available materials, ref- 
erences, and publications in the Net- 
work; (3) assisting classroom teachers 
in proper utilization of appropriate 
materials; and (4) assisting in the 
evaluation of these materials. The 
Committee decides whether the inquir- 
ing teacher's need is prevalent enough 
across the State to merit producing or 
ordering an item that would incorpo- 
rate it. Further, this group tries to 
determine (as in the case of the jacket) 
whether two or more teachers' re- 
quests can be fulfilled adequately in a 
single instructional piece. Thus, the 
jacket incorporated four possible sug- 
gestions - one item to help teach four 
everyday fastening processes. 

Perhaps some of the most usable 
instructional materials are made availa- 
ble through the pragmatic third type 
of cycle, the motto of which might be 





"If it works, spread the word." Special 
educators who have discovered suc- 
cessful methods and materials on their 
own pass their findings along to the 
Network so that their colleagues might 
also benefit from them. 

According to Ted Drain, coordina- 
tor of the NCSEIMC Network, news 
about the instructional materials cen- 
ters is conveyed to teachers via Key- 
notes, a quarterly newsletter produced 
by the Division for Exceptional Child- 
ren, State Department of Public In- 
struction. Copies of Keynotes are 
mailed to special education coordina- 
tors in each local school system, and 
these coordinators distribute the news- 
letters to their teachers. By January, a 
catalog listing current holdings within 
the Network will also be ready for 
distribution. The catalog will probably 
be revised yearly since new acquisi- 
tions are constantly being stocked. 

Gifted and talented pupils' needs 
will receive more IMC attention begin- 
ning in 1971. According to Elemen- 
tary and Secondary Education Act 
(ESEA) Title Vl-a provisions, such 
children are not regarded as "handi- 
capped"; thus, projects for them can- 
not be funded with (federal) ESEA 
money, which supports the general 
work of the Network. The IMC at 
Raleigh, however, is State-funded. As 
such, it is the only one of the four 
North Carolina centers that can cater 
to the gifted and talented children of 
the State. 

The Raleigh IMC also is the only 
one housing professional books and 
journals, and other reference materials 
such as workbooks and curriculum 
guides. Its major thrust, however, is to 
set up in-service training sessions for 
special education teachers in the State. 
Drain points out that 400 special 
educators (mainly elementary teachers 
who are experiencing their first year 
teaching educable mentally retarded 
children) and 6,400 pupils will be af- 
fected by a current in-service project. 

It began last summer, when 20 
"resource demonstrators" attended a 
special institute in Raleigh. They were 
introduced to a newly created multi- 
media language development kit deve- 
loped by the Network staff, as well as 
to the Network's broad functions. 
Now they are conducting workshops 
to orient other Tar Heel special educa- 

tors to the SEIMC Network and to 
help them select, produce, and evalu- 
ate instructional materials. "Funding 
for this particular in-service program 
will run close to $11,000," Drain 
notes. "But colleges and universities 
aren't yet including instruction in the 
use of the centers, and many veteran 
teachers still aren't familiar with them. 
Therefore, this figure, which translates 
into less than $30 per retrained teach- 
er, is even more impressive than it 

The Grifton (Pitt County) center is 
the distribution point serving the east- 
ern third of the State. It also allows its 
demonstration classes to use and evalu- 
ate new materials and methods. Ashe- 
ville/Buncombe's IMC circulates mate- 
rials and makes videotapes of the 
demonstration classes. Its distinguish- 
ing specialty, however, is aids for the 
visually handicapped. All three of 
these distributing IMCs, though, are 
concerned with education of the train- 
able and educable mentally retarded, 
and eventually will have materials for 
use in the teaching of children with 
hearing handicaps. 

North Carolina teachers of excep- 
tional children may be interested to 
know that their European colleagues 
are certified to teach, in part, because 
of their skills in actual materials pro- 
duction. This, according to James J. 
McCarthy,* was what President Ken- 
nedy's Task Force on Rehabilitation 
and Education members discovered 
while studying Continental methods of 
aiding those who teach the not-so-aver- 
age kind of student. American teach- 
ers, however, are regarded as practi- 
tioners, rather than producers, McCar- 
thy notes, much like physicians who 
use surgical instruments and drugs but 
neither design, manufacture, nor test 

Before IMCs came into being, 
special education teachers had to rely 
on their own collections of materials 
and possibly those in their nearby 
libraries - materials which in most 
instances had not been developed with 
specific learning characteristics of 
handicapped children in mind. 

By 1964, prototype centers funded 
by ESEA Title III were in operation at 
the University of Wisconsin and the 
University of Southern California. The 
Task Force had recommended that 

IMCs function as the producer arm of 
the total practitioner (special educa- 
tion teacher). From this beginning, 
other regional centers sprang up across 
the nation. The one with which North 
Carolina network is affiliated is the 
University of Kentucky Regional 
Special Education Instructional Mate- 
rials Center (UKRSEIMC). 

General goals also were derived, and 
a UKRSEIMC brochure lists most of 
them among the services it offers: 

1. Affiliated Centers. The four in 
North Carolina, as well as others 
in Kentucky, Tennessee, and 
West Virginia. 

2. Materials library. If the materials 
a teacher requests are not availa- 
ble in his affiliated center, its 
personnel will convey the re- 
quest to the UK center, and 
materials may be borrowed di- 
rectly from there. 

3. Demonstration. To teachers at 
conferences, regional meetings, 
and in-service training sessions; 
other workshops arranged by re- 

4. Dissemination. Through a free 
newsletter, the UKRSEIMC 
Quarterly, containing informa- 
tion specifically related to in- 
structional methods and mate- 
rials. (Teachers who affiliate 
with any of the N. C. centers 
automatically become clients of 
the UK center and receive 
UKRSEIMC Quarterly as well as 

5. Consultation. With school per- 
sonnel regarding instructional 
materials. If a teacher has a 
specific problem, for example, a 
list of recommended appropriate 
materials is made available. 

6. Materials development. Staffers 
work closely with another outfit 
- the Instructional Materials 
Center Network for Handi- 
capped Children and Youth - in 
the development of new items. 
Related information is made 
available through the UKRSEIMC 

7. Evaluation. Controlled studies 
are performed to test different 
instructional techinques. Inter- 
ested teachers are encouraged to 
participate in these research ac- 

The centers are understaffed, Drain 
says, and additional centers are needed 
to bring services closer to the inter- 
ested audience. But teacher requests 
for in-stock materials can be acted on 



fairly quickly. A teletype connection 
with the University of Kentucky 
makes possible detailed responses from 
there available within 24 hours. Also, 
production at Winston-Salem is 
pepped up during the summer when 
youth corps workers help make mate- 
rials for use during the following year. 

Although well-established pros in 
special education use the IMC Net- 
work, novice teachers in particular can 
find valuable aids waiting to be used. 
For example, a first-30-days crash kit 
designed specifically as a "security 
blanket" for brand new special educa- 
tion teachers of the mentally retarded 
will be ready next August. The kit will 
contain instructional games, records, 
slide/tape presentations, simple read- 
ing and arithmetic tests, and informa- 
tion on how to organize attractive 
centers of interest in the classroom - 
all intended to help a teacher's first 
month with mentally retarded children 
go smoothly. 

A puppet kit can supplement the 
teacher's oral language development 
efforts with reserved pupils. SDPI's 
Field Services Consultant Mary Marcia 
Salsbury notes that a seemingly with- 
drawn child can appear socially normal 
when he expresses himself through a 
puppet's mouth instead of his own. 
The puppet is one way to bring him 
out, and eventually bring him around 
to normal self-expression. 

Other reading material is offered to 
special educators. David, for instance, 
is on the Raleigh Center's library 
shelves. Prepared by a well-known 
North Carolina husband-wife team, 
Bruce (photographer) and Nancy 
(writer) Roberts of Charlotte, the pic- 
ture book received national publicity a 
couple of years ago. The Roberts 
couple combated a long-standing reluc- 
tance on the part of the public at large 
to take and display photographs of 
mentally retarded children. David, in- 
cidentally, is Nancy and Bruce's men- 
tally retarded son. 

"We have a commitment to serve 
special education teachers," Drain 
says. "When a teacher says, 'I feel you 
should do this for us/ we take his 
recommendation seriously because he, 
more than any other kind of educator, 
is in a position to know what is really 
needed in the way of instructional aids 
and services." (JLN) 


Two North Carolinians will be among 102 national student 
leaders spending January 30-February 6 in Washington, D. C. to 
learn about United States Government while watching it in 
action. Jeff Kristeller of Durham and Mike Shank of Warsaw were 
selected from among 20 finalists to be North Carolina's delegates 
to the ninth annual Randolph Hearst Foundation United States 
Senate Youth Program. U. S. Senators Everett Jordan and Sam 
Ervin made the announcement on December 1, several weeks 
after a panel of Tar Heel educators had interviewed the 

To be eligible for the honor, which carries a $1,000 scholar- 
ship, each student had to be an elected officer in one of several 
designated positions. Candidates also were required to have 
completed successfully a course in United States history. Before 
they became eligible for the State-level interviews, they were 
tested locally with objective examinations supplied by the Hearst 

In the past, the President and Vice-President have met and 
talked with the young Washington visitors, as have the Secretary 
of State, Secretary of Defense, a member of the Supreme Court, 
and many of the Senators. Along with some of these, many other 
high government officials will address and answer questions from 
the delegates. 

The scholarship grant of $102,000 was approved by the Hearst 
Foundation Trustees because of the outstanding quality of the 
winners in the first five years of the Senate Youth Program. The 
grant continues for the fourth consecutive year. 

Jeff Kristeller is currently student council president at Durham 
High School and Mike Shank is a student representative for his 
county advisory council. Both have participated extensively in 
community and church work, as well as in school activities. 

*ln Exceptional Children. "An Overview of 
the IMC Network," December 1968, when 
McCarthy was as associate professor of 
education, Department of Counseling and 
Behavioral Studies, School of Education, 
University of Wisconsin, Madison. 


drama clinic 

"The blue is cutting the salmon." 

"Make like a goldfish." 


"Now say spa." 

"Take vitamin C." 

"Decrescendo flush." 

"The shortest distance between 
these two points \snota straight line." 

Out of context, these lessons sound 
like strange food for thought for in- 
structors to be passing around the 
classroom. But they made perfect 

5 * 9 


r*sj-. - »-..- 

sense to some 350 drama students and 
their teachers who recently jammed 
the North Carolina School of the Arts 
theatre in Winston-Salem for a day- 
long drama clinic. The session was 
sponsored by the l\l. C. High School 
Drama Association and the State De- 
partment of Public Instruction. SDPI 
English Consultant C. C. Lipscomb, 
one of the clinic's prime movers, called 
the participants "representatives of the 
belief that drama is a vital, integral 
part of total school activity." 

The audience Lipscomb described 
was specialized. A different group 
probably would have giggled at many 
of the things they did that day (like 
sticking out their tongues at each 
other). But laughter was sparse among 
the stage-oriented and came only when 
something happened that could be 
called universally funny. 

They were there for serious study. 
Lesley Hunt, voice and speech instruc- 
tor at the School of the Arts, made 
them practice saying "Peebdee Beeb- 
dee" and stretch their tongues by 
thrusting them in and out snake style. 
Good stage diction is prefaced by such 
good sloppy exercises, she said in her 
clearly British accent. "Push your jaws 
forward and work the center of the 
lips the way a goldfish does." That 
meant puckering up to plain air, but 
they puckered nevertheless. "Loosen 
the jaws by saying 'Spa'," she con- 
tinued, "and keep practicing 'Peebdee 
Beebdee.' " 

They also studied practical - lights 
on the stage that actors turn on and 
off during a play. The stage was all set 
for a production of The Sign in Sidney 
Brustein's Window (performed that 
afternoon by students at the school). 
Ward Resur, School of the Arts light- 
ing director, illustrated how the play- 
makers would be using practicals. 
Stage doors opened into a bedroom 
and a bathroom, both of which had 
switch-on lights. David, a character in 
the play, lives upstairs, so there was an 
upstairs light. Just offstage was a 
refrigerator; the audience could tell 
when it was in use because of the 
on-off light cast across the stage, as 
well as the sound of the door opening 
and closing. The lighting crew had 
even supplied an insect repellant lamp 
(in case of mosquitoes), which the cue 
sheet labeled "outside bugaway." 

Specials, on the other hand, are 
those lighting effects achieved through 
other fixtures: moonlight and sunlight 
coming through the window; psyche- 
delic red, purple, and multicolored 

flashing lights; streetlights; and black 
lights. Blue house lights were made to 
"cut or cool" salmon house lights. 

They learned new things about 
geometry, too - how different shapes 
on the sound cue sheet signal the 
in-sustain-out requirements of a flush- 
ing toilet, a ringing telephone, and a 
scratched record. Resur and a student 
assistant illustrated how the saxaphone 
would whine the melody of "Little 
Girl Blue" as Gloria, in the play, 
begins a psychedelic trip. 

Ever hear of a human typewriter? 
There was one at the drama clinic. 
Several of Dr. William Jaeger's acting 
students "improvised," building them- 
selves into an easily recognizable work- 
ing machine complete with pecking 
keys and jerking carriage return. In 
another improvisation there was no 
questioning the fact that the girl was 
putting on false eyelashes, even though 
the lashes, glue, and mirror were not 
available. "I like to get the students to 
really physicalize externally," Jaeger 
noted. "Then we can work on helping 
them to be organically active." Organi- 

A character must know certain 
things about the person he is playing, 
according to Jaeger, and a student who 
had just improvised preparations for a 
fishing trip had her answers ready. (1) 
Where am I going? "I'm going to go 
fishing," she answered. (2) What did I 
come on stage to do? "I came to lift 
up the imaginary rock and dig up 
about five imaginary worms." (3) Why 
now? "Because I promised my mother 
I'd be through before dinner." (4) 
Where do I go to get off stage? She 
pointed to stage right. 

They sang mih, moo, mow, man, 
may, mee, along with William Dreyer, 
School of the Arts singing instructor, 
who told them, "The m is to pull the 
tone forward and pull it out in front 
of the mask, and you must insist upon 
purity of the vowel tone." They were 
trying hard to insist. Up and down the 
musical scale they mooed and mahed, 
right out loud, without embarrass- 
ment. And during an inhalation exer- 
cise, they inhaled, on orders from 
Dreyer. "Now hold that breath in until 
you hear from me. We're going to 
exhale on the slow count of eight. No 
inner tubes, please, softly. Help your 
friend up from the floor there, pal." 
Laughter, of course, since no one had 
really passed out. 

"The serious person will remember 
and will do all these things," he 
reminded the audience. "The same 

students here at the School of the Arts 
who do this are the ones who take 
away from the school everything we 
have to offer them." 

Laryngitis is either physical or men- 
tal, they were told, but for actors 
probably mental, a result of nervous- 
ness. Vitamin C, rest, and diluted fruit 
and vegetable juices were recom- 
mended. Some opera singers, they 
heard, don't even speak or go any- 
where on the day of a performance. 

Attitudes condition all other things, 
visiting artist Robert Donley stressed. 
The basic thing about any character is 
his attitudes. "If I hate women, and 
people of Welsh extraction, and green- 
eyed people, these attitudes will affect 
my behavior. I'm going to have a 
difficult time getting married, especi- 
ally in Wales, and being chased by 
some green-eyed woman won't help 
much. This analysis is part of the craft 
of acting. Two boys, who volunteered 
as guinea pigs for an unrehearsed scene 
from Of Mice and Men, quickly dis- 
covered that the acting craft can be 
learned, but the way isn't easy. 

Ideas are conveyed by words, as 
everybody knows. Donley added, how- 
ever, that word pictures are what the 
actor must find. "War is a terrible 
thing" can convey unthinking, polite 
agreement. Or, through visualization 
(holding in the mind a clear picture of 
what the words mean), it can convey 
images of bodies, blood, dirt, and 
tears. "If you want to walk from one 
point to another, you simply do it. 
But acting requires visualization, and 
visualization demands these other 
steps. The shortest distance is not a 
straight line." 

There were veteran drama teachers 
in the audience. "I've been teaching 
my students all this for years, but 
somehow our clinics help them appre- 
ciate it more," one commented during 
a break. And drama background-less 
English teachers who have been stuck 
with putting on the school play were 
also among the intended beneficiaries 
of this year's clinic. 

But mainly there were the theatre- 
minded students - serious, attentive, 
and soaking in every word. "You 
must take the chance of falling on 
your face and making a fool of your- 
self if you are to succeed on the 
stage," they had been warned by one 
of the professionals. And the prevail- 
ing feeling was that there were several 
hundred drama students and teachers 
anxious to get back to their school 
stages and take their chances. (JLN) ■ 


What helps a student decide to stay 
in school until graduation, when may- 
be everything else would fail? Teaches 
him a skill that can be used for 
employment, if he wishes, or for a 
hobby? And lets him help make a class 
project that will be valuable and usable 
for decades? 

It's building a house - a real, 
salable, and livable one - with high 
school tradesmen, in a construction 
program like the one at Orange High 
School, near Hillsborough. Since 
1965-66, the occupational classes in- 
volved in the "live construction pro- 
ject" have built a house each year. The 
result, on a wooded site only a mile or 
so from the school, is a small residen- 
tial development. Buyers have in- 
cluded a scientist, an automobile deal- 
er, a chain food store manager, and an 
independent grocer. And appraisal val- 
ue has gone as high as $35,000. 

Although they are teenagers, the 
carpenters, brick layers, electricians, 
draftsmen, and landscapers have seen 
the product of their educational ef- 
forts progress from blueprint to sale. 
Having learned their skills from a 
teaching staff with close to a century 
of actual field experience, these stu- 
dents have found jobs waiting for 
them at the graduation door. 

"I started teaching just to get this 
program going in our schools," says 
carpentry teacher Everett Forrest. "I 
had preached for it and begged for it 
almost 20 years. When some of our 
Board members and superintendents 
returned from an educational tour in 
Germany, they were really sold on 
vocational education." 

Like some of the other trades 
teachers, Forrest was in business for 
himself. He is a former contractor and 
cabinet shop operator of some 40 
years, and he planned to teach only 
one year. 

Forrest's carpentry graduates can 
be awarded up to a year's advanced 
standing in a four-year apprenticeship 
program. While working on the job, 
they can progress to journeyman rank 
by attending technical institute classes 
two nights a week. "With no advanced 
placement, a beginner could start at 
around $2.00 an hour," he explains. 
"With the year's credit, though, these 
boys can start out making $2.50 to 
$2.65." At any rate, according to 
Forrest, any student who completes 
his two-year carpentry offerings won't 
be forced to go job hunting. "I've got 
one contractor who will automatically 
take every student who finishes this 



Brickmasonry also is taught in a 
two-year sequence. William McPher- 
son, who teaches bricklaying, starts his 
first-year class off with classroom drill 
practice in line work and building corn- 
ers. From there, they can get some bas- 
ic experience by working on the house 
in progress, but all exposed work is 
done by the second-year students. 

McPherson's graduates who stay 
with masonry enter one of the most 
lucrative branches of the building 
trade. With advanced placement, a 
capable bricklayer can enter appren- 
ticeship at $3.00 an hour and earn 
$5.00 by the time he becomes a 
journeyman. "I have had some boys, 
though, make $5.00 an hour even 
before they complete the apprentice- 
ship," he says. 

A masonry subcontractor of 22 
years, McPherson is an experienced 
teacher of apprentices in on-the-job 
training. "That's one reason I don't 
have trouble placing my students be- 
cause I know almost all the contrac- 
tors in North Carolina. And I wouldn't 
recommend one of my boys unless I 
was really sure he could hold his own 
in a job situation." 

Charles Roberts' students are the 
ones who design the houses that are 
built each year. Drafting is an occupa- 
tional course leading to several career 
possibilities, including commercial art 
and architecture. Girls not only have a 
reasonable chance to find employment 
in these and related fields, but accord- 
ing to the teacher, "My girls usually 
turn out to be better students." 

While Roberts is teaching his first- 
year class the fundamentals of draft- 

ing, his advanced students are design- 
ing next year's house. "Only 10 to 15 
will sign up because they know there's 
a lot of math in second-year design. 
They need to know how to work 
geometry, and trigonometry as well; 
how to figure up the number of yards 
of concrete needed; and how to figure 
materials and specifications." 

Architectural drawings are initiated 
in September, and blueprints are usual- 
ly ready in March. A complete set goes 
to the superintendent, the principal, 
and each vocational teacher involved 
in the project. Roberts and his student 
draftsmen retain the originals. 

"I let them know that what they 
get here is not enough to build a career 
on," Roberts says. "A few years ago, it 
seemed that I had the disadvantage of 
having students who just wanted an 
elective. Now they know they're in a 
trade, and most students go on to 
technical schools or to college." 

Student electricians work under the 
direction of S. J. Parker, who has 
taught physics, chemistry, and a few 
catch-all courses, as well as electricity 
and electronics. Those enrolled in the 
first level learn, through various ex- 
periments, general electrical theory 
that could be applied to almost any 
area of electricity they might choose 
to work in. Second-year students get 
to wire the house. This includes recep- 
tacles, switches, air conditioning, and 
dishwasher and washer-dryer connec- 
tions. "Last year the electrical system 
was more elaborate than you'd find in 
the average house that size," Parker 

The student electricians also do a 
lot of odds-and-ends jobs around the 


school - under supervision, of course. 
They are now in the process of putting 
in some lights and receptacles, and 
they just finished some listening booth 
work in the library. "We're constantly 
doing jobs on the side that relate to 
what we study in the classroom," 
Parker said. 

"We also have the necessary equip- 
ment to teach second-year elec- 
tronics," he continued. "The elec- 
tronics area would be a wide open 
field for girls, for example. But stu- 
dents are more interested in residential 
installation because this is something 
they can see every day in this area," he 

Tommy Leonard's ornamental hor- 
ticulture and landscaping students be- 
gin with drainage control and prepar- 
ing for walks and the driveway. Then, 
Leonard adds, the students begin to 
engage in some fierce debates. "This 
field involves certain basics: there are 
certain shrubs you just don't plant 
around a patio - because of the birds. 
And certainly, if you have a pool, 
you're not going to plant berries 
around it. But beyond that, it's largely 
a matter of personal preference. It 
almost embarrasses me to tell you 
what shrubbery you should have 
around your house because I think it's 
almost like buying clothes. But if you 
can tell me what effect you want, then 
I can help you decide what to use. By 
the end of the year, when we get down 
to deciding what this house will get, it 
can get pretty tough because they've 
formulated a lot of opinions by that 
time, and they hang by them." So far, 
funds for actually purchasing trees and 
shrubbery have been available for only 

two of the four houses. 

"I try to make it flexible with the 
students - get them to the point 
where they become more creative and 
think for themselves. We always try to 
help them learn to make do with what 
they have. For example, we will root 
shrubs in an old washtub." Leonard 
says that the course is basically a back 
yard hobby course. Only one year of 
horticulture is offered. His students 
sometimes work in nurseries and de- 
sign landscapes for townspeople (they 
have more requests than they could 
ever fill), but they aren't taught com- 
mercial landscaping. 

Many of the students who eventual- 
ly work in the annual live project get 
their introduction to building in the 
construction industries course taught 
by Eugene Logan. Construction indus- 
tries, which presents the basics of draft- 
ing, blueprint reading, bricklaying, and 
electricity, is for tenth graders. 

Logan has also taught science and 
math, worked as a postal clerk, and 
rebuilt and redesigned upright pianos. 
His interest in construction stems 
from his work in that field since 1947. 
He still makes cabinets as a sideline. 
"Technical schools do a lot," he said, 
"but I'm still happy that we have so 
many vocational courses here in the 
high school. With the junior high 
school's course in introduction to vo- 
cations, we have an opportunity to 
show the student from the ninth grade 
up the possibilities of the world of 

Real representatives of that world 
of work (area contractors in particu- 
lar) lend their assistance to the school 
project, too. They are consulted espe- 

cially in the areas of plumbing, heat- 
ing, and air conditioning since there 
are no instructors specializing in those 
fields. The students do even those 
installations though. Each teacher has 
an advisory board, which includes sev- 
eral such laymen who recommend 
what he should teach and suggest how 
to teach it so that the graduates will be 
ready for the industrial openings 
awaiting them. 

"The only things we subcontract," 
said Forrest, are excavating (with the 
heavy equipment we don't have) and 
carpetlaying. We were afraid we would 
have trouble from our contractors 
since we, too, sell houses to the public. 
But they are so pleased with it that 
they will do anything they can to help 
us train these young men - who 
eventually will be helping them in 
their businesses." 

Woody Bostick, a State Department 
of Public Instruction area director for 
occupational education, says that the 
Orange High School project lets stu- 
dents see a real connection between 
theory and practice. "Theory becomes 
relevant and applicable when they 
actually plan, build, and landscape a 
house," he said. 

Such a project probably sounds 
extremely difficult to most people 
watching from the sidelines. "Lots of 
superintendents visit us and can hardly 
believe what these students are doing," 
Forrest commented. "But it smoothes 
itself out once you get going." 

The split-level model now under 
construction, by the way, will have on 
the main level a foyer, living room, 
dining room, and kitchen-family room 
combination. Upstairs will be a master 
bedroom and adjacent bathroom, and 
two other bedrooms with a bath. The 
lower level will feature a recreation 
room complete with fireplace, along 
with a utility room and garage. 

When completed, this year's house 
will be shown to the public at a 
two-day open house. Hillsborough 
furniture dealers are already requesting 
administrative permission to put on 
the finishing touches by displaying 
their merchandise during that week- 

Orange High School's construction 
laboratory students will watch their 
house become a home when the high- 
est bidder moves in. Meanwhile, work 
continues at the building site, and 
nearby land has already been cleared 
in anticipation of next year's student 
plans. (JLN) ■ 



cMini— Courses 


Mini-skirts and mini-bikes are every- 
where. A Raleigh newspaper runs a 
weekly mini-page for small fry readers, 
and a real estate man is selling mini- 
farms to middle-aged city boys who 
always wanted to have a retreat in the 

Goldsboro High School has gotten 
into the mini act, too. Its English 
department offerings have been re- 
structured this year into 50 mini- 
courses. Students must still meet cer- 
tain established requirements during 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade Eng- 
lish study, but the nine-week mini- 
courses give them an opportunity to 
choose the areas they want to pursue. 

The course list is tempting: Myths 
and Legends, The Subject Is War, The 
Supernatural, Persuasion and Propa- 
ganda, Science Fiction and Fantasy, 
Adventure and Sports, The Romantic 
Revolt. With specialized formats like 
these, teachers, too, can be more 
effective in the classroom. English 
teachers, like other humans, have their 
own strengths and weaknesses, favor- 
ites and not-so-favorites in their chos- 
en academic discipline. Some are 
strong grammarians, and others just 
managed to get through college ad- 
vanced grammar courses. And while 
some thrive on Chaucer and Shake- 
speare, others find modern American 
fiction or mass communication more 
to their liking. 


The new arrangement gives students 
a chance to capitalize on their 
strengths, too. One of the goals of the 
school's English teachers and guidance 
counselors is to lead each student into 
classes appropriate for his abilities and 
interests - eliminating the failure- 
repeat cycle that has always confront- 
ed academically weak students in re- 
quired subjects. A student who ob- 
viously couldn't perform adequately in 
Shakespeare, for example, will be en- 
couraged to elect something he could 
handle with some degree of success: 
Teenage Fiction or perhaps Adventure 
and Sports. The whole program, in 
fact, is based on the teacher's belief 
that students, with good guidance, will 
make wise choices. 

There may still be failures in these 
new courses, but not necessarily re- 
peats, according to Mrs. Mary Alice 
Sasser, chairman of the English depart- 
ment. If a student fails a given course, 
he need not take the same material 
again. And failures may be made up 
the following grading period, the next 
year, or in summer school. The only 
necessity is that each student satisfac- 
torily complete 16 of the nine-week 
courses, (four of which are accounted 
for in the ninth grade course) by 
graduation. With four such periods in 
each academic year, a student who 
fails a course can take (and pass) two 
courses in a later period and catch up. 
(Ninth graders, incidentally, still oper- 
ate on the year-long course structure, 
wherein they study basic communica- 
tion skills and begin to sample literary 

Another built-in feature ensures 
variety among the students' selections. 
No more than 4 of the 16 English 
credits toward graduation will be given 
in the same area, such as drama. 
Therefore, each student will complete 
some language, composition, and liter- 
ature courses in order to receive a 

Registration brought some sur- 
prises, according to Mrs. Sasser. "More 
students than we had expected avoid- 
ed the new interest courses and signed 
up for composition and grammar, for 
example. These are always wise 
choices, but sometimes extremely con- 
scientious students worry about col- 
lege-level writing assignments without 
really needing to. These are the stu- 
dents who, we hope, will eventually 
register for, say, the research and 
independent study courses. 

"Then, there were students who 
signed up for Developmental Reading 

(a course designed for advanced read- 
ers) when what they needed was Cor- 
rective Reading. Obviously, we had to 
do some rescheduling, but that's an 
age-old problem even with traditional 
courses," Mrs. Sasser notes. 

The English mini-course project got 
its start a year ago during a November 
departmental meeting. The English 
staff members concurred that the pro- 
gram then in effect was not really 
meeting the needs of the large and 
varied student body of 2,400. Many 
practical communications skills, for 
instance, were being sacrificed to more 
academic studies. A general lack of 
variety limited recognition of different 
abilities among so many students, not 
to mention different interests. 

As a result of that meeting, a 
curriculum committee began to inves- 
tigate possibilities for improving the 
English program at Goldsboro High 
School. Student opinion was surveyed, 
and other steps were taken to find out 
what changes would help. Gradually, 
the idea of nine-week courses not 
restricted by grade levels took shape, 
and each English teacher prepared a 
brief description for several possible 
course titles. After the department 
staff approved the idea, each teacher 
developed a detailed course descrip- 
tion for two or three titles. 

By the end of the 1969-70 school 
year, the Goldsboro Board of Educa- 
tion had given its approval and sup- 
plied $5,000 for equipment and mate- 
rials for the project. Three teachers 
paid with funds supplied by the Board 
worked seven weeks during the sum- 
mer to get the program ready by the 
opening of school. 

English Education Consultant Larry 
Tucker of the State Department of 
Public Instruction assisted in the pro- 
ject from the beginning. He believes 
the creation of an innovative English 
program based on short, elective 
courses is in step with current national 
thinking. "I was impressed," he says, 
"with the dedicated leadership provid- 
ed by Mrs. Sasser and the other teach- 
ers, who are anxious to provide a more 
highly motivated, more individualized 
program of instruction. No program of 
this type can succeed without the 
complete cooperation of the school's 
principal and guidance counselors; 
Goldsboro High School has been for- 
tunate in having competent leadership 
and cooperation from both of these 

Goldsboro High School's students 
seem to like the mini-course arrange- 

ment, according to a student reporter 
who surveyed some of them. While 
one student likes not having to con- 
tinue "studying" material he already 
knows, another notes that he now has 
permission to lean towards the English 
areas that really succeed in firing up 
his enthusiasm. Another, though, feels 
she might get more help from the 
teacher if she had more time to get to 
know him better. 

Parents, according to the student 
writer as well as the teachers, are 
expecting the teachers to hold to their 
bargain. They don't want their newly 
liberated children to sign up for 
courses that won't challenge them. 
The school, they believe, must closely 
supervise the students' choices. 

Last spring, several schools experi- 
mented with one- or two-week periods 
filled with mini-course electives, and 
they were enthusiastically received as a 
relief for end-of-the-year tensions. 
Goldsboro High School's English 
mini-courses, though, are required 
study. And they originated not with 
administrators or educational theorists 
but with students and teachers in the 
Department of English. Teachers are 
trying to arrange early registration 
during the school year for English 
classes. No mini-course is offered un- 
less 20 or more students request it; 
consequently, teachers now have no 
way of knowing what they will be 
teaching during the next nine-week 
phase. They want to have a chance to 
prepare for the other new courses they 
know will be coming up. 

With time, though, the scheduling 
procedure will be smoothed out, and 
English teachers at GHS will face the 
ultimate test. With the instructional 
specialties and schedules of the teach- 
ers well rooted and well publicized, 
the students will be signing up for 
certain teachers, as well as certain 
courses. The teachers know the 
parent-student-school implications in 
that kind of situation, as well as the 
additional challenges. So to avoid be- 
ing branded with narrow academic 
labels - and to avoid getting into an 
educational rut - each teacher will be 
assigned at least one new course a 

English teachers at Goldsboro High 
School call the mini-courses a "total 
program." They want to strengthen 
the concept of the English staff as 
opposed to that of my English teacher. 
And they want every student to feel 
he has a place in that total program. 
(JLN) ■ 


:-.:>■.. ■-■ ' '': ; 


brings heritage to life 

Production time! The curtain is 
going up on an outdoor drama which 
tells of pioneers from France and 
Italy, who are settling in a section of 
Burke County. The year is 1893, and 
the people have come from the Wal- 
densian valleys of Italy and France to 
settle in a place later called Valdese. 

An early Protestant sect, the Wal- 
denses had been persecuted even be- 
fore the time of Martin Luther, but 
the worst massacre occured in 1686 
when Louis XIV of France sent his 
troops into the valleys. Thousands 
were killed; the few that were left fled 
to Switzerland. Three years later they 
returned to their home with the aid of 
William of Orange. Nevertheless, it was 
1848 before the Waldenses were grant- 
ed full civil liberties. After this, their 
numbers grew, and by 1892 twenty- 

five thousand Waldenses were crowded 
into the narrow mountain valleys. Till- 
able plots became smaller and smaller. 
It was time for some to seek a new 

The author of the outdoor drama 
From This Day Forward is Fred Cran- 
ford, a pioneer in his own right: a 
pioneer of creative and performing arts 
in Burke County. A native of Burke 
County and a former history teacher, 
Cranford wrote the play over a period 
of nine years. When he discovered the 
possibility of getting Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act, Title III 
funds in 1967, he wrote a proposal for 
a cultural arts project that would 
explore the heritage of Burke and 
surrounding counties. His idea was to 
stimulate interest within the school 
system and community in the creative 

and performing arts, using local pride 
in heritage as a focal point. During the 
first year of the project, Cranford, as 
Director of the ESEA III Cultural 
Heritage Project, began working with a 
dramatics group which had revived 
after being dormant for about 25 
years. Soon they began rehearsals on 
the story of the Waldenses. 

The outdoor drama reflects the 
efforts of an entire community. Vol- 
unteers laid brick and poured cement 
for the 900-seat amphitheater, built 
props, and made costumes. Donations 
of yarn, cloth, lumber, chairs, bricks, 
flowers, and most of all - time - were 
made by the people of the region. One 
child's costume sums up the endeavor: 
the brocade was donated by a local 
furniture industry, the yarn by a local 
hosiery mill, and the decorations came 


from broken jewelry collected in the 

The amphitheater and the outdoor 
drama were only the beginning. The 
project has initiated an annual Burke 
Music Festival, developed Burke Coun- 
ty resource materials and begun a 
North Carolina room in the Burke 
County Library, provided in-service 
training for teachers, and summer 
workshops for students. 

The Burke County Music Festival 
began in 1968, the first year of fund- 
ing for the Cultural Heritage Project. 
Held each spring, the annual event 
provides an opportunity for school 
children from the area to present 
native folk songs and dances and other 
things they have learned in the per- 
forming arts during the past year. 
Residents support the activity enthusi- 
astically, just as they do the outdoor 
drama. Last year attendance at the 
festival was 400 for each of two 

This ESEA Title III Cultural Arts 
Project has had a lasting impact in the 
area of resource materials, too. Two 
publications have been written by Ti- 
tle III staff and printed by Burke 
County Schools' graphics and indus- 
trial communications students. The 
Waldenses of Burke County provides 
historical background material for the 
outdoor drama From This Day For- 
ward. The other publication, The 
Burke County Gold Rush, tells about 
the North Carolina gold rush which 
occurred nearly 30 years before the 
California rush. 

Cranford and his staff (never more 
than four strong except the year Title 
III funded nine teachers in creative 
arts) have developed an Annotated 
Bibliography of Burke County Re- 
source Materials with the help of 
teachers, students, and the adult citi- 
zens of Burke County. Dr. Edward W. 
Phifer, a member of the executive 
board of the North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Archives and History, says 
that the Burke County collection is 
one of the most comprehensive of any 
produced in the State. Professors, 
graduate students, and undergraduates 
alike from nearby colleges frequently 
use the collection for research. 

When the ESEA Title III project 
ended in December, the materials were 
transferred to a permanent North 
Carolina room in the Burke County 
library. Citizens of the area have come 
forth with letters, diaries, unpublished 
manuscripts, court records, old news- 
papers, wills, and deeds. All these 

resources are readily available to citi- 
zens of the community as well as to 
scholars, teachers, and students. 

The staff of the Cultural Arts Pro- 
ject has consistently worked with 
teachers, conducting in-service training 
for them in the creative and perform- 
ing arts, as well as offering supplemen- 
tary materials. A more recent emphasis 
has been encouraging more creative 
teaching methods - developing their 
own units, for example, with little 
reliance on textbooks. "After all," said 
Cranford, "the kind of materials we 
have compiled have never been availa- 
ble in a textbook. If we are to teach 
our own cultural history, we have only 
our own research and our teachers' 
ingenuity to develop the lessons." 

Early in the history of the project 
the Title III staff began working with 
students in grades 7-12 in summer 
workshops. At the end of each sum- 
mer session students were given a 
chance to show off what they had 
done. The summer's activities usually 
included a small play production, cre- 
ative writing workshops, work in 
dance and music for all students who 
wanted to come. These workshops are 
over now (ESEA Title III funds are no 
longer available for them), but talents 
developed by the workshops will con- 
tinue in the children who participated. 

During the summer workshops of 
1969, the Title III staff decided to 
experiment with including students 
from the Morganton North Carolina 
School for the Deaf in regular creative 
writing classes. In only six weeks the 
deaf students had so improved their 
vocabularies and writing abilities that 

the North Carolina School for the 
Deaf decided to employ two creative 
writing teachers to develop a program 
in the school for the next year. These 
teachers will be working with the deaf 
students in creative writing and litera- 
ture and the teachers of the deaf in 
employing special teaching techniques. 

The recently consolidated Burke 
County Schools has a new position, 
Coordinator of Fine Arts. In this 
position Fred Cranford will lead the 
development of a humanities program 
for the entire school system. His task 
should be easier because he has already 
laid much of the groundwork as direc- 
tor of the ESEA Title III Cultural Arts 
Project. He plans to continue placing 
emphasis on the pride of accomplish- 
ment that exists in Burke County and 
to try to make the total humanities 
program come alive for students and 
teachers. He looks forward to the same 
cooperation and enthusiasm from the 
community that was shown in the 
Cultural Arts Project. And with Cran- 
ford's vivacity the humanities program 
will come alive. 

Cranford believes that a teacher has 
to be something of a "ham." As guest 
storyteller on a historical tour for 
fourth grade classes, he dramatizes the 
stories of Frankie Silvers and Samuel 
Martin, Burke County personalities 
from the past. He points out the tree 
from which Frankie Silvers was hung. 
(Burke County has the dubious dis- 
tinction of hanging the first woman in 
North Carolina.) And the fourth grad- 
ers eyes widen as they learn about 
their region's heritage. (LG) ■ 

Hough Named Principal of the Year 

W. A. Hough, principal of North Mecklenburg High School, 
recently was named principal of the year by the principals' 
division of the North Carolina Association of Educators. 

NCAE president Charles Sigmon presented Hough with a 
plaque at the principals' division convention in Durham. The 
inscription cited Hough for "challenging innovative practices, 
dynamic public relations, inspiring administrative vision, coopera- 
tive program planning, professional leadership, unselfish service to 
others, and concern for children." 

Principal at North Mecklenburg since 1954, and previously at 
Berryhill Elementary School in the same system, Hough also has 
served as coach, teacher, and principal in Roxboro, Goldsboro, 
Dunn, and Bladenboro schools. 


They 're All Bright 


"They cry when they have to stay 
home." It sounds unbelievable, but 
Mrs. Frances Murphy said it, and she 
should know. 

Mrs. Murphy is a fourth grade 
teacher at Brunson Elementary School 
in Winston-Salem, and each child in 
her class has an intelligence quotient 
of at least 125. "But the I.Q.'s just 
start there," she said, "and they go on 
up and up!" 

Her class is for the gifted or aca- 
demically talented. And at Brunson 
there are eight such classes for the 
gifted in grades 3-6. All the academi- 
cally talented children in the system 
may attend classes at Brunson. From 
there they continue in an academically 
talented program at Wiley Junior High 
and Reynolds High School. 

Teachers say that the children not 
only cry when they have to miss 
school but that they seldom miss it. 
"The attendance is almost unbelieva- 
ble," said James E. Dew, school princi- 
pal. He contends, as do the teachers, 
that the gifted are larger, healthier, 
and just all-round superior to children 
with normal intelligence. 

You can see it in the classrooms. 
Each houses about 20 of the healthiest 
little bodies imaginable topped by 
pink cheeks and bright intelligence- 
filled eyes that would make any educa- 
tor rub his hands in anticipation and 
start planning. 

There is no window gazing. No 
staring. And no fretful fidgeting. Al- 
though extremely polite and well man- 
nered, the children are possessed of an 
adult-like maturity that erupts repeat- 
edly with constant "whys." 

Winston-Salem's gifted program, be- 
gun in 1957, is the oldest in the State, 
according to its director, Douglas Car- 
ter, also curriculum planning super- 
visor for the system. Classes at Brun- 
son began 12 years ago when the 
Winston-Salem and Forsyth County 
school systems merged. The object at 
Brunson is to place all children tagged 
gifted in one location so they may 
compete with one another and take 


advantage of centralized teaching and 
material resources. About three per- 
cent of the school population is 

Attention is given, according to 
Carter, to a sequential development of 
the necessary skills in all subjects. The 
regular curriculum prescribed by local 
and State officials is taught, but at 
Brunson that "regular curriculum" is 
left far behind by students whose pace 
and mastery of concepts is a joy. 

Mrs. Murphy, chairman of the 
teachers, is quick to note that the 
program is not one of acceleration. 
"We do the same thing regular class- 
rooms do. But it's the goals we strive 
for - depth and enrichment - that 
make it different." 

For one thing, the children are able 
to work on their own with more ease 
and success than normal children. 
Therefore, a dozen activities might be 
going on in a classroom at the same 
time. "The noise level tends to get 
high, but if you listen, they're all 
talking about their work," she said. 
The teachers also strive to develop 
critical thinking and self-analysis. 

Student-prepared talks and research 
to produce them are frequently used 
methods. Topics are assigned to or 
chosen by the student, who then gives 
a 5- or 10-minute "morning talk" on 
the subject using visual aids ranging 
from student art to self -previewed film 
strips. Each child or group makes 
about six to eight presentations a year, 
and they are evaluated by their peers. 

"Sometimes the children can be 
quite harsh," said Mrs. Murphy. "But 
we try to get them to see good points 
and to consider how they might have 
done better." 

Regular letter grades are used for 
grading the students, but much of the 
teacher evaluation is a verbal thing 
with the individual child. "We want 
them to learn to evaluate themselves," 
she said. 

Fourth grade students begin reading 
the Junior Great Book Series which 
leads to more discussion and analysis. 

Guidelines for class discussions include 
reading materials in advance, reflect- 
ing, keeping to the subject, speaking 
freely, being courteous, and backing 
up their assertions with fact. They 
follow them, too. 

The planning required for the class- 
es is tremendous. "I've never worked 
harder in my life," said Mrs. Murphy. 
To keep the children interested, teach- 
ers use a lot of games, three dimen- 
sional projects, research, field trips 
(with the help of parents), and fine 
arts projects. 

The classes also plan and produce 
more than the usual number of stu- 
dent shows for their class, other class- 
es, or the whole school. This year, for 
example, the sixth grade wrote, pro- 
duced, directed, and acted in an origi- 
nal play entitled Sorry, Wrong Num- 
ber. And on any given day you can 
find a group of students within a 
classroom doing an impromptu pro- 
duction to present something or other 
to their classmates. 

The amount of creative writing is 
also greater. "We can cover the funda- 
mentals of English faster and go on to 
other things, such as different types of 
writing," said Mrs. Murphy. Her class, 
for example, enjoyed Haiku this year. 

The gifted children at Brunson also 
study conversational Spanish begin- 
ning at the third grade level. Each class 
receives about 40 minutes of instruc- 
tion every other day. There is some 
grammar, little written work, and 
much use of games, songs, and like 
activities. "It's different, so they really 
enjoy it," said Mrs. Murphy. The 
instruction is continued when the 
children reach junior high school. 

"One thing we are trying to develop 
through all these activities," she said, 
"is each child's special talent. If we 
can do this, then we've added some- 
thing to the educational process." 

Mrs. Murphy admits that in two 
areas the gifted children at Brunson 
have consistent difficulty. They "fall 
down" in spelling and computation, 
she said. This doesn't seem surprising 
in view of the fact that to a child they 
are all verbally oriented. "They just 
think too fast and thus make careless 
mistakes," she said. The teachers work 
with them on syllabication and phon- 
ics and generally urge their students to 
take the time to work out "bother- 
some" details like spelling and math. 

Carter, who agrees that the children 
in the Brunson program are verbally 
oriented and that the program itself is 

primarily academic in nature, would 
like to see something similar for child- 
ren gifted in other areas or for children 
talented in just one area. (The system's 
summer enrichment program for the 
top 10 percent of its students serves 
this need to a great extent.) 

Mrs. Murphy also said that disci- 
pline, though not a problem, can be 
nerve-wracking. "They just can't con- 
tain their ideas. They get excited, and 
want to express themselves right 
then," she said. The rules for discus- 
sion help. 

The classes are small - about 20 
students, and on each grade level 
teachers work closely together. Each 
class of students is divided each year 
and regrouped so the children will be 
mixed frequently during the 3-6 peri- 
od. Field trips, music, and various 
other activities are sometimes held 
with several classes to provide large 
group experience. 

Identification of the 50 students 
who enter the program each year is 
vitally important, according to Carter. 
It begins when all second grade teach- 
ers in the system refer the children 
they consider suitable candidates. 
They choose them on the basis of 
group intelligence test scores, cumula- 
tive records, questionnaires, observa- 
tion, and personal analysis. 

From there the selection goes to a 
screening committee made up of ad- 
ministrators, teachers, a social worker, 
and psychologists. The children are 

then given achievement tests, and all 
who score two or more years in 
advance of their grade level are con- 
sidered further. These children are 
then rated individually, tested again, 
and evaluated by the screening com- 
mittee before the final selection. 

Parents of those chosen are notified 
and invited to the school to become 
acquainted with the program. Principal 
Dew noted that parents are not 
"sold." They are simply invited to 
learn about the classes to have their 
children attend. Transportation to and 
from school must be provided by the 
parents. Carter noted, however, that 
for parents with transportation prob- 
lems, a carpool arrangement can be 
worked out. 

The children are evaluated periodi- 
cally during their Brunson experience; 
and, occasionally, a child will be re- 
turned to his regular classroom. 
"Sometimes a student can't take the 
competition at first," said Mrs. Mur- 
phy. But most, she contends, thrive on 
the competition which is not available 
to them in a regular classroom. Stu- 
dents can also move into the program 
at any time after grade three. 

Teachers are hand-picked. They are 
all regular classroom teachers who are, 
first of all, excellent teachers. Warmth, 
understanding, and creative abilities as 
well as experience are factors in selec- 
tion. The teachers are paid through 
regular State and exceptionally talent- 
ed allotments. (The only other "extra" 

resource is a yearly $1,500 from local 
funds for materials.) 

"Our goal," said Mrs. Murphy, "is 
to help them develop a sense of 
security and of responsibility and all 
of us realize the enormous task it is," 
she said. "We're trying to develop 
inquiring minds and curiosity. And we 
work like everything to help them 
satisfy their curiosity. Some children 
who haven't been challenged in regular 
classrooms blossom forth in an amaz- 
ing way," she said. 

"Do we think being in a 'gifted' 
program makes little snobs of them?" 
she asked. "Hardly. In fact, we feel it 
might have the opposite effect. They 
battle up against a roomful as good or 
better than they are." Carter said that 
while no formal study has been made 
to indicate these children have distin- 
guished themselves in colleges and grad- 
uate schpols throughout the nation. 
ren have distinguished themselves in 
colleges and graduate schools through- 
out the nation." 

Programs for the gifted are not rare 
in North Carolina. Figures for last year 
show there were 445 teachers of the 
gifted serving almost 12,000 students. 
It is estimated, however, that 10% of 
the school population falls into the 
academically talented category. That 
leaves almost 109,000 children not 
served. And as far as programs or 
classes for the gifted student at the 
elementary level are concerned, 
they're like Hens' teeth. (NJ) ■ 


Teachers and students are invited to prepare special projects 
and events for a contest being sponsored by the Divisions of 
Cultural Arts and Social Studies of the State Department of 
Public Instruction in preparation for Heritage Week. Competition 
is open to schools as well as individual classes. Winning projects, 
festivals, displays, etc. will be named during Heritage week, which 
starts April 18. 

Several organizations have already pledged support for and 
participation in the eight-day Heritage Week celebration, includ- 
ing the Homemakers of North Carolina, N. C. Federation of 
Music Clubs, Southeastern North Carolina Crafts of LakeWacca- 
maw, and Campbell Folk School of Brasstown. Businesses and 
industries have scheduled special promotions of Tar Heel pro- 
ducts ranging from foods to arts and crafts, and some plan to 
sponsor local cultural events. Contributions of major racial and 
ethnic groups to North Carolina's historical and cultural heritage 
will also be spotlighted. 

Six student interns will begin researching North Carolina folk 

culture and history next month in preparation for the observance. 
Working in pairs consisting of one history major and one music 
major, they will be given direction by faculty advisers at Western 
Carolina, Wake Forest, and East Carolina Universities. The State 
of North Carolina, through the Service-Learning Leadership 
Development Project in Appalachian North Carolina, has made 
the three-month internships available, and the students will work 
in conjunction with the State Department of Public Instruction. 

When their research projects in the eastern, piedmont, and 
western sections of the State are completed, the Department of 
Public Instruction's Division of Cultural Arts will publish the 
most significant data in a social studies/cultural arts bulletin 
designed to aid elementary school teachers in Tar Heel-oriented 
class activities. 

Additional information about Heritage Week and the contest is 
available from Dr. Melvin L. Good, Cultural Arts Consultant, 
Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, North Caro- 
lina 27602. 



Lexington Senior High School students who meet certain 
criteria are permitted to enrich their academic backgrounds with 
courses graded on a Pass or Fail basis. According to Superinten- 
dent Jack Davis, the program was devised in 1968 to reduce 
pressure on students who prefer heavy academic schedules. It was 
felt that capable pupils should be able to pursue courses not 
essential for graduation or career plans without also bearing the 
burden of the traditional grading system. 

To participate in the Pass-Fail option, a student must register 
his choices during the first month of school; possess an overall B 
average; be recommended by the Guidance Department; and have 
approval of the principal. Once he decides to take a given course 
under this plan, he may not change his mind. His grade of P or F 
is recorded on his report card and transcript but is not counted 
when rank in class is determined. 

Davis notes that most of the 105 students approved have so far 
selected courses such as chemistry, foreign languages, mathema- 
tics, and humanities. But any course not required for graduation 
credit may be taken under the option. (The school has 100 
offerings this year.) Some are arranged for independent study so 
that students can work with area resource persons on special 
projects (the laser beam is one example) and report periodically 
to their faculty advisers. 

Except where independent study activities are concerned, 
students taking the option attend classes along with their peers 
who are going for regular grades. Teachers indicate their approval 
and regard the Pass-Fail program as a successful venture. 

Some 600 persons are expected to attend the fifth annual 
winter conference of NCAE's Department of Audiovisual Educa- 
tion January 28-30 at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem. 
"Transitions and Contemporary Media" is the theme of the 
conference, which will feature Dr. Robert Gerletti, president of 
the Association for Educational Communications and Technolo- 
gy, and other nationally known speakers. There also will be 
presentations of specific projects and programs under way in 
North Carolina. 

College and university media personnel, librarians, audiovisual 
directors, principals, and teachers will be among the participants. 






7 135/3 

lortU Carolina State Litetty 

n. a 









State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Special Assistant for Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: KayW. Bullock 

Information Specialist: Nancy Jolly 

Writer: Janice L. Narron 

Writer, ESEA III: Linda Gallehugh 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued quarterly by the State Department of 
Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at Raleigh, N. 
C. 27611. Unless otherwise noted, no permission is required for 
reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Manuscripts are welcomed. Mailing address: 
Editor, North Carolina Public Schools, Division of Public In- 
formation and Publications, Room 362, State Department of 
Public Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N. C. 27602. 
Telephone: 919-829-4258. 



Ten North Carolina school systems recently pooled their re- 
sources, formed the School Computer Service Corporation, and 
purchased a computer. Located in Raleigh, the computer is 
connected by telephone to teletype terminals in local schools and 
is being used by students as a problem-solving tool in such areas 
as pollution, population and traffic control. The computer 
purchasers are Wake, Nash, Durham, Cleveland, and Wayne 
county school units and Raleigh, Wilson, Rocky Mount, Kings 
Mountain, and Shelby city units. See "Letter from a Rural 
School's Computer" on page 14 to find out how Nash County is 
putting the computer to work with its students. 

Photo Credit: All photographs in this issue are by Bruce Clark, 
State Department of Public Instruction photographer. 







The Ten-Month Term: What It's All About 3 

Habla Espanol? Pembroke Children Do 4 

Face-Lifting the Big Room Permits Team Teaching 6 

Lunch Is for Learning 9 

Fifth Graders Will Plant Trees on Arbor Day 11 

Teacher of the Year: Genella Barton Allison 13 

Letter from a Rural School's Computer 15 

Half-Day Teacher: Best of Two Worlds 1 6 

Put ERIC to Work for You 18 

Videotape: New Tool for Salisbury 20 

Items 22 

Dialing for Mathematics 24 

Attorney General Rules 24 

State Board of Education 

Dallas Herring, Rose Hill, Chairman, District 2 

John A. Pritchett, Windsor, Vice-Chairman, District 1 

Craig Phillips, Secretary, Ex Officio 

H. Pat Taylor, Lieutenant Governor, Ex Officio 

Edwin Gill, State Treasurer, Ex Officio 

G. Douglas Aitken, Charlotte, District 6 

R. Barton Hayes, Hudson, District 7 

Charles E. Jordan, Durham, District 3 

Mrs. Eldiweiss F. Lockey, Aberdeen, District 4 

William R. Lybrook, Winston-Salem, District 5 

John M. Reynolds, Asheville, District 8 

Mrs. Mildred S. Strickland, Smithfield, Member-at-large 

Harold L. Trigg, Greensboro, Member-at-large 


What it's all about 

A. Craig Phillips, State Superintendent of Public Instruction 


The 10-month calendar reflects 12 paid vacation days and 8 paid holidays (exclusive of 
Saturdays and Sundays) during the period of employment. On all other week days not 
assigned as vacation or holidays, teachers will be working at school. Students will attend 
school 1 day for registration and 180 days for instruction. 















> £3 

co tr 


— *-' 

<D 3 

-C O 
<-> -C 
CO +-> 

a> ■— 
\- 5 


Aug. 16- 
Aug. 26 

Teachers work for 9 days before 
students arrive for registration 



Aug. 27 

Registration of students 
Note: students present, but this day 
not 1 of 180 instructional days 



Aug. 30 

First full day for students 


Sept. 6 

Holiday (Labor Day) 



Oct. 11 

End of first 6 weeks 


Oct. 12 

Teachers work 1 day without students 


Sept. or 

Teachers attend professional meetings 
or work 1 day without students 



Nov. 24 

End of second 6 weeks 


Nov. 25 

Holiday (Thanksgiving Day) 



Nov. 26 

Holiday (in lieu of Veterans' Day) 



Nov. 29 

Teachers work 1 day without students 



Dec. 20- 
Dec. 23 

Winter vacation days 



Dec. 24 

Holiday (for Sat. Dec. 25) 



Dec. 27 




Dec. 28- 
Dec. 30 

Winter vacation days 



Dec. 31 

Holiday (for Sat. Jan 1 ) 
School resumes Mon. Jan. 3 



Jan. 24 

End of semester 


Jan. 25- 
Jan. 26 

Teachers work on mid-year planning 
without students 



Mar. 8 

End of fourth 6 weeks 


Mar. 9 

Teachers work 1 day without students 



Mar. 30 

Spring vacation day 



Mar. 31 

Holiday (for Sun. Apr. 2) 



Apr. 3 
Apr. 6 

Spring vacation days 



Apr. 28 

Teachers work 1 day without students 
Note: Mon. May 1 is actual end of 
6 weeks 



May 1 

End of fifth 6 weeks 


June 12 

End of sixth 6 weeks, last day of 
school for students 


June 13- 
June 14 

Teachers work on post-school 



June 15 

Holiday (in lieu of Memorial Day) 






What is meant by 10-month em- 
ployment? How would it work as 
opposed to the 185-day working peri- 
od for teachers we have now? 

As an example, teachers would go 
to work on August 15 and work 
full-time through June 14, or it might 
be August 16 through June 15, or 
August 11 through June 10, whatever 
each local board of education decides. 
Students would still be in school 180 
days, as they are now. There would be 
12 days of annual leave (vacation) for 
teachers and 8 legal holidays (in addi- 
tion to present personal leave and sick 
leave provisions, or in accord with 
action which may be taken by the 
General Assembly based on recom- 
mendations of the Teachers' and State 
Employees' Benefits Study Commis- 
sion). For the first time, teachers, like 
every other State employee, would be 
earning annual leave at a regular rate 
for every month of employment. 

Now to the heart of the matter. 
After vacation and legal holidays, this 
would leave approximately 20 days for 
teachers to prepare for and plan for 
their work with children. It could be a 
day after each six weeks when children 
stay home and teachers can work on 
records. It's days for professional 
meetings, days for a principal to work 
with a full staff or parts of his staff on 
curriculum development, days for 
parent conferences, days for planning, 
and for in-service training. 

To put all teachers on a 10-month 
employment period would cost ap- 
proximately 61 million dollars. In 
addition to the salary increase for this 
extension of term (8.1 percent each 
year), the State Board of Education 
has asked the General Assembly to 
provide a 5 percent and 10 percent 
salary increase for the next biennium 
(above the 1970-71 salary schedule). 
This would make a total of a 13 
percent increase the first year and an 
18 percent increase in round figures 
the second year, compared with 
1970-71 salary standards. This would 
provide a beginning salary in 1971-72 
of $6,870 per year, or $687 per 
month. The 1971 General Assembly 
will decide whether or not 10-month 
employmentwill become a reality next 
year in North Carolina. ■ 


Eight-year-olds will whisper in 
church, but Robeson County congre- 
gations now find that they can't un- 
derstand what the youngsters are whis- 
pering about. 

Parents, and at least one principal, 
report that supper-table conversations 
among their children are sometimes 

One school visitor standing outside 
an elementary classroom was prompt- 
ed, by the activity inside, to ask the 
principal, "What th' devil is going on 
in there?" 

What's even more drastic is that the 
superintendent recently found his 
pupil enrollment classifications chal- 
lenged by a federal official. Superin- 
tendent Y. H. Allen had listed no 
Spanish-speaking Americans in his 
HEW report, yet the visiting official 
encountered several in a school cafe- 
teria line. 

The "problem," according to these 
episodes, is that nearly all the pupils at 
Pembroke Elementary School are be- 

coming bilingual. Third graders are 
now in the first year of what will be a 
decade-long sequence of Spanish, the 
first such program in the State. 

Although many helped with the 
planning, three persons are primarily 
responsible for starting the 10-year 
Spanish curriculum. They are Robeson 
County Superintendent Allen; Mrs. 
Reba Lowry, chairman of the foreign 
language department at Pembroke 
State University; and Virgil Miller, 
foreign language consultant in the 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion's Division of Languages. 

To get the program going, Pem- 
broke Elementary School employed 
two full-time teachers of Spanish this 
year. (In North Carolina, an elemen- 
tary school with even one full-time 
foreign language teacher is unheard of, 
according to Miller.) Jerry Lowry and 
Sandra Sanderson both teach twelve 
20-minute classes a day. Together they 

reach all third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and 
seventh graders, as well as the three 

sections of special education pupils - 
for a total of some 750 students. 

Their teaching at Pembroke Ele- 
mentary this year came about partly 
because of something they did last 
year. Both 1970 graduates of Pem- 
broke State University, Lowry and 
Miss Sanderson worked in Robeson 
County Schools during 1969-70 as 
student teachers. In addition to four 
other then students at the university, 
they taught the Pembroke Elementary 
children Spanish as part of their col- 
lege independent study project. Princi- 
pal James C. Dial notes that under that 
arrangement, most of his 1969-70 stu- 
dents were getting some instruction in 
Spanish. Moreover, the children (60 
percent of whom are regarded as edu- 
cationally and economically deprived) 
began to "perk up" to learning as a 

Since that temporary Spanish pro- 
gram was working so well, the idea of 
having all the pupils study Spanish 
under more certain conditions evolved. 
The responsible three started planning. 

Mrs. Lowry, whose department pro- 
duces quite a few Spanish teachers, has 
worked with area schools for years. 
Referring to the elementary Spanish 
program now in operation, Superin- 
tendent Allen and Miller agree, "She 
started the whole thing when she sent 
some of her students here as practice 

Superintendent Allen and his staff 
immediately saw the opportunity to 
have an academically unique program 

at Pembroke Elementary School. Sup- 
porting the concept of Spanish for all 
pupils, he observed, "The world is 
shrinking every day. Most Americans 
will go abroad sometime. In fact, we in 
Robeson County have a number of 
foreign visitors each year - education 
and industry people, for example. The 
ability to understand foreign people - 
and especially to speak their language 
- is a distinct advantage for any- 

Associate Superintendent Samuel 
C. Stell adds, "We've looked toward 
Europe, then to Asia, and now we're 
going to have to pay more attention to 
the Southern countries. Recent elec- 
tions in Chile are indicative of what's 
going on. Those countries have been 
falling rapidly." He cited Cuba and 
Chile as examples. 

The school officials, then, were 
attracted to the possibility of a full 
Spanish program in the elementary 
school. They knew they had one great 
advantage - the university next door 
where the future teachers were - but 
they nevertheless had limited re- 
sources. As Stell put it, "We had to be 
really sold." 

About that time, SDPI language 
consultant Miller became a salesman. 
Fluent in Spanish, and well-traveled, 
he agreed that our American attitude 
toward foreigners has too long been, 
"If they want to communicate with 
us, let them learn English." Miller says, 
"The time has come when we must 
take foreign language out of the class- 
room, out the front door, and into the 
community and the world where it can 
be put to use." It was he who helped 
the local school staff get the necessary 
materials and tailor Spanish teaching 
to the elementary level. He also helped 
recruit and train native Chileans and 
Cuban refugees last year to teach in 
the entire Pembroke system. He was a 
fast salesman. 

Pembroke Elementary was selected 
for the start of the 10-year program 
because the concept had already bur- 
ied its roots there. But why the third 
grade? Miller, who believes foreign 
language study can never come too 
soon, says, "We would like to have 
started in the first grade, or in kinder- 
garten -preferably in the cradle - but 
the longest series of materials we could 
find lasted only 10 years. Therefore, 
since grades 9-12 in Pembroke already 
had Spanish, the third grade was the 
lowest level at which we would start a 
10-year sequence." 

The seventh graders have picked up 

a similar opportunity this year, with 
the beginning of a second new Spanish 
sequence. Using more mature study 
materials in the same Holt, Rinehart 
and Winston series, they will have the 
opportunity to complete a 6-year 
Spanish program by graduation time. 

Spanish culture, indeed, is one of 
the most important parts of the educa- 
tion all these students receive. Come 
to the door of any Spanish classroom 
in Pembroke, and before you cross the 
threshold, every pupil is on his feet. 
Spanish-speaking people rise whenever 
someone enters the room, and this 
custom has become as automatic with 
the Pembroke pupils as it is with the 
natives. One goal of the Spanish curri- 
culum is simply to teach them to 
appreciate a culture and a people other 
than their own, to enable them to live 
as, in Miller's words, citizens of the 
world. With the little eight-year-olds, 
in particular, appreciation and world 
citizenship come with noticeable ease. 

Although Pembroke State graduates 
man several of the Spanish teaching 
positions in the town's schools, some 
of the teachers are graduates of other 
programs. Mrs. Ofelia Quintana, at 
Pembroke Senior High School, for 
example, escaped from Cuba just last 
year. Having been a teacher there, she 
received further training at Appa- 
lachian State University at an Educa- 
tion Professions Development Act 
(EPDA) Institute last spring. Under 
Miller's instruction, she completed the 
courses necessary for teaching in 
North Carolina. Mrs. Quintana's Eng- 
lish is not perfect, but her feelings 
about her new life are quite clear. She 
volunteers without faltering, "I am 
very happy here." 

There are both teachers and stu- 
dents in Pembroke tiiis year who are 
participating in the North Carolina- 
Chile Exchange Program organized by 
SDPI two years ago. Miss Sanderson, a 
life-long Pembroke resident, is hostess 
to a visiting teacher who was her 
hostess in Chile last year. 

As desirable as a 10-year foreign 
language program in the schools 
sounds, it presents an interesting chal- 
lenge for the students' parents. Princi- 
pal Dial laughingly admits that when 
his children want to exchange secrets 
with their classmates by telephone, 
they simply break into Spanish. 
Enter: a class for parents. For 1 1 / 2 to 
2 hours each week, Miss Deanna 
McDonald conducts evening sessions in 
Spanish especially for parents and 
others interested in keeping up with 

Pembroke's children. (The class is part 
of her Pembroke State University inde- 
pendent study project.) Occasionally, 
the school pupils will entertain (in 
Spanish) the parent group. Upon see- 
ing one of them, a mother new to the 
class told Dial, "This is the first 
program I ever enjoyed, not under- 
standing a word of it!" 

Most of Pembroke's residents are 
Lumbee Indians by lineage. Spanish 
has long been their preferred foreign 
language in the schools. Although 
technically, Spanish becomes an elec- 
tive at grade 8, students in the lower 
grades (at Pembroke Elementary) are 
not required to attend the Spanish 
classes either. They are choosing to, 
however, and it is hoped that the other 
elementary schools can soon have a 
foreign language program. 

Dial points out that when the ele- 
mentary Spanish idea began to take 
hold, some were skeptical. They sug- 
gested that remedial reading might 
better serve the needs of the children. 
According to Pembroke Elementary 
educators, however, the Spanish pro- 
gram has helped students in their other 
subjects. They have not only adapted 
readily to foreign language study, but 
have also discovered new interest in 
their reading and (English) language 
arts lessons. "Their enthusiasm has 
resulted in a more satisfying self- 
image," Dial says, "and they like 
school better." 

The new program, according to 
Allen, Miller, and Mrs. Lowry, is an 
outstanding example of three-way co- 
operation among educational parties - 
the local school system, the nearby 
university, and the State education 
agency. Working together, they deve- 
loped (1) a unique offering for the 
school's clients, (2) a teaching labora- 
tory, complete with children, for the 
university, and (3) an exemplary 
"first" curriculum that will enable the 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion to assist other schools interested 
in starting a similar program. 

Citizens of the world? Pembroke's 
school children are at least moving 
closer to favorable communication 
with the Spanish-speaking world. On 
the playground, over the telephone, 
across the dinner table, and in school 
corridors, they're already putting to 
use what they've learned in the class- 
room. In fact, the superintendent's 
next report to the government (if it is 
to be correct) may well have to in- 
clude a figure in the column labeled 
Spanish-speaking Americans, (JLIM) ■ 





A, A. • l fl, 

> ' ' • V \ 


Flexibility is a plus in team teach- 
ing, allowing one teacher to work with 
a small group of children while the 
others work with larger groups. 

Team Haywood, Team Hoffler, 
Team Houston, and Team Williams 
team teach in the "big room" at W. H. 
Fuller Elementary School in Raleigh. 
They don't even remember each oth- 
er's real first names, and many of their 
holiday greeting cards from the chil- 
dren come addressed to Team So and 

That "big room" is a former audi- 
torium that was converted a year and a 
half ago into an 88' x 40' team 
teaching center for the nine-year-old 
school's fourth graders. Renovation 
was accomplished with available funds 
and without the financial advantage of 
federal aid, since Fuller School isn't 
economically eligible for such assist- 

Big room education resulted from 
overcrowding and a simultaneous de- 
sire to institute the team teaching 
concept. It was not, however, a matter 
of simply dumping 90 children into 
the auditorium, Principal Alfred Perry 
explains. "Many new schools are being 
designed," he said, "to accommodate 
team programs - the appropriate fur- 
niture, equipment, and teaching mate- 
rials that go with teaming as well as 
the building layout. 

"But we had an older plant with 
self-contained classrooms. Adding four 
or five mobile units could have re- 
lieved the crowding problem, but it 
wouldn't have given us the team teach- 
ing we wanted. We finally proposed 
renovation of the auditorium into a 
large multipurpose room with remova- 
ble partitions. We got the room and 
the necessary furniture for it, but 

money for the partitions was not 
approved. Now we're glad it wasn't." 

Actually, there is one leftover parti- 
tion that can be swung into place in 
seconds when it is needed. It's the 
stage curtain that can separate the 24' 
by 40' stage area from the rest of the 
big room. It is used when a particular 
group project (a reading lesson, for 
example) requires a certain degree of 
isolation from the other big room 
activities. The stage, like the floor 
area, is carpeted and furnished with 
desks and chairs that can be moved 
aside during "big room presentations," 
which are popular for social studies 

The fourth grade was selected for 
big room learning for several reasons. 
One of them was that a fourth grade 
teacher expressed particular interest in 
starting a team program at Fuller. 

It took a year for big room learning 
to come to reality. Teachers and other 
members of the staff read up on team 
teaching, nongraded schools, and simi- 
lar educational concepts for their own 
preparation. Some visited schools al- 
ready using the team approach, and 
others attended special seminars. 
Parents of the rising fourth graders, 
too, had a year's worth of orientation 
through PTA and other group pro- 
grams that explained what the school 
was preparing to do. 

Nevertheless, it remained a trial and 
error adventure for a while, according 
to Perry. "At first, I went in ahead and 
really separated them within the big 
room. I stationed the teachers' desks 
in different areas of the big room and 

grouped some 30 student seats around 
each one. All I had was four self- 
contained classrooms in one large area. 
In very short order, though, there were 
student desks and chairs all over the 
place, and the teachers had moved 
their desks together to make their 
team planning easier. They corrected 
my error." 

What did the team members think 
of the new arrangement? Only a 
month after big room education got 
started, one of them, a veteran educa- 
tor of 35 years, told Perry, "It just 
won't work. You're crazy to continue 
to try." The next month she admitted 
she wouldn't have it any other way, 
and her colleagues concurred. 

Asked what personal problems, if 
any, they encountered, one teamer 
recalled, "I really had to lower the 
boom of my voice. You would have 
thought I was trying to talk to all 90 
children." Another had to turn up her 
vocal volume. A third confessed, "I 
learned that I couldn't be selfish and 
that taking criticism personally is ta- 
boo." Finally, the remaining member 
of the big room foursome said, "There 
were things about student teaching in 
a self-contained situation that dis- 
turbed me. If for some reason I should 
have to move, I believe I have the 
ability now to help set up a team 
situation in another school." All say 
they would not care to go back into 
individual classrooms. 

With Fuller's team teaching ar- 
ranged by grade level, rather than by 
academic departments, all 4 teachers 
work with all the fourth grade stu- 

(Continued from page 7) 


dents, who now number 1 15. "We got 
rid of the / and substituted we," 
commented one teacher. "We even 
started calling each other Team instead 
of Miss and Mrs. The children know 
that they can come to all of us for 
help because we're a team." 

Team teaching at Fuller has permit- 
ted more individualized instruction, 
too. There are fourth graders working 
on reading assignments that range 
from second to seventh grade difficul- 
ty. At any given time, there might be 
only one student in the whole big 
room taking a spelling test, but he can 
administer it himself by simply turning 
on a tape recorder and listening to the 
recorded teacher's voice call out the 

Youngsters in the big room find 
some big pluses in team teaching. 
Group arrangements are flexible so 
that they can appreciate working in 
small, as well as large, clusters. They 
can share their ideas more easily be- 
cause they move around more than in 
a regular room, and there is a wider 
audience to share ideas with. The 
children acquire some self-reliance, but 
they also learn to seek help from other 
students and from their teachers. Even 
a casual observer notices a certain 
extra degree of enthusiasm in the big 
room learners. 

With all the moving about, tape 
listening, and stand-up teaching going 
on at the same time, the question of 
noise might arise. But Fuller's teachers 
call the sound of big room activities a 
healthy hum. Carpeting keeps down 
the shuffle of feet and helps absorb 
other noises, but the teachers agree, 
"When we hear that little hum, we're 
perfectly satisfied because it's the 
sound of learning." One of the impor- 
tant things students and teachers real- 
ized early was that team instruction is 
first a matter of sharing and courtesy. 

Evaluation of the team effort is a 
continuing process, according to Perry. 
One means was a survey of what 
parents thought after that first year. 
There were a few negative remarks and 
a few helpful recommendations, but 
the great majority consistently ranked 
big room learning as an improvement. 
So that parents might freely express 

their opinions, signatures were not 
sought on the questionnaire. Many, 
however, signed anyway and referred 
to their children by name in their 

One entry on the form, soliciting a 
subjective parental evaluation, was 
"Please make a comment concerning 
team teaching in the big room." "She 
seems to have enjoyed school so much 
more than ever before" was one re- 
sponse. Another parent wrote, "Our 
son had a team teaching situation in 
his third year in another town but he 
was already far behind by then. I 
believe if he had started school with it, 
he probably would be up to his poten- 
tial in school work." And there were 
several advocates who added, "If there 
is any way we can help, we will be glad 

Noted one teacher, "As some of the 
comments indicate, the parents' feel- 
ings generally come from the children. 
If the child is happy and seems to be 
liking school and learning a lot, the 
parents favor team teaching." 

Some of the parents, however, have 
come to see for themselves just how 
the big room works. "We have an open 
visit policy during the school day at 
Fuller," Perry said. "Conferences with 
teachers are scheduled for after class 
hours, but we've been fortunate in 
having a number of in-class visitors." 

This year Fuller has a fifth grade 
team teaching center, too. A conver- 
sion of three traditional classrooms, it 
came about partly because so many 
fourth graders and their parents want- 
ed to see team teaching continued. 
Perry said, "We went back to the 
superintendent and asked that the 
walls separating our fifth grade classes 
be knocked down so that we could fix 
up another big room. Now we're try- 
ing to see whether we can arrange for a 
sixth grade big room by next year." 

Is it worth the effort? That, of 
course, means are the children really 
learning more? "Last year's pre- and 
post-achievement tests revealed tre- 
mendous progress," Perry observed. 
"We can't be sure that this was due to 
the big room, of course, but we are 
going to do the same thing this year 
with the fifth graders, who are not 
usually tested for achievement level. 

All indications are that big room team 
teaching has resulted in improved 
learning for our students." 

Some educational authorities say 
that administrators should know pros- 
pective team teachers quite well before 
putting them into a team program. But 
that would almost eliminate team 
teaching in certain kinds of schools - 
those in federally impacted areas that 
have large annual faculty turnovers, 
for example, and other schools which 
anticipate at least one new teacher per 
year in each grade. "We might have 
been risking staff problems according 
to some authorities," Perry comment- 
ed, "but our teacher combinations 
have worked very well. I suppose the 
school system's personnel office 
should be credited with sending us a 
first-year teacher who could work 
alongside a 35-year veteran who didn't 
want to be on the team in the first 
place. The novice could lean on her 
experienced colleagues, while the lat- 
ter capitalized on her new ideas. And 
somehow it worked." 

Other traditionally built schools in- 
terested in remodeling for a team 
teaching program might also get by 
with chance-taking in the area of 
personnel. But not financing. Money 
for the structural face-lifting must be 
found before that remodeling can take 
place. At Fuller, the fourth grade 
project cost approximately $13,000, 
which included all the work and fur- 
nishings except student desks - car- 
pet, new light fixtures, mobile closets, 
bulletin and chalk boards, teachers' 
desks, all of which are on casters for 
easy moving. Cost of converting the 
three fifth grade classrooms into a 26' 
by 91' big room totaled $10,000 - 
half of that sum to convert the area, 
the other half to equip it. 

Eligible schools could get help from 
federal assistance programs, Perry not- 
ed. "We didn't qualify, but many 
schools would. We still don't have all 
the equipment that a new school built 
around this concept would have, but 
we managed to budget the work out of 
available capital outlay funds. 

"We are without an auditorium 
now, but our big rooms can be used 
for large group assemblies easily 
enough. We just shift class locations 
when necessary." 

Nearly everyone affiliated with W. 
H. Fuller Elementary School favors 
the team teaching approach. It was 
late-arriving, but so far it has been 
successful. And that, say the believers, 
is what really counts. (JLN) ■ 



"This is your nutrition education 
class, and it's really no different from 
your other classes. You've had history 
this morning, and you probably didn't 
enjoy everything you studied there. 
You might not learn everything the 
teacher tried to explain in math, ei- 
ther." Mrs. Fran Parker, School Food 
Service Director in Kinston, was chat- 
ting with students at Teachers Mem- 
orial Elementary School. 

Kinston public school pupils had a 
new course added to the curriculum 
several years ago, with Mrs. Parker 
regarding herself and her staff as the 
teachers. "They have classes before 
and after lunch, but we've added a 
new one that comes in between: their 
nutrition education class. We want 
them to learn useful information here 
just as they do in their other subjects," 
she said. 

In one school two cafeteria employ- 
ees recently completed a nutrition 
study with fourth and fifth grade 

students that explained why certain 
foods are healthful. Then the students 
were shown the equipment in the 
school kitchen: huge pots and pans, 
large ovens, and a 30-quart electric 
mixer. Following the tour, the child- 
ren planned menus for two lunches 
that were actually used. 

The recipe for one of the desserts 
they specified, called "Taffy Two- 
some," was taken from a student 
health book. "We fixed it - milk, 
molasses, and all," said Mrs. Parker, 
"but wouldn't you know, they 
couldn't stand the concoction." 

One aspect of the nutrition educa- 
tion program reflects the barrage of 
complaints that constantly come the 
way of many school food service 
personnel. Some of the older students 
who don't eat all of their lunches, says 
Mrs. Parker, simply aren't hungry no 
matter what is served. That brings on 
queries from parents who ask what's 
wrong when their children don't eat 

lunch at school. Kinston dietitians 
note that students in the less affluent 
school populations have few com- 
plaints and usually clean their plates. 
But another type of student knows 
that his mom will take him and the 
gang to the nearest quick-service res- 
taurant right after school for hambur- 
gers and french fries. 

Smaller children are generally reluc- 
tant to try foods they're not familiar 
with at home, the dietary staff has 
decided. Broccoli is something many 
of them don't know about, so on taste 
panel day (when students are especial- 
ly encouraged to try new foods), the 
schools might put broccoli on the 
serving line, along with another green 
vegetable choice. If liver is on the 
menu, hamburger also is available. 

"They don't like mixed toods - 
you know, casserole-type dishes," Mrs. 
Parker continued. "But we thought 
the students at one particular school 
might go for chow mein, so we tried 
that. As a whole, it was a fiasco." 
Following that experience, the food 
service staff could only conclude that 
if the little eaters knew what was in a 
certain conglomeration - and knew 
there was nothing to fear from it - 
they might just learn to like it. So they 
went to two or three sixth grades and 
served a Chinese dinner complete with 
chopsticks, fortune cookies, soy sauce, 
and hot mustard (with warnings about 
overindulgence in the latter). "We 
went around and said, 'Now these 
funny little things are bean sprouts 
and these are mushrooms. Now, how 
about a taste test.' Well, they simply 
adored it, and I think we now have a 
few Chinese gourmets on our hands," 
she said. 

Nevertheless, the complaints still 
come and probably always will bom- 
bard school food service personnel. 
With the youngsters at school, Mrs. 
Parker, who frequently sits down and 
jokes with the diners, has one ready 

defense: "Now listen. This morning at 
breakfast, I had four kids and a hus- 
band to feed, and no two wanted the 
same thing. So how do you expect me 
to please 6,000 of you at one meal? If 
I get 50/50 satisfaction, I feel like I've 
done a good job for the day." 

School food service operations have 
assumed added responsibilities in the 
last few years, with the addition of 
breakfast programs sponsored by the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Four 
of Kinston's ten schools are participa- 
ting in the free breakfast program 
funded by USDA. Breakfast is for all 
who show up, and the number grows 
daily. Regulations require that each 
child be given a serving of bread or 
cereal (bread school-baked in Kinston, 
and sometimes there are doughnuts), a 
half pint of milk, and a fruit or fruit 
juice. This doesn't provide the protein 
that earlier breakfast programs were 
required to include, but there isn't 
enough money to offer bacon and 
eggs. 1 ime is another important factor. 

These breakfasts take only a little time 
to prepare. The free breakfast partici- 
pants also get free or reduced lunches, 
and can pick up needed protein at that 

(According to Ralph Eaton, direc- 
tor of Food Services for the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, a full 15 
cents is available for the breakfast 
program sponsored by the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. Last year, the 
cost of the food, up to 15 cents, was 
available, but now the full 15 cents 
can be claimed even if schools are 
using some surplus commodities for 
the breakfast program. This frees some 
funds to be used in the lunch pro- 
grams, according to Eaton.) 

There are headaches connected 
with the free breakfast part of the 
nutrition education program, accord- 
ing to Mrs. Parker. Also, discipline can 
be a problem. "Our ladies cannot be 
responsible for cooking, serving, and 
keeping order, too. We're hoping that 
through the New Careers arrangement 

(a cooperative venture with Lenoir 
Community College), we will get some 
additional help." 

During National School Lunch 
Week recently, an attempt was made 
to show off the nutrition-oriented 
wares of Kinston's schools and to 
make interested Kinstonians more 
aware of what the public schools' food 
service personnel must do every day in 
order to hold nutrition education 
class. Invitations were sent home to 
every parent; lunchroom managers and 
assistant managers, as well as princi- 
pals, were stationed at tables to repre- 
sent their respective schools. Every 
piece of kitchen equipment in the new 
facility that housed the Food Fair was 
labeled with a price tag to show 
exactly what public funds had bought 
for use by the schools. Staffers showed 
those present what a $2,000 oven, for 
example, accomplishes every day. 

There were samples of typical 
lunches, displays of meats and vegeta- 
bles, and a whole table reserved for 
school-baked goods, most of which 
were products of government-supplied 
commodities. Some recipients of gov- 
ernment foods gripe about those hand- 
outs, Mrs. Parker notes, but not the 
Kinston staff. "We simply could not 
exist without them. We'll take any- 
thing they send us and be tickled to 
death to have it. What would we have 
done without all the flour we got last 
year? Our Food Fair table illustrated 
the fact that we used 47,000 pounds 
of flour and corn last year, and that's a 
lot of baking. In fact, we have some 
very good bakers in every school, and 
we rarely buy baked goods," she said. 

The main objective of the Food 
Fair, however, was to have every 
parent attend so that their questions 
about the school food service program 
could be readily answered. But, as 
sometimes happens with PTA atten- 
dance, the audience most wanted by 
the school personnel was sparsely re- 
presented. "Those with the most com- 
plaints were the ones who didn't take 
advantage of the opportunity to see 
nutrition education in action," Mrs. 
Parker recalls. "The next morning 
after the Food Fair, the same regulars 
were calling in. So I asked, 'Where 
were you last night? Why didn't you 

"Looking for acceptability of cafe- 
teria performance is part of my job," 
Mrs. Parker stresses to all parents. "I 
try to be in a different school every 
day, especially at serving time." When 
she visits, she looks for acceptable and 


unacceptable practices: whether the 
hot dish is really hot and the cold dish 
really cold, and if not, why not; 
whether the servers remember that the 
students are dining room patrons; 
whether the equipment is working 
properly; general cleanliness. 

Few students have food allergies, 
but those that do are accommodated 
with little difficulty. One tenth-grader, 
according to a physician's note, is 
allergic to milk, so he is served tea. 
Allergies to spices, tomatoes, and 
onions are easy to work around. The 
doctor's verdict is required, though. "I 
get real tickled at the kids who say, 
'I'm allergic to milk' because if you're 
allergic to milk in one form, you're 
allergic to milk in any form. But 

they'll eat all the ice cream they have 
money to buy. 'I'm allergic to eggs,' 
they'll tell you, but they can and will 
eat all the cookies you put before 
them. That's not allergy. That is pure 
personal preference," Mrs. Parker said. 
According to appearance, Kinston's 
food service director would be a likely 
candidate for Mrs. American Good 
Health. One of eight registered hospi- 
tal dietitians in the State's schools, she 
notes that the nutrition-centered lunch 
program in Kinston has resulted in 
increased weight and height levels and 
better performance in school for some 
pupils who were once potential mal- 
nutrition cases. The nearby gas sta- 
tions and hot dog stands still hinder 
the program somewhat, though. What 

students eat, and to a certain extent 
where they buy it, is determined not 
by the nutrition specialists exclusively, 
but by parents and other influential 

Outside the back door of one cafe- 
teria, two teenagers gulped on soft 
drinks. As we drove on down the 
street, Mrs. Parker spotted a man and 
two students headed for the gas sta- 
tion ahead. "Bully for you, Mr. Teach- 
er," was her reprimand, through the 
closed carwindow."You don't help nu- 
trition education much," she laughed. 

Meanwhile, back at the school, class 
continued as usual for several hundred 
other regular attendees as they did a 
nutritional disappearing act with the 
dishes of the day. (JLN) ■ 



Fifth graders in all North Carolina 
schools will have a chance to witness 
the birth of a tree this month because 
of special State-wide Arbor Day plans. 

A joint effort of the N. C. Forest 
Service and the State Department of 
Public Instruction has placed some 
5,000 tree planting kits in the hands of 
every fifth grade teacher in the State's 
public, private, and parochial schools. 
Each "Birth of a Tree Kit" contains a 
packet of 12 loblolly pine seeds, sev- 
eral 1%-inch squares of composition 
material in which to plant the seeds, 
an instruction booklet, and letters 
from Governor Scott and State Fores- 
ter Ralph C. Winkworth. 

After examining the seeds (the pine 
is the official State tree), the children 
will place them in the fiber squares, 
moisten the growth medium, and al- 
low the seeds to germinate. Several 
weeks later, they will transplant the 
seedlings. The trees will mature either 
on school grounds or in other settings, 
according to local decisions. 

Senior Staff Forester Leonard A. 
Kilian, Jr., of the N. C. Forest Service, 
says, "Our idea is to give every student 
an opportunity to see how a tree 
grows from seed and to learn how to 
care for trees - one of our most 
valuable resources. We hope that 
through this experience, they will rec- 
ognize and have a better appreciation 
for the necessity of planting and nur- 
turing trees." In addition to carrying 
out fire prevention programs familiar 
to most citizens, the Forest Service is 
responsible for informing and educat- 
ing the public about reforestation and 
other conservation needs. 

County Forest Rangers recently 
presented schools with the kits, which 
were prepared by the State Forest 
Nursery near Clayton. 

Traditionally celebrated in North 
Carolina on the first Friday after the 
fifteenth of March, Arbor Day has 
been proclaimed by Governor Scott 
for observance on March 19. Arbor 
Day is named for the Latin word 
arbor, meaning tree, and is celebrated 
by all 50 states, as well as other 
sections of the world. 

It was almost 100 years ago, April 
22, 1872 to be exact, that Arbor Day 
was founded by J. Sterling Morton, a 
member of the Nebraska State Board 
of Agriculture. His suggestion then was 
that a special day be set aside for 
planting trees in parks and other pub- 
lic places. A statue of Morton, who 
also served under President Grover 
Cleveland as Secretary of Agriculture, 
stands in the Hall of Fame in Washing- 
ton. School children from around the 
world contributed their pocket money 
for another statue of the Nebraska 
Tree Planter, which is located in Neb- 
raska City. 

State School Superintendent A. 
Craig Phillips has pointed out that 
Arbor Day is a time for emphasizing 
the importance of forestry, of refores- 
tation, of the "Keep America Green" 
movement, and of fire prevention to 
preserve our young and older trees, as 
well as for the planting of trees. 

This year's fifth graders will be 
close to 50 years old before the trees 
they plant will be fully mature. But 
watching them grow is the general idea 
of the project. ■ 


". . . thousands of teachers in this State have given as 
much love and devotion as I have . . ." 

Mrs. Genella Barton Allison of Hickory, a teacher for 34 years, 
has been named North Carolina's 1971 Teacher of the Year. Mrs. 
Allison teaches journalism and eleventh grade English at Clare- 
mont Central High School (formerly Hickory High School). She is 
also one of five finalists in the National Teacher of the Year 
award program sponsored by the Council of Chief State School 
Officers and Look magazine. The national winner will be 
announced in the spring and honored at White House ceremonies 
and in a Look article. 

According to Hickory School Superintendent Joseph Wishon, 
her activities have ranged from working with individual students 
to participation in curriculum development on a national level. 

She was born in Puryear, Tenn., a village of 500 persons. An 
only child, Genella soon developed a love for written words. 
Although a talented student, she had little hope for a college 
education. Her family was poor and she graduated from high 
school during the Depression years. 

When the Barton family moved to Andrews, N. C, Genella 
went back to high school simply because she liked it. The 
teachers were impressed - they asked her to teach music. 
Through other contacts, she was soon enrolled in Western 
Carolina Teachers College. Her education, however, was won 
through as much physical as mental toil. Borrowing only $90, she 
worked for the rest by washing walls and dishes, waiting on 
tables, playing the piano for dancing classes, and finally working 
her way up to a library job. She finished in three years. 


Genella Barton Allison 

Mrs. Allison's teaching career began in 1937 in Webster, N. C. 
Later she moved to Claremont and then Startown, and she has 
continued to teach for 34 years without interruption. During the 
school months she has taught thousands of high school students, 
and during the summers she has taught all ages, from adults in 
Wall Street Journalism Workshops to kindergarten children. 

In 1952 Mrs. Allison received the M. A. degree from George 
Peabody College. She has also studied at Lenoir Rhyne College, 
Appalachian State University, and the University of Tennessee. 
She came to Hickory in 1948. 

Her influences have been numerous. She helped initiate a local 
chapter of the International Quill and Scroll, which, out of 7,000 
chapters in the nation, has won top awards each year of its 
existence. "Hickory Daily Record Day," an annual occasion for 
journalism students to help produce the local daily newspaper, 
has been promoted by Mrs. Allison. The Hickory High School 
radio program is another effort she's involved in, giving jour- 
nalism students the opportunity to write and produce a weekly 
half-hour program. She helped establish the Catawba County 
Scholastic Press Association and has stimulated local interest to 
fund three journalism scholarships. 

The high school newspaper, The Twig, has rated consistently 
as one of the best in the nation by Columbia University 
Scholastic Press Association, the National Scholastic Press Asso- 
ciation, and the Southern International Scholastic Press Associa- 
tion. Her students have been consistent winners also, with honors 

in the N. C. English Teachers Good Writing Contest, Quill and 
Scroll Writing Contest, and the National Council of Teachers of 
English Achievement Awards. 

Mrs. Allison has developed the writing ability of thousands of 
students. Some 25 have entered professional journalism, among 
them three editors, one national columnist, and several section 
editors. Two of her students are now journalism teachers 

Of her career she says, "I still feel the same challenge in 
September that I felt in the early years. I still find in myself the 
same excitement in trying a new method, reading a new book, 
seeing a group of new faces. I am still challenged to bring a gleam 
in an eye, to inspire a felicitous phrase on a page. There are only 
10 more years, at the most, left to me to teach. I pray that I keep 
that same sense of newness to the end." (NJ) ■ 



ON AT 12:21 TUE. 2-26-71 





Dear Friends: 

Well, here I am again trying to 
digest my lunch. You know what some 
kid just fed me? A "find-the-day-of- 
the-week-for-al l-dates-in-the-nine- 
teenth-century" sandwich. 

These high school students really 
take advantage of me, you know? Just 
put a teenager and me together, and 
you've got problems. Health problems. 
Social problems. Even party puzzle 
problems. Somewhere there's a solu- 
tion to all of them. And sometimes I 
think the students I work with expect 
me to have all the answers. 

My private office is located in the 
math department of Southern Nash 
High School, Route 1, Bailey. Now 
Southern Nash is a nice place, I'll grant 
you. But as far as I know, it holds no 
special superlatives. Certainly it's not 
the first North Carolina school to offer 
a course in computer mathematics. 

What is noteworthy, though, is that 
the Nash County school system is 
supported mainly by a farm economy. 
It's not the kind of place where you'd 
expect to find me. Nash citizens aren't 
surrounded by computer-aided busi- 
nesses and industries, as might be the 
case with metropolitan school units. In 
fact, one of the teachers here recently 
described this area as "the sleepy 
North Carolina of two-street com- 
munities like Coopers and Stanhope." 

They wanted me, though. Nash 
County is one of 10 school units that 
recently formed the School Computer 
Service Corporation. Together they are 
purchasing a General Electric 265 
computer system, primarily for the 
students to use for math assignments. 
Students at the member schools have 
unlimited access to the GE set, which 
is based in Raleigh. Other school units 
are able to use the system on a 
time-sharing basis. 

I like my job. My professional fee is 
nothing to sneeze at, believe me, but 
they found a way to pay it. Actually 
the Nash County, Wilson City, and 


Rocky Mount City school systems 
paid the initial $14,000 computer bill 
together. Since Nash put in half of 
that amount, it gets to be one of 10 
"corporate members." 

I'm kind of fussy about my work, 
so I set up some ground rules right 
from the start. Since I'm a foreigner of 
sorts, I insist that the students use my 
language, which is called Logic. They 
started out learning the simplest dia- 
lect - Basic - and progressed to the 
harder ones like Extended Basic. 

Now mastering a foreign tongue 
isn't really so bad, and the kids at 
Southern Nash seemed to have a ball 
learning mine. I'm not a toy, so they 
had to practice first on the circuit 
boards and then on my off-line col- 
league. Finally, they earned the right 
to work hand on keyboard with me 

I'm quite proud of my circuit 
boards. They do a good job of making 
Logic a sort of educational game for 
these teenaged operators. Have you 
heard the one about the man who had 
to carry, one at a time, a goat, a wolf, 
and a cabbage across the river in a 
two-occupant boat, without leaving 
any predator alone with his prey? Well 
these high school students have. The 
party puzzle is one of the lessons in 
Basic Logic they must reason out on 
the circuit boards (my junior, or 
miniature, computers) before they get 
to peck away on my teletype-writer. 


Once those kids realized that they 
couldn't leave the goat alone with the 
cabbage, or the wolf alone with the 
goat, they got along fine, and no 
longer had to be constantly corrected 
by those reactionary circuit lights. 

Miss Edith Farmer, chairman of the 
school's math department, teaches the 
computer math course. She has been 
described by every educator's favorite 
word - dedicated. She and some other 
computer math teachers even went 
back to school themselves - at night, 
on Saturdays, and during the summer 
- to learn all about me so that they 
could then teach the students. 

She asked a favor of me the other 
day. She had been assigned the job of 
figuring the class rank of all the juniors 
and seniors. It would have taken her 
hours, and she just didn't have the 
time. So in six minutes, I solved her 

Miss Farmer's still taking computer 
courses even though she doesn't have 
to. If there's ever time in her busy 
schedule, she'd like to get in on some 
of the computerized medical research 
that's becoming so popular. She be- 
lieves there's bound to be a faster way 
to diagnose disease, and with good 
reason. She once developed a spinal 
condition that was paralyzing her and 
causing fever and pain. They took out 
her tonsils and appendix, and even 
treated her stomach. She made dozens 
of visits to different hospitals, even 


fl HUHflL 




some outside North Carolina. By the 
time the doctors were able to deter- 
mine the trouble, she was facing a 
five-year term in a plaster cast. Some- 
day, she believes, computers will help 
man find such answers instantly. 

I doubt that we'll get to that 
problem in class, but we find simpler 
ones rather interesting. After all, the 
students have had less than a school 
year's instruction, and they still make 
mistakes sometimes on ground-level 
assignments. When that happens, I 
come back with something like 
ways have a chance to make correc- 
tions, though, and the way I fix things, 
their errors aren't visible. (I never did 
like all those bloody red pencil 

My buddies who work with little 
kids in elementary schools correct 
their users differently. When a little 
kid makes a mistake, they'll say to 
But teenagers are too sophisticated for 
that. So sometimes, when I'm feeling 
especially sophisticated, I react with 
REPEAT." Just today, one of my 
users had been confronted by IL- 
LEGAL CONSTANT three times. He 
finally scratched his head and sighed, 
"Man, this one's got to be impossible 

for me to do!" 

The students always greet me with 
a big HELLO. That's part of our 
courtesy code. They must identify 
themselves by their user numbers, or I 
don't cooperate at all. Good manners 
are so important that we insist on 
practicing them. The students know, 
for example, to say BYE before they 
go off-line. (I never did like for some- 
one to hang up in my face.) 

Only 10 of the 1 ,300 students here 
at Southern Nash signed up for my 
course this year. At first they were 
thought of as the computer's guinea 
pigs, but now they're the envy of their 
peers. They have special hall passes, 
signed in advance, that allow them to 
come see me any time day or night, as 
long as there's a school staffer around. 
After school, some of them do physics 
homework on me. Some just play with 
exercises they found in a book called 
Fun with Mathematics. Mrs. Catherine 
Gupton, the geometry and general 
math teacher, uses me, too, and helps 
the students. 

Miss Farmer has found that the 
teenagers are disbelievers. Invariably, 
she says, they will deny the death 
prediction statistics that my computer 
buddies in the insurance companies 
have produced. To seek proof for their 
side, they read all the death articles in 
the newspapers and post them on the 
bulletin board according to several age 
groups: under 6, 6-12, 12-20, 20-30, 

30-50, 50-70, 70-80, and above 80. It's 
a grim experiment, but the Mortality 
Table soon convinces them that com- 
puters are smarter than they thought. 

These students will be out of school 
before we know it. When they go to 
work, they will find that thousands of 
time-consuming jobs can be done fast 
and easily with the help of computer 
systems. I believe that the problem- 
solving they've learned to use me for 
will benefit them many times over in 
the next several decades because com- 
puters can free them for more creative 

The new classroom triad - stu- 
dents, teachers, and computers - has 
won the support of Nash County's 
forward-looking board of education. 
After all, if interested students and we 
computer creatures can become ac- 
quainted today at school, we'll be one 
step ahead in the computer age of 
tomorrow's world, when we will be 
problem - solving partners for sure. 

Maybe your school would like to 
see how our computer math class goes. 
If so, come see us. 







At least one school avoided losing 
two of its best teachers last spring. 
They were unhappy with the design 
and weight of schedules that probably 
would have been assigned to them 
again this year. They were willing, as 
well as financially able, to accept 
lower-paying, non-teaching jobs. But 
both are teaching this year. 

What turned their resignation tide? 
Half-day teaching - an idea the teach- 
ers themselves came up with and pro- 
posed to the administration. The 
principal wanted both of them back. 
And after the necessary details were 
worked out in the central office, the 
teachers were jubilant about their 
teaching plans for this year. In Sep- 
tember, they returned (one in the 
morning, the other in the afternoon) 
to Charles E. Carroll Junior High 
School in Raleigh. 

At first sight, half-day teaching 
might appear to be a matter of simply 
splitting one full-time teacher's sche- 
dule and pay check in half. But what if 
their years of experience vary? And 
they hold different-level certificates? 
What about faculty meeting attend- 
ance? Conferences with parents? And 
all those little things, like, can both 
agree to the same student desk ar- 
rangement in the one classroom they 
must share? 

In the Carroll example, one teacher 
held a graduate degree, but the other 
didn't. So each gets half her "certifi- 
cate pay," with appropriate credit for 
past teaching experience. This year, 
each will be given credit for a half year 
of experience. Both are English teach- 
ers, but one has three English classes 
and a homeroom; the other teaches 
two sections of Latin, one of English, 
and a three-day-a-week interest course 
in creative writing or dramatics, de- 
pending on the semester. The a.m. 
teacher finds many parents prefer to 
visit her during their lunch hour, but 
she returns in the afternoon for some 
conferences. The p.m. instructor also 
can be available both times. Carroll 
faculty meetings always come in twos: 
those teachers who can't go in the 
afternoon show up for a make-up 
session the next morning. In-room 


decisions concerning fair shares of 
teacher desk drawers, filing cabinets, 
etc. have fallen into place with no 

Dr. E. W. Martin, Carroll's princi- 
pal, points out that "the result of this 
experience is that I'd be willing to do 
it with others. All reports on the new 
arrangement have been favorable. In 
fact, the school and the taxpayers have 
one big advantage. The normal teach- 
ing load is 25 class periods a week, 
plus homeroom responsibilities. But 
together, the half-day teachers have 33 
classes, as well as a homeroom." 

Martin describes Mrs. Mary Webster 
as an especially strong English teacher, 
very well respected by the other facul- 
ty members. "I had taught in a lan- 
guage arts/social studies block situa- 
tion for three years," she recalls, "and 
did not want to return to it. That was 
not the best way for me to use my 
training and talent. I wanted English 
courses only. Otherwise I would have 
quit and sought some other job. Now 
my general outlook is great. I'm much 
happier and definitely more favorable 
toward my classes. It seems that I 
spend as much time as before in 
preparation, but finally there's time at 
school to do such things as previewing 
films. Before, there just wasn't." 

Martin also highly praises the other 
half-day teacher, the one who origi- 
nated the plan. With a grin, he re- 
marks, "I know Mrs. Russ would not 
object to being regarded as 'somewhat 
unorthodox.' Yet she somehow reach- 
es a lot of students that other teachers 
can't quite get through to." 

"I didn't want to teach regular 
English anymore," Mrs. Peyton Russ 
remembers. "I wanted electives - 
courses my students would TAKE BY 
CHOICE and courses they could 
DROP BY CHOICE. Furthermore, I'm 
just not awake at 8:30 in the morning, 
and I learned during student teaching 
that blue sheets and I would always be 

Emphatically, she strikes at the 
heart of the issue - time - on behalf 
of her colleague and herself. "People 
expect you to be a really great teacher 
without having time to think about 
what you're doing. To keep from 
becoming outdated, I really think I 
ought to have a chance to keep up 
with the New York Times and read 
some non-education stuff, too. Last 
year I didn't. Now I can even watch 
Sesame Street every morning, and I'm 
actually teaching a group of kids how 
to read! 

"If you can impress your students 
with some knowledge of golf, snakes, 
or whatever, you win their confi- 
dence," Mrs. Russ continues. "In Eng- 
lish, if you're going to prove you're 
not a total dodo, you really need to 
know something about the Super 
Bowl. Last year I didn't. Now I have 
time to spend with every single crea- 
tive writing paper." 

Both teachers concur, further, that 
sometimes day-long contact with jun- 
ior high adolescents is too much for 
anyone over 20. When teachers tire or 
tense up, students sense the changing 
mood instantly, and that can cause 
problems. As both announce, "Just 
keeping up with them is a real mira- 
cle." A loud "A-MEN" comes from a 
nearby 17-year veteran teacher. 

So, last year at contract time, Mrs. 
Russ called the Raleigh school admin- 
istrative office with a phone full of 
reasons to support her case. But she 
learned that funding isn't available for 
only "half a head." Would a "whole 
head comprised of two separate 
halves" be acceptable? The answer was 
yes, and Mrs. Russ began to listen out 
for another interested teacher. She 
found one in Mrs. Webster, and before 
long, the final arrangements were 
worked out. 

One unanticipated advantage that 
soon showed up in the plan wins praise 
from both teachers. They observe each 
other in action almost daily, during 
midday classes. "One of the big no- 
no's of schools," they tell, "has been 
that one subject teacher never goes 
into another's class. But we get a lot of 
teaching ideas from each other. And as 
far as the students are concerned, they 
think we just belong there." 

It's the students they teach, the 
teachers add, who probably benefit 
most from the half-daying. "I've cer- 
tainly been able to relax more in the 
classroom. I'm much more favorable 
to my classes, and they can sense atti- 
tudes," says one. And the other, 
"Both of us are nicer than we've ever 
been. Now I have definite patience, 
even with slow pupils. In fact, this is 
the first year I've felt any success with 

Even the ladies' husbands have 
praised the move. Mrs. Russ recalls, 
"For three years, we avoided going 
places on weekends because I had a 
thousand things to do for school. Now 
we have that kind of freedom. Believe 
me, it's really hard for Husband to feel 
allegiance to Wife's School." 

According to both principal and 

teachers (students are hardly aware of 
the schedule setup), the half-day ar- 
rangement has been problemless, ex- 
cept for an error in the September 
paychecks. "These two are happy," 
Dr. Martin notes. "That's the key 
thing, and financially, they're able to 
afford it. Part of the agreement was 
that they would share desk and file 
space. They also agreed that, in case 
one had to be out, the other would 
cover her classes for up to two weeks." 

Half-day teaching could conceiva- 
bly solve some out-of-field teaching 
problems, one State-level administra- 
tor points out. The teachers add that 
mothers would be likely candidates, as 
would first-year teachers, who could 
learn much from observing each other. 

If such an arrangement were to 
become widespread, however, one is- 
sue would have to be given further 
consideration, says Mrs. Webster. If 
the teaching loads were too unequal, 
(such as one teacher with four classes, 
one with only two), credit for experi- 
ence might have to be determined 
according to hours taught. Half-year, 
that is, might not be either accurate or 

The Carroll half-day teachers have 
decided that their situation is ideal - 
almost. The other changes they would 
like to see are not likely to occur soon. 
Mrs. Webster, like many of her col- 
leagues, would prefer to instruct and 
only instruct (get rid of homeroom 
record keeping). From Mrs. Russ, "I 
only wish the children could have this, 
too. They function eight hours a day 
by bells." On hearing that, a nearby 
full-time teacher added, "Yeah, and 
for three months during the summer, I 
salivate at 11 o'clock." 

During the interviews out of which 
this story unfolded, two things became 
clear. First, Dr. Martin and the school 
board office were willing to consider a 
somewhat unusual arrangement in 
order to keep the two "capable, and 
both needed here" teachers teaching. 
The ladies, according to frequent re- 
marks they volunteered, greatly re- 
spect that willingness. 

Half-day teaching wouldn't work 
for major breadwinners. But in North 
Carolina, there are at least two top- 
notch teachers anxious and able to 
make do with half-slices, as long as 
they're spread with equal amounts of 
time. (JLN) ■ 


put ERIC to work for you 

These days, it almost seems that 
everybody involved in education is 
either preparing a report on some- 
thing, researching something in order 
to report on it, or doing something 
worthy of being researched and re- 
ported. The classroom teacher, the 
guidance counselor, the principal is 
prone to wonder, "What good does 
other people's research do me? I never 
get to see the results. And even if I 
could, it probably would be more 
trouble than it's worth." 

Let's suppose, for example, that 
you and your school are debating 
whether to start a course, or maybe a 
sequence, in journalism. Surely other 
schools have done that - and suffered 
all the growing pains that accompany 
new programs. But dedicated as you 
are, you need to take advantage of as 
many short cuts as possible. You want 
to know what worked best (and what 
didn't work at all) for your colleagues 
in other schools, towns, and states 
when they started a new journalism 
program in their schools. You also 
want to find out how they keep good 
programs going. 

Where do you get brief, concise 
summaries (detailed reports, if you 
wish) of these projects? From ERIC. 
One postcard or telephone call is all 
you need to locate the information 
you want. 

ERIC stands for Educational Re- 

sources Information Center. There is 
an ERIC center in the Education 
Building in Raleigh. When your re- 
quest is received, ERIC staff members 
will begin filling it with the aid of a 
computer. Within 24 hours, the com- 
puter will feed back 200-word sum- 
maries of all documents in the nation- 
wide ERIC system that deal with the 
topic "High School Journalism." Each 
of those abstracts will contain the 
educational document number, title, 
author, number of pages of the docu- 
ment in its published form, and cost of 
the complete text, in addition to the 
200-word summary. 

Your request might bring 150 such 
reports. As a rule, the research analyst 
has a general idea of how many docu- 
ments would pertain to your subject 
before she puts the computer to work. 
That is, she can judge, by the materials 
she must use, whether crossing the 
subject "High Schools" with the sub- 
ject "Journalism" is likely to bring 
100 responses or 1,000. If the latter is 
the case, she might choose a slightly 
different route. At this point, she 
retrieves everything except the sum- 
maries. By examination of the biblio- 
graphy, she determines which titles to 
get summaries for - only the ones 
most closely suiting your particular 

When the information reaches your 
mail box, you browse through it and 

find that there are 16 documents you 
want to read in full. (Documents can 
be excerpts from books, progress re- 
ports, journal articles, etc.) That's 
where one of ERIC's unique features 
as a national information service 
comes in. Full texts come on micro- 
fiche - 4" by 6" cards, each holding 
up to 90 pages' worth of standard 
printed copy. Each card costs only 10 
cents when reproduced by the ERIC 
center. (It takes only seconds.) 

Your desired microfiche will reach 
you within a week. A special machine 
produces them at the rate of 400 an 
hour. You'll need a microfiche reader, 
of course, and it may be that your 
school board office or school library 
already has one or more. If not, a 
nearby college or university probably 
does. Your system may even want to 
buy a portable one so that you and 
other educators can take advantage of 
the microfiche information boom. 

By reading the microfiche, you will 
find out what only a few days ago you 
were wondering. How have others 
done it, what do's and don'ts would 
they suggest, and how are their pro- 
grams progressing? 

Because of another feature of 
ERIC, you also can be pretty sure 
your information will be well pre- 
pared. Quality control of those docu- 
ments accepted into the ERIC system 
results from the work of experts in 


various educational fields, who exam- 
ine each submitted document for its 
usefulness. If it's not pertinent, practi- 
cal, legible enough for photographic 
reproduction, and concerned with rele- 
vant, innovative programs, ERIC 
doesn't include the document in its 

Although ERIC is a federally fin- 
anced program, only the chief adminis- 
trators work in Washington. The edu- 
cational experts employed by ERIC 
who do the document screening were 
never uprooted from their own profes- 
sional addresses. Those who deal with 
the broad topic educational manage- 
ment, for example, do their work at 
the University of Oregon. Those who 
work with scientific and mathematics 
education information operate out of 
Ohio State University. There are 18 
other ERIC clearinghouses, each con- 
cerned with a different subject and 
each setting its own criteria for docu- 
ment selection. This decentralization is 
regarded as one of ERIC's major as- 

Mrs. Gladys Ingle heads the State 
education agency's ERIC activities. 
She says, "ERIC is the first compre- 
hensive educational information sys- 
tem designed to serve American educa- 
tors. It is unique in its use of micro- 
fiche as a means of disseminating 
information. Not only is microfiche a 
space saver (on microfiche, 45,000 

documents can be placed in 4 standard 
office file cabinets), it also saves valua- 
ble time and money." ERIC doesn't 
tell you to "allow so many weeks for 
delivery," and you don't have to buy 
and store all those leather bindings and 
extra pounds of paper. 

"We're encouraging schools and 
other potential users to invest in an 
inexpensive microfiche reader," Mrs. 
Ingle notes. "There is a 7 1 /2-pound 
portable one on the market for 
$89.50. We have one of those, and our 
State office educators may check it 
out for use at home. Two sturdier 
portable models range up to $190." 

Microfiche reader/printers (ma- 
chines that will produce a photo- 
duplicated copy of a given page on the 
microfiche card at the punch of a 
button) also are available, but cost 
considerably more. 

The computer searches that were 
referred to earlier usually run between 
$10 and $40, depending on the exten- 
siveness of the topic (computer time 
required to produce the bibliography). 
Researchers consult the person making 
the request to pinpoint his needs and 
resources. Manual searches are also 
possible for extremely limited topics, 
but they weigh heavily on the re- 
searcher's time. And users are encour- 
aged to do their own manual searches 
at an ERIC center. 

Mrs. Ingle serves as director of the 

Research and Information Center for 
North Carolina's State education 
agency. The Center, which includes 
comprehensive educational informa- 
tion services as well as ERIC, has 
helped make North Carolina a leader 
in educational information dissemina- 
tion. The Center was established in 
1960 with State funds. Five years 
later, it became one of the first ERIC 
subscribers. During the fall of 1970, it 
became a satellite of the ERIC/CRIER 
(Clearinghouse on Retrieval of Infor- 
mation and Evaluation on Reading). 
North Carolina was the second state 
education agency to be invited to join 
ERIC/CRIER. And in a recently issued 
directory of educational information 
outlets, the Research and Information 
Center is included in a list of exem- 
plary centers in the nation. 

For a while, the Center staff had to 
restrict its ERIC work to requests 
from State-level educators. "Now we 
have the personnel to serve schools," 
Mrs. Ingle points out. College and 
university people, including students, 
are using our services. We also furnish 
microfiche to educators in other states 
because we're one of the few centers 
with an automatic microfiche repro- 

"People come first with us," she 
adds. Nationwide 477,000 people are 
using ERIC every month. We're now 
able to put ERIC to work for every 
interested educator in North Caro- 
lina." Mrs. Ingle's ERIC staff includes 
Mrs. Susan Wellborn, research informa- 
tion specialist, and Miss Lynn Quisen- 
berry, research analyst. They expect to 
gain another assistant soon. 

ERIC was the brainchild of Dr. Lee 
G. Burchinal, now an assistant com- 
missioner for education communica- 
tion in the U. S. Office of Education. 
Title V funds from the Elementary 
and Secondary Education Act made it 
available to the State education agen- 

Perhaps ERIC's biggest service is 
that of keeping innovative educators 
abreast of the times. To do that, the 
document workers in the 20 specialty 
clearinghouses invite teachers, superin- 
tendents, professors, and others to 
submit reports on their programs to 
the appropriate clearinghouse. For 
those addresses and other additional 
information about ERIC, write or call 
Mrs. Gladys Ingle, Director, Research 
and Information Center, 353 Educa- 
tion Building, Raleigh, North Caro- 
lina 27602, Telephone (919) 829- 
7904. (JLN) ■ 


■ I 



"We have a choice, and that's what 
I like," said one teacher of the Salis- 
bury Media Project. She explained that 
when a guest speaker comes to town, 
his remarks can be videotaped and 
played back for those who can't at- 
tend. The same teacher can also ask 
the project staff to tape regular tele- 
vision shows of interest to his class or 
film in-the-flesh happenings they 
might want to see. "It's an internal- 
external communication tool with just 
about unlimited scope," said Project 
Director Herbert Rhodes. 

Called "Improving Instruction with 
Electronic Equipment," the ESEA 
(Elementary and Secondary Education 
Act) Title III program was originally 
funded in March 1968. Rhodes be- 

came director in July of that year and 
heads a staff of three, including an 
electronics technician and a male 
secretary. Extra staff members, he 
noted, are provided by high school 
students interested in electronics or 

The project, according to Rhodes, 
is primarily concerned with utilizing 
videotape in the total instructional 
program. It's gone further, however, 
and now serves the community at large 
through a cablevision hookup. "But if 
we have any purpose as a project, it is 
to respond first to the needs of teach- 
ers and administrators," he said. 
"When we get requests, we see that 
speakers, projects, and so forth are 
taped and then shown at a time 
convenient to teachers," he continued. 
From Rhodes' tone, it is obvious that 
the Salisbury Media Project is mush- 
rooming into a real community service 
program, with more to be done than a 
staff of three and the high school 
students can possibly accomplish. 

A media project revolves around 
equipment, of course. A sophisticated 
studio with cameras, control booth, 
and a set - the works! They began, 
however, with five videotape record- 
ers, three cameras, and accessories. 
"But as business grew, so did the need 
for equipment," said Rhodes. The 
project now has nine additional re- 
corders and another camera. 

The studio, located on North Ellis 
St. in Salisbury, was designed by the 
project technician, Randy Roberson. 

It was built by a local shop teacher 
and is set up like any television studio. 
The set was donated in parts: Curtains 
were made by a local citizen; and a 
sofa, desk, and speaker's stand were 
also donated. It looks a bit pell mell in 
the flesh, but on television, the effect 
is quite professional. 

Rhodes and his staff serve the 
entire school system and then some: 
six elementary schools, a junior and 
senior high school, two local colleges, 
and a technical school. A tall order for 
three people! Any teacher at these 
institutions can request a videotaping. 

A math teacher might want to tape 
a program on educational television 
that is shown at an inconvenient time 
for her students. She puts in an order 
for videotaping and then plays it back 
in the classroom at a convenient time. 

The videotape technique can also 
be used individually with headsets. A 
student who is having reading difficul- 
ties, for example, can work alone using 
a headset and a television while his 

teacher continues with the regular 
classroom program. "This way, Sesame 
Street can be used for real instruction- 
al purposes rather than having the 
whole class, which might not need it, 
watch the program," said Rhodes. 

Students are working with the 
media project, as well as using it for 
enrichment in the classroom. "Even 
sixth graders have operated cameras 
for some shows," said Rhodes. One 
group, the journalism class at Boyden 
High School, writes and produces a 
regular program from beginning to 
end, including making the cue cards. 
Called Hornet Power to tie in with the 
name of the student newspaper, the 
show features club news, interviews 
with key students, straight news, and 
even personal tidbits from Boyden 
High School. One Hornet student got 
himself a summer job with a Charlotte 
radio station as a result of his experi- 

The opportunity to work with 
sophisticated media equipment has 
sparked the interest of other students, 
electronics classes included. One elec- 
tronics student plans to continue the 
experience and will major in that area 
at N. C. State University. Others, 
involved in the writing-acting end of 
the project, plan to study media at 
UPMC-Chapel Hill. 

Teachers and laymen have jumped 
in with enthusiasm from the moment 
the project began. One principal 
bought his own television set for his 
office, and the PTA has contributed 
several sets. One school held a Fall 
Festival, raised $1,200, and spent half 
of it on television sets. 

In the elementary schools every 
teacher has access to a television set at 
any time during his daily schedule. 
The junior and senior high schools 
average around 10 sets each which are 
placed throughout the schools and are 
available to all teachers. With Salis- 
bury's setup, every teacher who wants 
to use videotaping or television in his 
classroom has easy access to it. 

Every school in the Salisbury sys- 
tem has at least one videotape record- 
er and a person in that school assigned 
to operate it when a teacher needs 
assistance. The tapes can be played on 
a classroom set or sent by cablevision 
to all sets on the closed-circuit system. 
In addition, they can be picked up by 
laymen who have cablevision. 

Using the closed-circuit setup, 
Superintendent Harold Isenberg - or 
anyone for that matter - can com- 
municate directly with every child or 

teacher in the system at once. The 
eventual goal, said Isenberg, is to 
stimulate more community involve- 
ment through cablevision. 

The project houses a library of 
tapes that are catalogued for teacher 
use and distributed through inter- 
school mail. Other members of the 
community, as well as teachers, may 
borrow tapes. Each school, however, 
has a person designated to play the 
tapes at times convenient for teacher 

Through the cablevision setup, as 
noted, the Salisbury Media Project has 
wider coverage than the classroom. 
Rhodes explained that when cable- 
vision came to his area in September 
of 1970, a line was installed to the 
studio. Thus, the project can originate 
live programs over the cable or play 
back videotapes over it and reach the 
community at large. 

The Salisbury Board of Education 
pays half of the monthly maintenance 
charge for this service, with the other 
half picked up by Catawba College, 
which works closely with the project 
staff on programming. Rhodes, how- 
ever, is seeking community support to 
help defray the approximately 

Rhodes noted that he finds it diffi- 
cult with a limited staff to keep the 
community abreast of his monthly 
cablevision schedule, which he tries to 
keep programmed about three hours a 
day. The staff does manage, however, 
to produce a partial weekly schedule 
for SEIC-TV (Salisbury Educational 
Information Cable TV), Channel 6. 
They also throw in a schedule for 
other educational channels that can be 
picked up locally. 

The mushrooming of the Salisbury 
Media Project continues: The staff is 
presently taping math programs run 
over the UNCET (University of North 
Carolina Educational Television) net- 
work and making them available to 
nearby school systems that can't pick 
up UNCET channels. Even the State 
Department of Public Instruction 
periodically asks the system to tape 
programs for State-wide use. 

Although Rhodes is the first one to 
applaud Salisbury School's ability to 
reach the community a large (and next 
the State) through the media project, 
he still feels that the first purpose is 
"to meet the needs of teachers." And 
the students, of course. As one child 
said, "I like it because I can watch 
something else instead of the teacher 
all day long!" (LKG) ■ 




Do you know what the community college or technical 
institute in your area has to offer? To find out, listen to Progress 
Report, a weekly five-minute radio program sponsored by the 
North Carolina Department of Community Colleges. Each Prog- 
ress Report interview, conducted by veteran broadcaster Bob 
Farrington, features some aspect of services offered by the 54 
State-supported community colleges and technical institutes in 
North Carolina. Over ninety percent of the radio stations in the 
State are airing the show. Check local listings for dates and times 
in your area. 


Burlington City Schools is the first school system in the State 
to approve a long-range plan for staff development of educational 
personnel, according to Dr. James Valsame, director of the 
Division of Staff Development for the State education agency. 

The program, called "Plan II," was approved at the January 28 
meeting of the Burlington City School Board. It was earlier 
approved by the State Department of Public Instruction. Dr. 
Valsame notes that Burlington is the first school system in the 
State to secure formal approval of such a plan. About 12 other 
units are in varying stages of developing a "Plan II." 

With an approved long-range plan for in-service education, a 
school system can carry out a local program with minimum State 
supervision and control but with periodic reviews, according to 
Valsame. Under previous setups, each in-service activity was 
approved by State authorities before credit could be given to 
teachers. Long-range planning, he added, makes possible greater 
emphasis on on-the-job-training. 

Highlights of the Burlington plan include assessment of 
strengths and weaknesses with program activities aimed at 
meeting these needs. Activities will include workshops, college 
credit courses, travel, and provision for recognizing certain kinds 
of individual projects such as research programs. Evaluation of 
in-service education is also included in the plan. 


Betty H. Hobbs, consultant in the Gifted and Talented Section 
of SDPI's Division for Exceptional Children, is now working in 
that section's Winston-Salem regional office. Her mailing address 
is Drawer H, Salem Station, Winston-Salem, North Caro- 
lina 27108. Phone (919) 725-2590. 


Visiting days at Pinecrest High School in Moore County have 
been changed from Wednesdays and Thursdays to Tuesdays and 
Thursdays. The school requests that prospective visitors contact 
the Pinecrest Information Office well in advance of the date they 
want to view the innovative program there. Last year more than 
3,000 guests saw the school in operation. 


Applications for teaching and dormitory counseling positions 
at the North Carolina Governor's School should be sent to this 
address: Miss Brenda Petree, Administrative Assistant, Drawer H, 
Salem Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27108, or to 
James L. Bray, Resident Director. 

The Governor's School office, on the Salem College campus, is 
open year round from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. week days. Telephone 


The Lenoir County school system is one of six national 
finalists in the 1971 Encyclopedia Britannica School Library 
Awards Program. After further evaluation, three of the systems 
will be named to first, second, and third places in the competi- 
tion. They will receive cash awards of $2,500, $1,500, and 
$1,000 during National Library Week, April 18-24. 

With the advisory assistance of the American Association of 
School Librarians, Encyclopedia Britannica has given the awards 
since 1963. The top three systems will be those public, private, or 
parochial school units which, with due consideration of resources, 
show the greatest growth and progress toward the goal of good 
library media service in the elementary schools of the district as a 

The national recognition is sponsored to (1) stimulate public 
interest in school libraries, (2) point up the importance of good 
elementary school library media services to quality education, (3) 
encourage citizen planning for their development, and (4) 
commend those school systems whose foresight and planning are 
an inspiration to others. 

According to Mrs. Judith Garitano, chief field services consul- 
tant for the State education agency's Division of Educational 
Media, North Carolina has had national finalists in four of the 
previous eight competitions: Durham County, honorable men- 
tion, 1963; Durham County, first place, 1964; Mooresville, 
honorable mention, 1965; and Jackson County, honorable 
mention 1968. 




Some 270 high school students in Craven County this semester 
are believed to be the first in the nation who can elect a year-long 
safety program that involves "life-in-general" safety, as well as the 
principles and practices covered in driver education. 

Funded by a State Board of Education grant to the Craven 
County Board, a new general safety course treats a host of 
everyday topics: causes of accidents, home and farm safety, fire 
prevention and protection, recreation and outdoor life safety, 
sports and physical education safety, occupational safety, civil 
defense, first aid instruction, safety in schools, and community 
participation in safety. The four-phase driver education course 
covers automobile and traffic safety, rounding out the total 

SDPI Driver Education Consultant John Noe illustrated two 
examples of how both one-semester courses will interplay: "If a 
driver tows his boat to the beach, then he needs to know not only 
good highway habits, but also the whys and hows of water 
safety. And if he's going to drive to and from work, he's also got 
to manage to stay safe from perils at home." 

Craven Superintendent Hiram J. Mayo hopes that his school 
system's experimental two-semester plan will lead to State-wide 
use of such a curriculum within a few years. Writer of both halves 
of the unique program was William D. Lee, Jr., Craven's director 
of driver and safety education. 


The State Department of Public Instruction's Division of 
Mathematics reports that work is continuing on the remaining 
two parts of its elementary curriculum publication Mathematics 
Goals and Activities K-6. Called Part 2: Operations and Mathe- 
matical Sentences and Part 3: Geometry, Measurement, and 
Graphs and Scale Drawings, the final two sections will be 
available by the end of the current school year. 

Details about these two volumes of the math publication, 
along with distribution plans, will appear in the May issue of 
North Carolina Public Schools. 


A talking book service, originally initiated more than 30 years 
ago for the legally blind, has since been extended to any person 
who for physical reasons is unable to hold or read conventionally 
printed material. Rehabilitation counselors or other professional 
personnel may establish client eligibility for use of the books by 
writing the North Carolina/South Carolina Regional Library for 
the Blind and Physically Handicapped, North Carolina State 
Library, 1314 Dale Street, Raleigh 27605. They must state the 
reason for and degree of physical impairment. Thereafter, a 
talking book machine (a three-speed record player) will be loaned 
and delivered by mail without postal charge. Available books 
include magazines, best sellers, poetry, classics, religious publica- 
tions, fiction, non-fiction, etc. 

North Carolina can name many "firsts." A list of them might 
be topped with the birth of Virginia Dare and the flight at Kitty 
Hawk. It is probable, however, that North Carolina's Public 
School Insurance Fund might be overlooked on the list. 

Comparable to a small fire insurance company, the Fund is the 
only insurance operation run by a state board of education to 
provide low-cost fire insurance and extended coverage to public 
schools. Insuring with the Fund is optional. A school system may 
choose to insure with a stock or mutual company instead. But 
Thomas B. Winborne, director, contends that schools can save 
money by insuring with the Fund. Some 101 of the State's 152 
school systems do just that. 

Winborne has been with the Fund since its establishment in 
1949, and director since 1950. The Fund actually got its start in 
1948, when a 25 percent increase in the fire insurance rates on 
public schools went into effect. 

The General Assembly, to combat the increase, authorized the 
State Board of Education to set up and operate a school building 
insurance fund. To begin it, $2 million was loaned for reserve 
purposes from the State Literary Fund, which is used to loan 
money to local systems for building purposes. (At that time, 
according to Winborne, the Literary Fund was little used since 
schools could secure equal interest rates from commercial 

The $2 million was repaid by 1962. Actually, not a penny was 
ever used in the payment of losses, said Winborne. Reserves at the 
present time amount to almost $5 million. Investments of the 
Fund - handled by the State Treasury - are in U. S. Treasury 
bonds, notes, and so forth. 

According to Winborne, one of the first results of the Fund 
was a slash in rates charged public schools by commercial 
insurance companies. Shortly after the establishment of the 
Fund, insurance companies petitioned the Insurance Commis- 
sioner to reduce public school fire insurance rates. Since then, 
these rates have been further decreased. "I am convinced that no 
such relief would have been granted if the insurance companies 
had not been forced to compete for business," said Winborne. 

Sufficient coverage of school buildings is another asset. When 
the Fund was established, many school systems were carrying 
insufficient insurance. Today these same units have taken 
advantage of lower charges to increase their coverage. 

The greatest benefit, according to Winborne, has been the 
establishment and maintenance of a fire inspection service by the 
State. He said that about one-half of the budget of the Fund goes 
to inspection activities designed to minimize the risk of fire. Four 
engineers are employed by the State Board of Education for this 

The 21st year of the operation of the Public School Insurance 
Fund ended June 30, 1970. As of that date, there were 77 county 
and 24 city school systems, 21 technical institutes, and 6 
community colleges insuring their properties through the Fund. 

Total insurance in force was $624,027,000. Earned premiums 
for the year were $815,222.92, with losses of $793,320.16, for a 
loss ratio to earned premiums of 97.31 percent. 




O O 


u oo 

Sue Cause, Public Information Director, 
Durham County Schools 

It's not news that a teacher's day 
doesn't begin at 8 a.m. and end at 
3:30 p.m. Hours of correcting student 
work and preparing lessons stretch 
into the night. But for Mrs. Mary 
Bond, mathematics teacher at Jordan 
High School, the actual teaching day 
frequently extends to 9 p.m. 

For four years Mrs. Bond has been 
"dialing for mathematics." 

Once or twice a week between 7 
and 9 p.m., this teacher telephones 
selected students from her five algebra 

Excerpts of rulings from the State 
Attorney General's office are pre- 
sented here as an information service. 
Complete copies of the rulings may be 
obtained by writing Division of Public 
Information and Publications. State 
Department of Public Instruction, 362 
Education Building, Raleigh 27602. 

Education; Teachers; Extracurri- 
cular Activities After Normal School 
Hours, December 9, 1970 . . . 

The issue of whether teachers, as a 
part of their contractural obligations, 
may be required to conduct and super- 
vise extracurricular activities has been 
the subject of court decisions in at 
least three instances. In each it was 
held that a teacher's contractural re- 
sponsibility extends to supervising ex- 
tracurricular activities. 

Parrish v. Moss, 106 N.Y.S. 2d 577, 
affirmed, 107 N.Y.S. 2d 580 (1951), 
held that the extracurricular assign- 
ments were permissible but should be 
related to the teacher's field of special- 

In McGrath v. Burkhard, 280 P. 2d 
864 (Cal. 1955), the court held that 
no particular teacher should be dis- 

classes and asks them questions about 
the night's assignment. Students volun- 
teer their telephone numbers at the 
beginning of the year, but they never 
know when they might be called. 

"I began calling students at home 
when I found that many of them were 
reluctant to verbalize in class. Over the 
telephone they'll ask me all sorts of 
mathematical questions, questions that 
they would be embarrassed to ask in 
front of their peers," she explained. 

There is no penalty for not having 
done the homework when she calls, 
but students who respond well can 
substitute their telephone recitation 
for a low oral grade in class. According 
to Mrs. Bond, it's rare that students 
are not prepared to discuss some as- 
pect of the assignment when she calls. 

On days when a new math concept 
has been introduced, the process is 


criminated against in the assignment of 
extracurricular activities, i.e., that ex- 
tracurricular assignment of each teach- 
er be comparable to that of other 

McGrath involved a teacher in the 
Sacramento Senior High School who 
sued to prohibit the board of educa- 
tion from assigning him extracurricular 
responsibilities in athletics or at social 
functions. His refusal to accept extra- 
curricular assignments resulted in his 
being assigned an extra class. He con- 
tended that such assignments were 
police work, unprofessional in nature, 
foreign to his field of instruction, and 
unreasonable in the number of hours 
they added to his duties which were 
not contemplated in his contract. The 
court held that a board of education 
has authority to assign teachers to 
extracurricular activities so long as 
such assignments are impartial and 
without discrimination in relation to 
other teachers in the school system. 
These activities, it was reasoned by the 
court, are part of the total school 
program; they are in the interest of 
students, parents, and community; 

reversed, and the students may call 
their teacher between 6 and 7 p.m. to 
ask her questions about the new con- 

"Dialing for mathematics" offers | 
many advantages to Mrs. Bond. 'This 
procedure makes homework a learning 
rather than a copying process, and it 
helps me plan my next day's lesson. If 
most of the students called have diffi- 
culty with the same question, I know I 
haven't explained the concept satisfac- 

"I've also learned through my tele- 
phone conversations that every child 
wants to learn; but some students, if 
they don't know in class, pretend that 
they don't care to know." 

Mrs. Bond has found that class 
participation improves because the stu- 
dents she has called the night before 
are willing and eager to add to class 
discussion. Also, students have better 
study habits because the students want 
to be prepared if she calls. 

According to Mrs. Bond, the most 
important advantage of telephoning is 
"that I am evaluating myself while 
teaching the student and offering more 
individualized instruction." 

they need to be carried on; they can 
best be conducted under the auspices 
of a school; teachers are expected to 
assist with them; and there is nothing 
unreasonable in a fair assignment of 
extracurricular responsibilities. 

A similar decision was rendered in 
Pease v. Mill Creek Township School 
District, 195 A. 2d 104 (Pa. 1963), in 
which teachers were required to super- 
vise students at athletic and social 
activities conducted under the name 
and auspices of the school. These 
assignments were held to be within the 
scope of the contract of the teacher 
and to be proper as long as they were 
distributed impartially and were rea- 
sonable in number and hours of duty 

Although no appellate court in 
North Carolina has spoken to the 
issue, we are of the opinion that the 
great weight of authority supports the 
assignments of extracurricular activi- 
ties to public school teachers so long 
as the assignments are distributed im- 
partially and are reasonable in number 
and hours of duty required. 


forth v rolina State Libf« 

•J ^ 






State Superintendent of Public Instruction: Craig Phillips 

Special Assistant for Public Information: Tom I. Davis 

Editor: Kay W. Bullock 

Information Specialist: Nancy Jolly 

Writer: Janice L. Narron 

Writer, ESEA III: Linda Gallehugh 

Graphic Artist: Patricia D. Bowers 

Technical Consultant: James E. Jackman 

Official publication issued quarterly by the State Department of 
Public Instruction. Second class postage paid at Raleigh, N. 
C. 27611. Unless otherwise noted, no permission is required for 
reprinting, with the exception of articles from other publications 
reprinted herein. Manuscripts are welcomed. Mailing address: 
Editor, North Carolina Public Schools, Division of Public In- 
formation and Publications, Room 362, State Department of 
Public Instruction, Education Building, Raleigh, N. C. 27602. 
Telephone: 919-829-4258. 

State Board of Education 

Dallas Herring, Rose Hill, Chairman, District 2 

John A. Pritchett, Windsor, Vice-Chairman, District 1 

Craig Phillips, Secretary, Ex Officio 

H. Pat Taylor, Lieutenant Governor, Ex Officio 

Edwin Gill, State Treasurer, Ex Officio 

G. Douglas Aitken, Charlotte, District 6 

R. Barton Hayes, Hudson, District 7 

Charles E. Jordan, Durham, District 3 

Mrs. Eldiweiss F. Lockey, Aberdeen, District 4 

William R. Lybrook, Winston-Salem, District 5 

John M. Reynolds, Asheville, District 8 

Mrs. Mildred S. Strickland, Smithfield, Member-at-large 

Harold L. Trigg, Greensboro, Member-at-large 


Printer's ink is one of the regular supplies ordered by Lexington 
High School. Students there have an opportunity to take courses 
in graphics and industrial communications. See story on page 14. 

Photo credits: 

Pages 4 and 18, Bruce Clark, SDPI photographer; page 7 Jan 
Narron, SDPI; page 14, staff photo, The Dispatch, Lexington, N. 
C; and page 17, W. F. Ritter, Jr., Science teacher North Moore 
High School. 






From the State Superintendent 3 

Elementary School Classrooms: 

Where the High School Boys Are 4 

Educating Children of Migrant Workers 6 

School Libraries Are for People - Not Books 7 

Learning Won't Stop for Pregnant Schoolgirls 10 

Highlights of the North Carolina Public 

School Survey 12 

N. C. Advancement School Changes 

Research Program 12 

Schools Are Big Business 13 

UNC Schedules Institute for Principals 13 

Graphic Arts Taught in Lexington 14 

A New Look for Pre-Service and In-Service Training 16 

Need Tapes, Films, and Transparencies? 18 

Student Involvement the Task Force Way 20 

Items 22 

Occupational Educational Needs 24 


Plans for next year again include supplying enough copies of 
North Carolina Public Schools to each school for 75 percent of its 
teachers. As explained to superintendents last fall, it is hoped 
these copies will be placed in teachers' lounges or other central 
locations so that interested staff members may pick them up. We 
will be correcting the mailing lists this summer to try to insure 
that each school receives the correct number of copies. 


From the 
State Superintendent 

Those of us in the teaching profession must make it clear that 
our values are built around what is good and necessary education- 
ally for North Carolina's children and North Carolina itself. 

In the simplest of terms, I firmly believe that the vast majority 
of our 54,000 classroom teachers in all of our more than 2,000 
public schools are committed to the welfare of the individual 

However, there are a few teachers operating within the 
professional organization, who are creating a very undesirable 
reflection on every one of our dedicated teachers. I ask the 
citizens of this State to be aware of these detractors and to be 
able to tell the difference. 

In the request of the State Board of Education, we are not 
asking for something for ourselves, not pleading for our well-be- 
ing alone, not demanding consideration for mere surface values. 
We are asking the people of the State, through the 170 decision 
makers now in Raleigh, to weigh these values with us - to decide 
what is best for the present and future of our children. 

I believe that action by approximately 800 teachers, at the 
NCAE convention last month in Charlotte, does not reflect the 
opinion of the vast majority. We are indeed grateful for the 
positive leadership of Governor Robert Scott and the Democratic 
majority in this and past General Assemblies. 

It is my legal responsibility as State Superintendent to inform 
the citizens, the profession, and the decision makers as to the real 
needs of the public schools of this State. 

The "B" budget request of the State Board of Education 
reflects careful and thoughtful preparation and study. It was not 
written overnight. It was compiled over months of very hard 
work and soul searching. It reflects the combined efforts of 

teachers, administrators, school boards. PTA leaders, and others 
concerned with public relations. 

We are earnestly trying to interpret what these programs will 
mean to the North Carolina children who learn in our schools. 
This "B" budget request, now in the capable hands of the General 
Assembly, is honest. It is practical. It is obtainable. It is 
responsible. It carries out the concept of "A Child Well Taught," 
the theme of the 1968 Education Study Commission. 

We ask the citizens of this State not be confused by those in 
our own profession who are trying, either by design or through 
misdirection, to divide us. 

The State Board of Education is earnestly trying to provide 
resources, not for ourselves, but to make what happens in the 
classroom a meaningful experience for every child entrusted to 
our care. 

The majority of our teachers want time to teach, time to plan, 
time to think, time to prepare. They also need adequate 
compensation. This can be accomplished through the extended 
term of ten months and continued improvement in our salary 

There is much to do. The school experience must be made 
more meaningful to those in the middle grades. This can be done 
by placing more emphasis on occupational education to those 
students in their formative years, to those students who will not 
attend a college or university. 

We are now ready to continue our efforts in early childhood 
education. The pilot demonstrations are successful. It is proven 
they will work and are sorely needed. 

These are challenges for all of us - the layman and the 
professional. We must roll up our sleeves and get on with 
providing a good education for VA million boys and girls. 



Can a high school student-tutor 
have a measurable impact on the 
school achievements, attitudes, and 
life style of a fatherless primary grade 

If so, would it make any difference 
whether the tutor was a boy or a girl? 

Would the tutees, after all is said 
and done, really be any better off than 
their non-tutored peers? 

Any worse off? 

What about the tutors? Would they 
find themselves changed after such an 

Apparently no one knows for sure. 
But Burlington educators who are par- 
ticipating in an experiment along these 
lines aren't so concerned with a statis- 
tical outcome as they are with the 
all-round beneficial effect they've seen 
the teenagers have on the children this 

The idea for the research project 

came from Dr. Neill Rosser, a profes- 
sor in the University of North Caro- 
lina's School of Education, Chapel 
Hill. The funding came from the Z. 
Smith Reynolds Foundation, Win- 
ston-Salem. The project partners came 
from administrative and instructional 
ranks of the Burlington school system. 
The tutors came from two Burlington 
high schools. And the tutees were 
already available in four Burlington 
elementary schools. 

Dr. Oliven T. Cowan, assistant 
superintendent for instruction, recalls, 
"Dr. Rosser, whom I knew and 
worked with at the University, made 
the proposal to the foundation, but he 
needed schools, teachers, students, and 
so forth. We were eager to be involved. 

"It's a female-dominated world in 
those early years," said Dr. Cowan. 
"Many little boys who do have fathers 
find them away from home so much 

because of their jobs. Most elementary 
school teachers are women. The adult 
male image is often missing. That may 
be part of the reason boys don't 
usually do as well in school the first 
few years. It appears that this might be 
especially true for boys without a 
man-figure in the home." 

So in spring of 1970, at registration 
time, the interested juniors and seniors 
from the Cummings and Williams high 
schools signed up to offer their tutor- 
ing services in four elementary schools. 
They were informed about the boy vs. 
girl aspect of the experiment, but the 
competition didn't seem to bother 
them. They did not know that they 
would receive credit or pay until later. 

"We selected from the volunteers," 
explains Cowan, "15 boys and 15 girls 
to serve in the project, but some 75 
teenagers are still donating their serv- 
ices. The selected tutors are not neces- 

sarily all top academic students, but 
rather the ones thought most likely to 
succeed with the children. Including 
travel time to and from the elementary 
schools (where the tutoring is done), 
the tutors spend two class periods a 
day and are receiving two units of 
credit, as well as the minimum wage." 

Once selected, each tutor was as- 
signed to one of 45 little boys, none of 
whom had an adult male figure living 
at home except, perhaps, for a grand- 
father. There was no effort to assign a 
particular tutor to a particular tutee: 
that part was left to random appoint- 
ment. The tutees still do not realize 
they are receiving such special atten- 
tion because the tutors also work with 
other children. This safeguard is an 
attempt to keep the fatherless boys 
from becoming too attached to their 
newfound big brothers. 

A visit to Maple Avenue School 
revealed some of what the teenagers 
do in their daily trips to work with the 
first through fourth grade pupils. Kirk 
Reid, for example, rounded up five or 
six second graders after lunch for a 
workbook study exercise on a story 
they had recently read. A tall black 
high school senior whom his supervis- 
ing teacher describes as a "great leader 
with a great deal of imagination," Kirk 
settled down for the reading session, 
which started with what appeared to 
be an occasional popular joke. 

"Whose chair are you sitting in?" 
he asked a little boy named Jerry. 

Jerry's classmates at the table has- 
tened to giggle out loud, "That's his 
chair!" Kirk wound up with one of the 
kiddy-sized chairs instead of the one 
slightly larger model, which Jerry had 
jokingly occupied. But nobody - in- 
cluding Kirk, whose lanky legs 
stretched almost the entire distance 
underneath the table - seemed to care 
that day ; and the reading began. 

A girl named April inserted an extra 

word into the sentence she was called 

on to read, and Kirk casually inquired, 

"April, where did you find that word 


Someone in the group suggested, 
"In her noggin," and April happily 
admitted that the word must have 
come from there since it wasn't in the 
printed sentence. 

"What's a blowhole?" Kirk asked 
another boy, who had filled in a blank 

"That's the hole he blows 

"And who's heV 

"The dolphin," answered Jeff. 

Somebody suggested that a dolphin 
is a reptile, after which Kirk led the 
group in remembering that dolphins 
and whales fall into the mammal cate- 

Kirk asked another child to read 
/^correctly a certain sentence that gave 
two possible completions. It came out, 
"The lifeguard wore a hate," and a 
discussion of the difference a silent e 
can make followed. 

Then a sentence prompted some 
excitement about eggs. Kirk addressed 
his special tutee with, "Do you hate 

"Love 'em!" was the answer. The 
general consensus, however, was that 
none of the group liked them boiled. 
Easter eggs were fine to find and look 
at, but not to eat. 

All that, plus some discussion not 
reported here, took place in less than 
10 minutes, and it was obvious that 
the children found it a fast-moving, 
interesting, yet educational session. 

"Kirk puts so much of himself into 
his work," said Mrs. Polly Wicker, the 
teacher he assists. "He will bring the 
children back upstairs after lunch and 
tell them a story, putting them in as 
the characters. And they never want 
him to stop. They love his clothes. 
(Kirk frequently wears dasikis, which 
his mother makes.) He does so much 
on his own that I don't have to tell 
him what to do, which means I can 
move much faster in my work." 

Like several other tutors, Kirk fre- 
quently tossles the heads of his charg- 
es, showing his affection for them. 
"I'm planning to go into some kind of 
religious education work," he said. 
"By that, I mean I won't be in some 
pulpit preaching, but out there help- 
ing. It might be mission or social work; 
I'm not sure yet." 

Although Mrs. Wicker's other tutor, 
Diane Southerland, was not available 
at the same time, the children men- 
tioned her. The little girls admire 
Diane in a special sort of way because 
she is their ideal image of the teenage 
life they look forward to. 

"Having these high school students' 
help is just like having teacher aides," 
Mrs. Laura Hamlet, a first grade teach- 
er, felt. "I can tell a difference in the 
classwork. Since I have helpers, the 
children can get help the minute they 
need it. And to these children without 
fathers, the high school students are 
someone extra they can depend on. 
They know the tutors are going to be 
here everyday. 

"Most of the fatherless boys come 
from rough situations. One has been 
taken away from his mother and put 
in a foster home several times. Today I 
learned that another child's mother 
and her boyfriend are having trouble. 
Another mother was never married. 
The causes of the fatherless status, 
however, also include accidental death 
and friendly divorces." 

Two of her tutors, Cindy Mont- 
gomery and Pam Garrett, pointed out 
that they believe the children benefit 
from the attention the tutors give 
them. "They especially like to stand 
up in the front of the room and sing 
'Raindrops' for us," the girls agreed. 
"The children call us Miss or Mr. as the 
case may be, and one of our little boys 
signs his papers Mr. Freddy." 

When asked about her career plans, 
Pam added, "I've been debating be- 
tween teaching and social work. Doing 
this, of course, has helped no matter 
which I choose." 

"This is a great program," tutor 
James Honeycutt remarked. "I'm real- 
ly glad I've had the opportunity to 
work with these little kids. A lot need 
the extra help." 

Maple Avenue's principal, Nancy 
Howell, noted that it's hard for some 
people to tell the difference sometimes 
between the high school tutors and the 
student teachers from nearby colleges, 
who also are working at her school. 
"Because the tutors have been here all 
year," sh° said, "they really know our 
routine quite well. 

"Recently we had a meeting of all 
our tutors," Miss Howell continued, "a 
sort of evaluation session. They are 
busy individuals, you know, and many 
of the boys have sports practice after 
school. We were able to get them at 
12:30 p.m., though, because of co- 
operation from the senior high people. 

"The tutors have come to think and 
act like teachers. They had no typical 
'student-type' remarks. Instead, they 
were concerned about teacher-type 
matters. 'What about discipline?' they 
would ask. 'They have to understand 
that when we say sit down, they're 
supposed to sit down.' " 

There is no doubt that the student- 
tutors feel great responsibility in their 
work. They must spend 45 minutes or 
so a day giving special individual atten- 
tion to their assigned tutees (whether 
alone with them or in small groups) 
without letting the fatherless boys 
know they are being treated somewhat 
differently. In addition, they must 
wrestle at times with the problem of 

slow progress. One told Assistant 
Superintendent Cowan, "I just don't 
know what I'm going to do with my 
boy. Somehow I've got to get him on 
the ball!" 

Mrs. Barbara Tapscott, Burlington's 
director of elementary education, add- 
ed, "A playoff of this program has 
been the tutors' interest in the other 
(that is, non-fatherless) children. For 
instance, one said recently, 'My child 
doesn't need the tutoring so much, but 
another one I know does.' It's been 
one of the most exciting things we've 
done in the elementary schools, and 
now more high school students are 
expressing interest in elementary, as 
opposed to secondary, education." 

Cowan added, "At least six or eight 
young people have told me they had. 
never once considered teaching or any- 
thing in the field of education but that 
this year's work has changed their 

minds, there are also those who say 
they had no idea how complicated and 
involved teaching can be. They now 
have a great deal of respect for teach- 
ers - something they didn't have 

One student revealed to Cowan that 
the instructional work simply over- 
whelmed him. It was more compli- 
cated than he could have anticipated, 
and he had no desire to get into it as a 

Similarly, Roger Moore, another 
tutor, remarked after the day's tutor- 
ing session, "I feel like I understand 
younger children better. I've learned a 
lot about how much they are influ- 
enced at that age. Some parents ap- 
parently don't realize how important 
their own influence is because some of 
these kids have a real hard time at 
home, and they talk at school. I really 
don't know if I've got the nerve to 
teach all day." 

In the end, it will be measurements 
of the children's development - scho- 
lastic, emotional, and otherwise - that 
will determine how valuable the stu- 
dent-tutors' services have been. There 
will be both objective and subjective 
post-project testing, to be compared 
with the pre-experiment tests. In addi- 
tion, the post-project results will be 
pitted against those of the control 
group, who have not had tutors. 

Already, it appears that there will 
be some outstanding results. In only 
one year's time, it seems, the tutoring 
exercise has contributed more than 
was anticipated. It has served not only 
as a scientific research laboratory, but 
also as a school for which there is no 
definitive name or clear-cut curricu- 
lum: everybody has been the learner. 
And such a continuing education les- 
son won't be easily forgotten by any 
of the participants. (JLIM) ■ 


Children of migrant workers in North Carolina will no longer 
be strangers to the communities where their parents are working. 
The Uniform Migrant Transfer System is making all educational 
data, and other critical data, available to any school within 24 
hours. The information is stored in a computer in Little Rock, 
Ark., which is connected to teletype terminals in each of the 48 
cooperating states. North Carolina's teletype terminal, located at 
the Migrant Education Center at Grifton, began operation in 

Using this computerized system, a school official may contact 
the teletype terminal operator by telephone and request informa- 
tion on a migrant child by name and number. The critical data on 
the child, including his birthdate, birthplace, current reading and 
mathematics levels, and any chronic or critical health condition, 
will be supplied to the school official by the teletype operator 
witbin four hours. The child's complete record then will be 
mailed to the school on the same day, provided that the child has 
been enrolled previously in a migrant education project. If the 
child has never been enrolled, the computer will use data supplied 
by the terminal operator to initiate a new record for the child. In 
this way, a child carries his history with him so that efforts to 
help him are not duplicated and programs can be planned for 

This year approximately 3,000 children will be enrolled in 
summer migrant programs in 24 school administrative units, 
primarily in eastern North Carolina. This year's figure marks an 
increase of 500 children with 5 new school units participating - 
Columbus, Pitt, Nash, and Pender Counties and Whiteville. 
Almost $600,000 of the $1,081,000 the North Carolina Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction has received this year to provide educa- 

tional services to migrant children will be spent for summer pro- 
grams. North Carolina also operates 14 programs throughout the 
year in conjunction with the regular school term. 

In addition to obvious academic needs, children in the migrant 
education programs are given medical and dental care and 
instruction in health and personal hygiene. In some instances they 
are provided with clothing, which they frequently select them- 
selves, and with meals and snacks to give them badly needed 
nutrition. The children eligible for these programs are school-age 
children, between the ages of 5 and 21, of migratory agricultural 
workers who have moved with their families from one school 
district to another in order that the parent, or other members of 
the immediate family, might secure employment in agriculture or 
in related food processing activities. 

There will be an extensive staff development conference for all 
migrant staff in June. Tentative plans call for a week-long 
conference with an estimated 250 participants, including all 
personnel involved in the migrant education program: administra- 
tors, supervisors, nurses, teachers, teachers aides, etc. Many 
conference leaders will be outstanding individuals from the 
various local school units, and resource personnel from the State 
Migrant Education Section, the Program Services Division, and 
the Research Division of the Department of Public Instruction, in 

addition to LINC (Learning Institute of North Carolina) staff 
who will be on hand to serve in an advisory capacity. The purpose 
of the conference will be to give assistance on how to teach 
migrant children through new methods and techniques and how 
to secure and use all available resources to strengthen the migrant 
education program. ■ 




Going, going, and in many cases 
gone are the days when school libraries 
were stony mausoleums dedicated to 
the overprotection of buckram, pulp 
products, and printer's ink. Vanishing, 
too, is the traditional little old librari- 
an who suffered from chronic whisper- 
itis and frustrating levels of biblio- 

Trends now followed by outstand- 
ing school libraries make them as 
inviting on a free afternoon as the golf 
course or the sale of the week. And 
librarians are working at luring former 
non-patrons in so that they, too, can 
get in on the new, as well as tradition- 
al, offerings. 

Rural Lenoir County's elementary 
school libraries are a prime example of 
those welcome innovations. They 
were, in fact, recently recognized as 
one of six school systems in the nation 
which have shown the greatest growth 
and progress toward good elementary 
school library service. Encyclopedia 
Britannica conducted the awards pro- 
gram with the advisory assistance of 
the American Association of School 

The Lenoir County school libraries 
operate on a non-yielding philosophy: 
Libraries Are for People — Not Books! 
Because of progressive circulation poli- 
cies, school children in Lenoir County 

get on their school buses with some 
interesting parcels. Along with the 
book sacks are art prints, sculptures, 
encyclopedias, and filmstrip viewers - 
all circulated by the school libraries, or 
media centers. Please Don't Touch 
signs simply don't exist in these cen- 

Only five years ago, the far-from- 
affluent county school system 
launched a major campaign for school 
media centers that would (1) accom- 
modate local needs and (2) fulfill 
national standards as soon as possible. 
As long as a decade ago, however, 
when the library collections were still 
"all books," the people-oriented philo- 
sophy was in operation: even the 
encyclopedias were available for circu- 
lation. And for several years now, the 
children have not been charged over- 
due fines for the library goodies they 
forget to bring back on time. 

Mrs. Edith Wiley, library supervisor, 
sums up Lenoir County activities this 
way. "In 1962, when I left one of the 
schools to study for a graduate degree 
in library science, each of the county 
schools had a full-time librarian. And 
in North Carolina then, that was the 
exception rather than the rule. In 
1965, we applied for an ESEA (Ele- 
mentary and Secondary Education 
Act) Title II grant for a demonstration 
library at Pink Hill Elementary School. 
Title II funds are for library instruc- 
tional materials, and one required part 
of the application process was that 
such a project would have solid en- 
dorsement from the superintendent. 
We have been most fortunate to have 
the constant support of Henry H. 
Bullock, as well as the County Board 
of Education, the County Commis- 
sioners, and several other groups and 

"In March 1966, the grant was 


awarded to Pink Hill Elementary 
School, along with nine other schools 
in the State. The selection of this small 
rural school as one of the first ten 
Demonstration School Library Proj- 
ects in the State gave impetus to the 
need for expanded library programs 
and better library facilities in our 
county. We have renovated at least one 
elementary school library each year 
since then, and the last one has just 
recently been completed." 

Because county school maintenance 
teams do all of the media center 
renovations, redesigning the Pink Hill 
library into a media center - with 
every item on open shelving and readi- 
ly accessible to the elementary stu- 
dents - cost less than $3,000. That 
project generated more, not only in 
Lenoir County, but in other areas as 
well, and visitors have included in- 
State, out-of-State, and foreign librari- 
ans, teachers, principals, school admin- 
istrators, boards of education, and lay 

At first glance, one of those Pink 
Hill visitors couldn't help but notice a 
model of Myron's The Discus Throw- 
er, a framed print of Van Gogh's 
Sunflowers, various kinds of filmstrip 
viewers including a new audio cassette 
model, projection screens hanging in 
several places so as to avoid sunlight 
problems, and a production room with 
laminating machines and other mate- 
rials and equipment waiting for stu- 
dents and others to use when making 
transparencies - all that in addition to 
the books one would expect, a North 
Carolina collection among them. 

When students enter the Pink Hill 
media center and start fiddling with 
the check-out cards, a visitor might 
anxiously nod to the librarian, Mrs. 
Shirley Ledford, or her aide, Mrs. 
Thelma Worthington, who worked 
there even before special aide salaries 
came into existence. Anticipating the 
visitor's concern, one of them would 
explain that "there's so much going on 
in here that the students learn to do a 
little of the work. They have been 
taught how to check out and in the 
items they use, and they do it inde- 
pendently. They also operate all the 
equipment here by themselves, even 
the first graders, unless they need our 
help. We have had no problems, really, 
and business is better than ever. We try 
to make it as easy as possible to use 
any type of media. One thing we do 
that encourages the use of slides is to 
have the sequences all ready to go in 
carousel trays. That way the slides are 



easier to use, and it also cuts down on 
the handling and misplacing of the 

How have the children taken to all 
this? The simple fact that they are 
regularly using the instructional mate- 
rials says about as much as needs to be 
said. While one small group is watching 
an elementary-level sound filmstrip 
version of "Chanticleer and the Fox" 
adapted from Chaucer's The Canter- 
bury Tales, another is getting ready to 
use the new cassette sound filmstrip 
viewer. A granny-skirted girl is doing 
some research while a boy sitting at a 
carrel shows himself an 8mm film. 

Every item at Pink Hill is recorded 
in the unified card catalog, and that 
includes the pictures, sculptures, and 
so forth. Attached to each item is a 
circulation card identifying its title 
and the other usual information. 

One first-grade boy, according to 
Mrs. Wiley, was giving Rodin's The 
Thinker the once-over one day when 
she was in the Pink Hill media center. 
She went over to discuss the model 
with the six-year-old investigator. By 
the time she approached him, the little 
boy was imitating the elbow-on-knee 
posture of The Thinker and laughing 
to himself. Mrs. Wiley showed him the 
card with the sculptor's name and the 
title he had assigned his work of art, 
and she waited for a reaction. When 
the little media center patron broke 
into gales of laughter, Mrs. Wiley asked 
what made him laugh all of a sudden. 
He replied, "It's that naked man. He's 
just SO funny !" 

That called for a mini-course in art 
appreciation, the necessary anatomy 
included. As Mrs. Wiley illustrated 
how skillfully Rodin had molded the 
shoulder muscles and elbows and 
knees, the little boy tested the form 
for himself, grading Rodin as "pretty 
smart." When the session appeared to 
have satisfied his curiosity, Mrs. Wiley 
asked whether the man would look so 
funny next time. The little boy replied 

nonchalantly, "No, I guess not," and 
went on about his media center busi- 

In existence only five years, the 
Pink Hill Elementary School media 
center is the oldest modernized unit in 
the system and therefore has added 
significantly to its collection. Some 
subjects of interest to the children can 
be studied through two or more types 
of media available to them. Ballet 
dancers are one subject that appeals to 
the girls. Pink Hill has not only books 
about prima ballerinas but also art 
prints and a white statue of Bernhard's 
Ballerina. Other subjects have been 
treated different ways in the same 
medium. Pink Hill has several different 
models of "hands" sculptures for stu- 
dents to ponder, touch, and compare. 
The interests of the elementary ath- 
letes are reached through the model of 
The Discus Thrower, as well as 
through books about sports heroes. 

Teachers and administrators at Pink 
Hill use all the facilities of the school's 
media center. In addition, there is a 
living room-type anteroom that func- 
tions as a professional media center. 
There educators can browse through 
professional materials. 

Another renovated school media 
center, which opened just a few weeks 
ago, is located in Lenoir's Southwood 
Elementary School. In comparison to 
the school's previous library, its physi- 
cal facilities appear to be modern-plus. 
Southwood, an old school like Pink 
Hill, had one of those dark, dismal 
auditoriums so familiar in older school 

Principal Vaughn Fowler explains 
that "the auditorium floor was literal- 
ly cut loose from the sides of the room 
and raised manually to make a level 
media center floor. We raised the 
windows three feet, sealed some doors, 
and cut holes for others." Double glass 
doors make the media center immedi- 
ately visible and inviting to school 
visitors as they go through the main 
entrance to the building. 

Southwood's media center is indeed 
a color showplace. Librarian Mrs. 
Carol Simmons points out that the 
burnished red carpeting that extends 
all the way down the room, including 
the stage area, was selected by a survey 
of opinions within the school. "When 
the decision came down to a dead heat 
between this color and one other," she 
explains, "we let some boys who were 
at school that summer day cast the 
final ballot. They voted for the red- 

Only two weeks after its opening, 
Southwood's media center was pre- 
pared to serve the students, at least to 
a degree. Electrical outlets were in 
place so that they could go ahead and 
use the instructional equipment. Sev- 
eral outlets, incidentally, serve viewer 
screens situated at the front of the 
stage section. When the children use 
the screens, they sit either on the 
adjacent carpeted step that remains 
from the floor leveling job, or at 
nearby tables. Many choose the step. 

Among other instructional media 
all ready for use then were a mechani- 
cal solar system model complete with 
planetary revolutions, and a take- 
apart-and-put-back-together-again man 
model. Those items are stationed on 
the stage level, which eventually will 
also have specially made listening-view- 
ing carrels designed for elementary- 
sized users. 

Library aide Mrs. Jean Waller some- 
times holds story sessions from a 
recessed "story well" near the stage 
for a group of cerebral palsy and other 
handicapped boys and girls. The chil- 
dren "park" in a semi-circle around 
Mrs. Waller, who faces them from her 
position in the story well. 

Fowler is delighted with the numer- 
ous service capacities the Southwood 
media program offers. For example, 
when a well-known local speaker visit- 
ed one teacher's class recently, the 
media center's videotape equipment 
was used to record the session so that 
other teachers and students could 
watch it later. Also, the physical and 
aesthetic design of the media center 
has provided an ideal setting for school 
assembly programs. Referring to a 
combined accordian and poetry, per- 
formance given for some 300 first, 
second, and third graders, Fowler says, 
"The children huddled close to the 
stage area, sitting not only at the 
tables but also on the carpeted floor 
and stage steps. The intimacy that was 
established with the performer was 
better than we've ever seen before." 

Besides the renovations at Pink Hill 
and Southwood, three other elemen- 
tary schools have created modern 
media centers in old vocational agricul- 
ture shops left empty because of 
school consolidation. 

That Title II Demonstration School 
Library Project at Pink Hill, which 
gave impetus to Lenoir County's 
media programs, was just a beginning. 
It provided funds for new materials, 
but not for remodeling. How has the 
major part of the ambitious undertak- 



ing (that is, to have an effective media 
program in every school) come about? 
It seems that everybody interested, 
from the Superintendent to the Board 
of Education members to the princi- 
pals, teachers, aides, and students, has 
actively gone about drumming up local 
support from the media center budget. 

Public relations techniques used by 
the proponents have worked well. 
Through various "show and tell" pres- 
entations made to area clubs and other 
audiences, the Lenoir County schools 
have informed the local communities 
how their facilities, materials, and 
equipment compare with national 
standards for school media programs. 

Says Mrs. Wiley, "We outline for 
these groups our strengths, which in- 
clude a certified librarian and a library 
assistant in every school. We illustrate 
how the media center programs allow 
and encourage parents, teachers, stu- 
dents, and others to have access to 
media for both school and home use." 

She points out, too, the advantage 
of the unit-level maintenance and re- 
pair center, which keeps the many 
pieces of equipment operative, as well 
as delivering items not permanently 
assigned to any particular school. In- 
terested groups are shown the physical 
facilities: they see functional improve- 
ments that have been made. And they 
see the school learning laboratories 
with their programmed reading and 
math materials. It is hoped that the 
learning labs can be physically incor- 
porated into the media center section 
of each school, she notes. 

Referring to Mrs. Wiley, Superin- 
tendent Bullock adds, "Another of our 
strengths is our highly qualified library 
supervisor. She was a classroom teach- 
er, but because of her interest in 
school media, went back to school for 
graduate study and returned to lead 
our media center work." 

"In these Lenoir County communi- 
ties," Mrs. Wiley continues, "we've 

opened the media center doors to 
people who otherwise have no direct 
connection with the schools, and 
stated our case. The excitement of it 
all seems to have ignited everyone so 
much that when we detail our media 
center weaknesses, the budget some- 
times gets a new boost. So many 
concerned groups and individuals want 
our media centers to surpass the na- 
tional standards because of the contri- 
butions that our media programs are 
making to people." 

As mentioned earlier, the local ef- 
fort included the school unit mainte- 
nance workers who did the renovating; 
locally made bags designed to accom- 
modate the circulation of art prints 
and other large media; and a "please 
use them" invitation to area organiza- 
tions in search of appropriate meeting 
places, as well as books, statuary, 
prints, and other media. Finally, the 
centers are even thrown open for six 
weeks during the summer vacation 

Mrs. Judith Garitano, chief field 
services consultant for SDPI's Division 
of Educational Media, notes that de- 
termination and creativeness in rural 
Lenoir County have accomplished 
what many people would not have 
even attempted. "Without that kind of 
approach," she says, "strong media 
center programs would still be a vision 
for the far-off future because of the 
lack of public funds to build new 
facilities. The personnel there have 
gotten the most mileage possible out 
of the dollars available, and have 
shown that good programs can be had 
in unlikely environments. They have 
made significant strides in school 
media center services and continue to 
contribute significantly to the total 
instructional program." 

Mrs. Wiley confesses, "We have had 
some broken projector bulbs, torn art 
prints, broken disc recordings, tapes 
spliced with Scotch tape - the gamut 
of accidents any good normal use of 
equipment and materials will experi- 
ence - but not enough of this to 
warrant not allowing these learners to 
make free use of materials. We simply 
do not view a library, or media center, 
as a museum for storing materials. We 
were delighted to be among the six 
Encyclopedia Britannica Awards final- 
ists; that kind of distinction, however, 
won't slow down the work here. 

"Our school libraries are for people 
- and people never run out of ways to 
challenge the media center services to 
keep getting better." (JLN) ■ 

Stop for 


According to public school law, all North Carolina school children between the ages 
of 7 and 16 are required to have an appropriate educational experience. 

The State Board of Education recognizes the need for increased and constructive 
concern for school age pregnant girls to have the opportunity for continuing 

Therefore, the State Board of Education directs the State Department of Public 
Instruction, working with local school units, to provide appropriate educational 
services for pregnant school girls. 

State Board of Education Action, February 4, 1971 

have been the old 'show and go' rule. They ask the girls to drop 
-_^ out of school, and say, 'Come back when you don't have any 

M ***/*/} CM W% ft M ^ more problems.'" 

J I§Ts cz If uJmMm. m. Until now, local policies have varied widely from city to city, 

^5 county to county. Recent studies showed that some school 

systems had written policies, and some did not. Schools that 
required withdrawal of pregnant students did it at different stages 
of pregnancy: some upon discovery, others at the end of a 
specified month. "At a reasonable time" and "as directed by the 
principal" were written into some local policy statements. 
Married pregnant girls and unwed mothers-to-be were treated 
differently in some areas. 

"The provisions whereby the girls, after delivery, might return 
to school to continue their studies were just as varied from school 
unit to school unit," Mrs. Cooke notes. "Some had 'no stated 
provisions.' Of 37 local educational agencies in North Carolina 
queried in a 1969 survey, five allowed return the following year; 
three, when the child was two months old; one, at three months; 
two, at six weeks; one, after two semesters. One had no 
restriction on return date, and seven stipulated other provisions." 
The State Board of Education's February recommendation 
recognizes that there is no one solution for all areas or for all 

"What might be an appropriate educational experience for one 

girl," said Mrs. Cooke, "might be totally inappropriate for 

21,000 births to teenaged mothers- that's 1 every 24 another, and this is one determination that must be made on an 

minutes. individual basis. Some of our community colleges and technical 

Fallacy: Most of the teenaged mothers are unwed. institutes have already set up special programs for such girls, but 

Fact: Some 72 percent of the children are legitimate at they usually are limited to the older students. What then for the 

At the February 4 meeting of the State Board of Education, 
the Board put on record a new policy regarding the continuing 
education of school-aged pregnant girls. The policy statement 
directed the State Department of Public Instruction, working 
with local school units, to provide appropriate educational 
services for such students. The Board's action followed a report 
presented by Mrs. Catherine Cooke, consultant in SDPI's Division 
of Exceptional Children. 

In her report on pregnant school girls in North Carolina, Mrs. 
Cooke cited the following commonly held fallacies and the facts 
that defy them: 

Fallacy: The population of pregnant teenagers is small. 

Fact: Each year in North Carolina, there are approximately 


Fallacy: Most of the girls are of a minority race. 

Fact: In 1968, 11,815 of such mothers were white, while 
9,232 were non-white. 

Fallacy: Most of the pregnancies are to sexually promiscuous 

Fact: Teenage pregnancies are not the result of any so-called 
"new morality." The rate of illegitimacy has not in- 
creased in the past decade. Mostly, girls become preg- 
nant for the same reasons they did 20 years ago: ig- 
norance, confusion, and inexperience. 

Traditionally, local school units have dealt with the matter of 
pregnant students according to their own discretion. "Many 

12-year-old girl? North Carolina has several fine 'special schools' 
for teenaged expectant mothers, but some of them are quite 
expensive. Staying in regular school is another alternative that 
works quite well in some cases, but not at all in others." 

Mrs. Cooke further explained that during her research, she 
recognized something of a stumbling block that hinders discus- 
sion of what to do, educationally, for pregnant teenagers. She 
concluded, "The topic of education of pregnant school girls is 
unique in that we are often expected to adopt an attitude toward 
the girls - both personal and professional. By tradition, one of 
the socially reinforced responses has been the disapproving frown, 
lest anyone get the mistaken impression that the conduct leading 
to pregnancy is approved or condoned. Another common 

principals and other administrators," Mrs. Cooke explains, "have response is a smile at the suggested reference to sex." 

found it convenient simply to follow precedents and have not Attitudes nearly always influence suggested solutions to the 

developed long-range planning. Too many of those precedents continuing education plans for such girls, she says. The Atlanta 


Adolescent Pregnancy Program (affiliated with the Emory Univer- 
sity School of Medicine), for example, found that the following 
justifications for withdrawing mature pregnant girls from regular 
schools (reasons also popularly given in North Carolina) were 
illogical and ill-founded: 

1. Some administrators and others say the girls should be out 
of school for their own protection. Grounds for that claim 
are that other students would be cruel and unkind to them. 
But the other students often know about the pregnancy 
months before the administrator discovers it, making it 
unlikely that any mistreatment could have remained unre- 
ported for so long a time. 

2. Some say the girls should not be in regular school for their 
medical protection. They cite step-climbing, book-carrying, 
and full academic loads as dangerous to the girls' health. 
Those spokesmen, however, don't worry about the steps, 
books, and heavy schedules in maternity schools. 

3. Some see regular school retention of the girls as an act of 
approving of pregnancy in its young students. Others go so 
far as to say it rewards pregnant girls by permitting them to 
stay in school. Yet in no other circumstance is school 
retention interpreted as reward for student behavior. 

4. Some object on the grounds that faculty members (also 
members of the community) would not accept such a 
policy. The Atlanta Adolescent Pregnancy Program (AAPP) 
has experienced bell-shaped curve reaction to its program, 
showing that the great majority of faculty members have no 
strong feelings. 

5. The suggestion that special schools for pregnant students 
can have smaller classes and more individualized care, and 
thus provide a better education, is another argument against 
the regular schools' keeping the girls. The AAPP's conten- 
tion is that one should not have to become pregnant to get 
a better education. 

No single method of continuing education, according to Mrs. 
Cooke, is appropriate for all pregnant teenagers. "One case I 
received a letter about recently," she explains, "was a straight A 
student who, finally, was permitted to return to school after her 
minister threatened to argue against the school's punitive rules in 
public. This 15-year-old was quite mature, made up her mind to 
continue aiming for a college education, didn't appear to be 
upsetting anybody or anything except the long-established rule 
book, and in the end missed only 21 days of school. In her case, I 
would say, staying in the regular public schools was the 
appropriate method of continuing her high school education. 

"But take a seventh grader," she continues. "The most 
essential and appropriate thing for her may not be reading and 
math but some kind of medical attention. The State's schools are 
moving in the direction of agency cooperation now (health, 
education, and social services, for example) to help find the best 
overall arrangement for education of pregnant girls. Agencies 
don't tend to favor coordination, but so many of the girls need 
not only schooling: they need health care and personal counseling 
as well. 

"Twelve-year-olds may find pregnancy in one of their peers 
hard to accept, so a special school may be better for a sixth or 
seventh grade girl. Also, there are some girls who regard the 
pregnancy as proof of their own identity. It may represent the 

first 'success' they've had. They haven't been successful in school 
and have gone unnoticed at home. When they find themselves 
about to be mothers, they are likely to say, 'Look at me! Now I 
will have something that belongs to me.' The counseling available 
in a special school would be more desirable than going back into 
the mainstream of failure for these girls." 

Girls who have gone to maternity schools generally think 
that's the best solution, Mrs. Cooke adds. "Hometown attitudes 
in certain communities toward a girl in this kind of trouble," she 
explains, "can be more harmful than what she's going to lose in 
the way of educational services if she leaves the regular schools. 

"We have to concern ourselves with attitude, but it so often 
gets in the way. What really distresses me is that the concentra- 
tion of attitude is focused more on premarital sex than on helping 
the girl - and the baby! A mature girl, after the initial shock of 
discovering her pregnancy, can rise to the situation and decide, 
'Well, I am going to become a mother, and I might as well make 
the best of it, not the worst.' But if people are going to insist that 
she continue to suffer, an alternative should be considered." 

Some special classes are now in operation in North Carolina. 
The Durham Cooperative School for Pregnant Girls, for example, 
is a demonstration project funded by Title III of the Elementary 
and Secondary Education Act. The school employs, on a full-time 
basis, two directors, a social worker, and a public health nurse, as 
well as several teachers. There are several part-time professional 
employees and consultants. Basic academic subjects, along with 
business education and a special home economics course, are 
offered. The girls who go there operate the Mother Hubbard 
Shop, where they sell (and buy, if they wish) baby clothes and 
other items they make in their sewing classes. 

Among the community college programs available is one in 
Wayne County. Wayne Community College provides continuing 
education to pregnant school girls 16 years of age and older. 
Goldsboro City and Wayne County public schools provide 
textbooks and the services of the high school guidance counselor. 
The program enrolls about 50 girls each year, but lists as its 
biggest problem the lack of needed provisions for those under 1 6. 

In Greensboro, a Young Adult School operates at Dudley High 
School, part of the regular city school unit. The classes are held 
after regular school hours, and special courses in child care are 
available. The Young Adult School employs regular teachers, is 
locally funded, and serves 100 to 120 students with special needs 
each year. 

The number of regular public schools that permit pregnant 
students to stay in school is growing slowly. Kings Mountain, a 
rural community, has adopted a policy openly encouraging the 
girls to stay in school and to return as soon as possible after 
delivery. Several other Tar Heel school systems have the same 
withdrawal time for pregnant students as for pregnant teachers. 

The State Board's recent policy statement recognizes that 
pregnant school girls do not fit into any of the defined categories 
of exceptional children who, according to State law, are not 
entitled to attend public schools. 

"Now it remains the responsibility," Mrs. Cooke concludes, 
"of superintendents, principals, teachers, State Department of 
Public Instruction personnel, and thousands of other North 
Carolinians who do have the advantage of their formal education 
and experience to provide appropriate educational services for 
this far-from-small student population." (JLN) ■ 



of the 


The annual fall survey is concerned with two vitally important 
phases of school operation - personnel and facilities. All 
information contained in this study is based on conditions 
existing at the end of the first month of the 1970-71 school year 
as reported by the 152 local administrative unit superintendents. 


1,184,688 pupils enrolled, a decrease of 6,888 over the first 
school month of 1969-70. 

Professional Personnel: 

54,648 teachers, supervisors, and principals employed, an in- 
crease of 241 over the preceding year. 
13,869 men employed (25.4 percent of total), an increase of 
429 men. 
127 vacancies at the end of the first month, 3 fewer than 
one year ago. 
4,201 professional personnel without prior experience (7.7 

percent of total). 
1,290 former teachers returning to profession (2.4 percent 
of total). 
52,767 professional personnel holding either Class "A" or 
Graduate certificate (96.6 percent of total), an in- 
crease of 1,070 over last year. 

743 teaching out-of-certificate field (1.4 percent of total), 
an increase of 65. 
3,338 teachers, supervisors, and principals paid entirely from 

local funds (6.1 percent of total). 
66.1 percent of professional personnel receiving local 
salary supplement, 861 more than one year ago. 


1,516 new classrooms made available in 1969-70. 

1,005 obsolete and inadequate classrooms abandoned 
last year. 

1,200 new classrooms scheduled for completion in 1970- 

7,035 additional classrooms needed now to take care of 
excess enrollment currently housed in non-publicly 
owned buildings, in improvised quarters in public 
school buildings, in temporary facilities, in over- 
crowded classrooms, and to provide facilities neces- 
sary to permit desirable and educationally sound 
reorganization of school units. 
112,655 pupils housed in temporary and inadequate facili- 
ties (9.5 percent of total). 

N.C. Advancement School Changes Research Program 

After several years as a residential school, working with the 
problem of underachievement in selected Tar Heel pupils, the 
North Carolina Advancement School is changing to a day school 
program. The staff and board of governors of the school, which is 
experimental and research-oriented, see a need to more closely 
simulate the typical public school setting and to implement 
research findings under these conditions. 

All but a few of the Advancement School's students have lived 
at the Winston-Salem campus, with the pressures of home, peer 
group, and school removed from their environment. The school 

reports that pre- and post-test comparisons, as well as follow-up 
studies, show positive changes in most of the students. 

Dr. John Bridgman, fMCAS director, notes that the change to a 
non-residential program is at present a temporary measure, and 
that the time, money, and energies saved during the one-year 
conversion will be spent in several other areas of the school's 

The fall term of 1971-72 will find 60 sixth-grade boys enrolled 
as day students. They will receive the same basic academic 
program as that formerly provided for residential students. 
Researchers will compare the results achieved by the two groups. 





Public schools are big business. The total expenditure for 
North Carolina's public schools during the 1969-70 school year 
was $649,647,175.35. 

The figure Comes from a report, Current Expenditures by 
Source of Funds, 1969-70, released recently by A. C. Davis, 
controller for the State Board of Education. The statistics show 
that 69.7 percent of the funds -- $453,045,161.15 - was 
provided by the State. Some 12.8 percent came from Federal 
sources, and the remaining 17.5 percent was provided by local 

The average per pupil expenditure for the State - the average 
amount spent on each school child - was $588.29. Of that 
amount, $410.26 came from State funds, $75.08 from the 
Federal government, and $102.95 from local sources. 

Comparing the percentage of State, Federal, or local expendi- 
tures in individual school systems, State funds spent ranged from 
a high of 86.2 percent in Alexander County to a low of 56.0 
percent in Hendersonville City Schools. Federal sources ranged 
from a high of 30.3 percent in Maxton City Schools to a low of 
4.0 percent in Caldwell County. The high for local funds spent 
was 35.7 percent in Mecklenburg County; the low was 3.2 
percent in Graham County. 

Comparing data reaching back to the 1966-67 school year it 
can be seen that per pupil expenditures are rising, primarily 
through additional State and local expenditures. Some $292.18 
per pupil in State funds was expended in 1966-67, while the 
figure had risen to $410.26 by 1969-70. Local funds spent per 
child in 1966-67 was $68.45. By 1969-70 that figure had risen to 

Federal expenditures, on the other hand, rose very little. The 
Federal average per child in 1966-67 was $65.66 as compared to 
$75.08 in 1969-70. The percentage of Federal funds included in 
the total expenditure per child dropped, however, as additional 
State and local monies were added. The percentage of Federal 
funds spent on each child in 1966-67 was 15.4. By 1969-70 that 
percentage had dropped to 12.8. 

The percentage of State funds remained steady, rising from 
68.5 percent in 1966-67 to 69.7 percent in 1969-70. The greatest 
gain in percentage of the total funds spent was in local funds: this 
figure rose from 16.1 percent in 1966-67 to 17.5 percent in 

UNC Schedules Institute for Principals 

For three weeks during July, the University of North Carolina 
at Chapel Hill will offer a leadership institute for principals. 
Current social issues, changes in in-service education patterns, 
differentiated teaching roles, emerging concepts in educational 
administration and school organization, and the expanding area 
of occupational education will be examined in an attempt to 
understand their long-range impact on the State's schools. 

Director Zane E. Eargle, (an associate professor of education 
at UNC), other School of Education staff members, and various 
resource persons will be available for personal conferences and 

Enrollment is limited to persons who hold a principal's 
certificate and have two years of experience as a school principal. 

The leadership institute will run from July 12 through July 30. 
The academic day for participants will be 9 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. 
weekdays except Fridays, when there will be no afternoon 
classes. Tuition and fees for North Carolina residents will be 
$66.50, which boards of education may choose to pay. Non- 
residents will pay $211.50. 

For further information, write to Dr. Zane E. Eargle, 118 
Peabody Hall, School of Education, University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill 27514, or telephone him at (919) 933-2320. 




Bobby Pope, Director / Occupational Education / Lexington Senior High School 

Visitors at a recent open house at 
Lexington High School got a good 
look at a print shop in operation. In 
this instance some of their own chil- 
dren were designing the materials, set- 
ting the type, running the press, and 
assembling the finished product. As 
they produced an issue of Focus, 
Lexington's school staff newsletter, 
the students demonstrated what they 
were learning in their courses in the 
Graphics and Industrial Communica- 
tions Department. 

Planning for this program was be- 
gun in early 1968, and now it is a full 
three-year program for high school 
students. "We have the faculty, the 
equipment, and the instructor," says 
Clinton LeGette, principal of Lexing- 
ton Senior High School, "to make 
graphic arts come alive for our young 
people. They sense the pride we have 
in this new program and have respond- 
ed overwhelmingly." 

Before the graphic arts program got 
its start, it had been difficult for 
Lexington's Industrial Cooperative 
Training Program to place students in 
the printing occupations because they 
lacked the necessary job skills and 
technical knowledge. Many local print- 
ers thought it was too expensive to 
train high school students in their 
shops, even though they continuously 
experienced difficulty in hiring quali- 
fied printers. 

One local printer, Carroll Medlin, 
realizing the need for experienced 
printers in his business, cooperated 
with the local high school in training 
students enrolled in Industrial Cooper- 
ative Training. When he no longer 
needed experienced printers, he con- 
tinued to train local I.C.T. students in 

As a young man, Medlin had experi- 
enced difficulty in getting printing 
training. He realized that the printing 
trade needed trained people and that 
someone had to do the training. When 
he began to consider disposing of his 
own printing shop, Medlin was asked if 
he would be interested in serving as an 
instructor in the graphic arts at Lex- 
ington High School. Several months 

later he said that not only was he 
interested in teaching, but he would be 
willing to use his own equipment, 
valued at $20,000, for instruction. 
When Superintendent R. Jack Davis 
became convinced that Medlin was 
willing to make the sacrifices and 
adjustments necessary in implementing 
the program, plans to add graphic arts 
to the curriculum advanced rapidly. 

Medlin had been in the printing 
business for 1 2 years. He started out as 
a printer's helper in 1957, then be- 
came a foreman, and finally bought his 
own printing shop. Adept in offset and 
letter press printing and all phases of 
graphic arts, he had convinced several 
large New York-based businesses that 
he could produce their work - quick- 
er, with better quality, and cheaper - 
in Lexington, l\l. C, than they could 
get the work done in New York, and 
he got their jobs. 

During the program's first year of 
operation it was necessary to use an 
off-campus building. Robbins Elemen- 
tary School, an 88-year-old structure 
closed during the reorganization of the 
Lexington City Schools at the end of 
the 1969 school year, was pressed into 
service again. The lunchroom building, 
constructed in 1957, was rewired and 
put back into use. The graphic pro- 
gram had found a home! It was across 
town from the Senior High School, 
but the students were bussed regularly 
to and from the building. Despite the 
facility's being off campus, the new 
courses got off to a good start. 

Because of the program's success 
and the unusual interest the students 
expressed, the administration and 
Board of Education saw the need for, 
and provided the necessary leadership 
in building, a modern, air-conditioned 
facility for the graphic arts program. 
The $48,000 structure was dedicated 
on February 7, 1971. 

At present, the Graphics and Indus- 
trial Communications Department fur- 
nishes all the printing needs of the 
Lexington City School System, print- 
ing such publications as Focus, Spot- 
light On Lexington, teacher recruit- 
ment brochures, teacher handbooks, 
teacher desk calendars, and school 
board policy booklets. All these print- 
ing jobs provide practical experience 
for the students involved in the classes. 
Tedious work, such as the certificates 
of merit that the Board of Education 
presents to outstanding citizens and 
organizations, is beautifully done by 
the class members. Other publications 
include the system-wide audiovisual 

catalogue, the newly published curric- 
ulum bulletin, and many posters and 
announcements as well as publications 
for Lexington Senior High School, 
including the school newspaper, Lex- 
Hi-Pep, and the literary magazine, 

Medlin's interest in placing students 
in the printing industry throughout 
the Piedmont area has taken him to 
many printing shops in North Carolina 
cities and towns. And printers have 
taken a keen interest in the Graphic 
Arts Department and have come to 
view the project. 

Local printers in the Lexington area 
also take pride in the program. Charles 
V. Sink, former mayor of Lexington 
and owner of Fred 0. Sink Printing 
House, says that printing shops in the 
area are pleased with the results of the 
first class and look forward to having 
future students as they emerge from 
the program. 

The State Department of Public 
Instruction has chosen Lexington 
Senior High School as the site for its 
1971 Annual In-Service Training Clinic 
for Graphics and Industrial Communi- 
cations Teachers. The size of Lexing- 
ton's facility and the amount of the 
equipment is one indicator of the 
quality program. The building contains 
1,890 square feet of floor space, in- 
cluding a modern classroom area. The 
printing equipment, valued at 
$34,000, consists of a KOR Heidelberg 
press, a 1250 multilith press, two 
Heidelberg letter presses, a plate burn- 
er, and three light tables within the 
composing department. The photo- 
graphy laboratory has the latest photo- 
graphic equipment, including a pro- 
cessing camera and darkroom and 
photo-laboratory facilities. 

Dr. Lacy H. Caple, chairman of the 
Board of Education, says that the 
graphic arts program has made its 
impact on the intermediate and middle 
school programs, where it has already 
become a part of the Lexington's 
Middle Grades Occupational Explora- 
tion Project. 

But the real test is the students. 
They are entering the printing field. 
Former students are presently working 
in printing occupations at Fred 0. 
Sink Printing House, Techniques, 
Print-Craft, and Hoerner-Waldorf In- 
dustries in Lexington. Two graduates 
are continuing their education in 
graphic arts at Chowan College, and 
three seniors in the present program 
plan to continue their studies at For- 
syth Technical Institute next year. ■ 



"If I had done my teacher intern- 
ship in a traditional setting, I don't 
think I would have been as aware of 
the importance of individualizing in- 
struction." Mrs. Joan Womble, a stu- 
dent at St. Andrews Presbyterian Col- 
lege in Laurinburg, was talking about 
her summer teaching experience fol- 
lowing her junior year as an education 

Student teaching in the summer? 
Several students agreed it was the best 
training they could have had for the 
classroom. "Besides getting a taste of 
the classroom before our senior year," 
Joan continued, "we were not con- 
sidered student teachers, but members 
of a team with as much status as any 
other teacher, as far as the children 
were concerned. Just considering us 
teacher interns, instead of student 
teachers, made our job much easier." 

The post-junior year teaching ex- 
perience was originally the idea of Dr. 
John P. Daughtrey, director of teacher 
education at St. Andrews. In 1964, Dr. 
Daughtrey began trying to find public 
school systems that might be inter- 
ested in setting up such a program. 
Moore and Carteret Counties soon 
came through with an ESEA Title III 
proposal requesting funds to start a 
cooperative program for training - not 
only teacher interns, but also veteran 
teachers and teacher aides. The result- 
ing project, known as Co-op STEP 
(Cooperative Services for Teacher Edu- 
cation Projects), soon began to influ- 
ence both the public schools and the 
teacher training institutions involved. 

The summer teaching, experience, 
which began the first year of the 
project, was not only pre-service train- 

ing for college students, but also in- 
service training for teachers in the 
Moore and Carteret school systems. 
Superintendents and teachers alike in 
these two school systems began to see 
the need of moving toward more 
individualized instruction and team 

Each eight-week summer lab began 
with group planning on the part of the 
teachers. Joan Womble's group de- 
cided to set up eight "learning cen- 
ters" in the classrooms for reading, 
writing, language arts, math, life (so- 
cial sciences, science, and health), art, 
music, and "surprise." A folder was 
provided for each child at each learn- 
ing center, and the needs, interests, 
ability, and rate of work for each child 
were determined. Teachers then pre- 
pared "activity sheets" at all learning 
centers for each child's work during 
the day. Small and large group instruc- 
tion was also included in the day's 
learning activities, specifically the first 
15 minutes of each day, which were 
devoted to a discussion in human 
values. As each child completed his 
day's work in a "learning center," he 
let a teacher check it for him, and 
moved on to another "center." 

Mrs. A. C. Trivette, project direc- 
tor, suggests that letting the teachers 
use their creativity in planning the 
entire summer program, and letting 
teacher interns and veteran teachers 
work together, sparked enthusiasm in 
both groups. When the teachers re- 
turned to their respective positions in 
the fall, that enthusiasm did not wane; 
it spread throughout both school 

During the three years of the sum- 

mer school training, Co-op STEP ar- 
ranged for 143 teacher interns to teach 
in schools in Moore and Carteret Coun- 
ties. The students worked with 113 
master teachers and teacher aides, the 
majority of whom have had major 
influence in their schools toward in- 
dividualizing instruction. 

The eight-week summer session is 
only one phase of the Co-op project. 
More than 2,000 hours have been 
devoted to workshops. In Moore 
County alone about 40 teachers have 
been given the opportunity to partici- 
pate. The workshops, also held in the 
summer, lasted three weeks and con- 
sisted mainly of observing the summer 
school session and discussing the possi- 
bilities of using the new approaches in 
their own teaching situations. Work- 
shop consultants gave the teachers as- 
sistance on an individual basis, show- 
ing them how to incorporate a more 
individualized program even in non- 
team teaching situations. 

A third aspect of the Co-op project 
is what Mrs. Trivette has termed the 
externship. Through the project, funds 
are provided for veteran teachers and 
administrators to visit other model 
programs in team teaching and individ- 
ualized instruction. Milton Sills, princi- 
pal of Aberdeen Elementary School, 
has been a Co-op extern on several 
occasions. After teaching in a summer 
lab, Sills applied for and received 
externships to both Deluth, Minn., and 
Boston, Mass. With his newly acquired 
expertise, he served as principal of the 
summer lab for two years. 

Externships are also taken within 
North Carolina. The "Lighthouse" 
school in Burlington has trained many 


visiting teachers from Moore and Car- 
teret Counties. The teachers, usually in 
groups of about 10, and several princi- 
pals, are given the opportunity of 
observing and talking with teachers 
and administrators for one week. One 
teacher termed her externship a truly 
"eye-opening" experience. 

One other method is used in the 
Co-op project to enrich the experi- 
ences of veteran teachers in the area of 
individualized instruction. Extension 
courses are easily accessible to teachers 
in the two Co-op counties. Teachers in 
Moore county may take a special 
course from St. Andrews on individ- 
ualizing instruction taught by Dr. 

Perhaps the most significant ques- 
tion that should be asked is: "What 
difference has the existence of Co-op 
STEP made on the teachers, teacher 
interns and aides, administrators, and 
the entire school systems of Moore 
and Carteret Counties?" Mrs. Trivette, 
project director, suggests that giant 
strides have been made toward individ- 
ualizing instruction in the two sys- 
tems. She points particularly to four 
areas of change. 

The educational philosophy of the 
counties has progressed, in her words, 
from a philosophy of "education for 
all" to a philosophy of "education for 
each." Included in this change in 
philosophy is the idea of the teacher as 
a resource person and guide to learning 
rather than merely a dispenser of 
knowledge, and the idea of differen- 
tiated staffing rather than asking all 
teachers to fit into the same mold and 
assume the same responsibilities. 

Approaches to learning have 

changed toward individually pre- 
scribed instruction and the use of 
multiple media to enrich the learning 
experience. Teachers and administra- 
tors have realized the value of the 
nongraded arrangement and random 
activity within the same classroom. 
The development of Learning Activity 
Packages is encouraged and stimulates 
creativity among teachers. Flexible 
scheduling enhances these new ap- 
proaches, while the new freedom of 
the classroom allows teachers time for 
early discovery of learning disabilities 
and individual capabilities. 

These new methods are rapidly 
being integrated into the entire school 
systems of Moore and Carteret Coun- 
ties. Eight elementary and middle 
schools in Carteret boast of teachers 
using them, while some attempt at 
individualization is being tried in the 
high school. Twenty-four elementary 
teachers are teaming in Moore County, 
and Pinecrest High School was built 
around the concept of individualized 
instruction. Other high schools are 
rapidly moving toward the use of these 
new approaches. 

Another result of the Co-op proj- 
ect, related to the team teaching ap- 
proach, is new arrangements for staff 
utilization and development. The 
teaming arrangement allows each 
teacher to contribute in his area of 
greatest interest and expertise. It re- 
lieves the unbearable burden of having 
to prepare the entire instructional pro- 
gram for a group of varying abilities. 
The result of master teachers, interns, 
and aides working together has proven 
quite successful in these two counties. 

A number of changes in facilities 

have come about as a result of the 
training of teachers and administra- 
tors. In many traditional buildings 
walls have been torn down, ceilings 
lowered, and space modified to create 
the "open area environment" needed 
to allow an atmosphere of freedom 
and individuality. Other facility 
changes include newly designed furni- 
ture, study carrels, and the addition of 
multi-media learning centers. 

In 1970, Moore County invested 
$131,000 in local funds to knock out 
walls, carpet floors in 57 classrooms, 
and convert facilities to implement the 
new concepts. Carteret County has 
spent $43,000 to convert its schools to 
the open space concept. 

R. E. Lee, superintendent in Moore 
County, and T. L. Lee, superintendent 
in Carteret, believe that the Co-op 
STEP Title III project will be paying 
dividends to the school systems for 
many years to come. One of the 
greatest continuing assets of the proj- 
ect is the newly inspired enthusiasm of 
teachers - both new teachers entering 
public schools for the first time and 
veteran teachers. 

What do principals and teachers 
who operate at the ground level think 
of Co-op STEP? 

Mr. Sills is attempting to spread the 
new ideas to new teachers and admin- 
istrators who come into the system. 
"Travel, freedom to try new and dif- 
ferent ideas - anything within rea- 
son," he says, "an opportunity to train 
teachers in innovative methods, an 
opportunity to employ new teachers 
trained in new approaches, but above 
all, a change in attitudes of all teach- 
ers; these are the results of the Co-op 
STEP project as I see them." 

Since Co-op STEP came into exist- 
ence, St. Andrews has made several 
changes in its teacher training curricu- 
lum. The idea of teaching experience 
at the end of the junior year is popular 
among both students and faculty. All 
courses are leaning more toward teach- 
ing the concept of individualized in- 
struction. A special math course has 
replaced a former course which com- 
bined the teaching of science and 
math, and a new course in media and 
materials has been added. 

Students like Joan Womble are ex- 
cited about the teaching experience 
they have had. And they insist that, 
even if they end up teaching in a 
self-contained setting, they will in- 
dividualize their programs, perhaps 
one or two subjects at first, but they 
are convinced of the relevance of this 
new concept in today's schools. (LG) 



TApES, fillVIS, & 


Where do you find hundreds of 
films, tape recordings, and otheraudio- 
visual items waiting for use either at 
no charge or at a nominal one? As 
teachers, guidance counselors, adminis- 
trators, and other educators realize 
more and more the value of audio- 
visual aids, the sources of such mate- 
rials are becoming more important 
these days. One such source is the 
State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion's Production and Technical Serv- 
ices Section, a part of the Division of 
Educational Media. 

Some 650 titles pertinent to in- 
structional areas are listed in the Au- 
dio Tape Recording Catalogue, pub- 
lished by the Section. Subjects include 
art education; driver education; guid- 
ance education; health education; his- 
tory and current events; legends, 
myths, and tales; literature education; 
mathematics education; music educa- 
tion; science education; and sociology, 
economics, and civics education. 

The recordings are available in ei- 
ther reel-to-reel or cassette form. Ac- 
cording to Johnny M. Shaver, chief 
consultant for the Production and 
Technical Services Section, you can 
order them in one of two ways. "The 
first way," Shaver says, "is to send in a 
blank tape with the name of the 
desired title to be duplicated. With this 
method, the postage and handling 
charges are all that have to be paid for. 
But if a school has no tape to send, it 
simply sends the title wanted. We 
supply the pre-recorded tape (reel-to- 
reel or cassette, as requested), and the 
orderer pays only the cost of the tape 
and postage. Either way, there is no 
charge for the duplicating service." 

Among the most frequent users of 
the tape duplicating service this year 
have been music and foreign language 
teachers, Shaver points out. "Music 
appreciation teachers like to let stu- 
dents begin by listening to what they 
like," he has observed. "Then they can 
move on to other forms of music more 
easily. We have, among many other 
music titles, one series called The 
Roots of Jazz that they use a lot. It 
consists of three tapes on New Orleans 

"Several of the commercial manu- 
facturers of our State-adopted foreign 
language textbooks supply us with 
master tapes which we may duplicate 
on request. In fact, all the tape titles in 
the catalog are those for which repro- 
duction rights from the manufacturers 

have been granted in North Carolina. 
There is no other place where educa- 
tors can get these materials for the 
cost of the tape and postage only, 
since there is no charge for the infor- 
mation recorded on them." 

Operated by Audio Technician 
Wayne Manning, the Production and 
Technical Services tape duplicating 
equipment is capable of producing 8 
dual-track, 60-minute recordings in 15 
minutes on a reel-to-reel format, and 
four 30-minute cassettes in Vk min- 
utes. Shaver advises, "We like to run 
more than one copy of a given title at 
a time, when possible, of course. Time 
is an important factor to us, and all of 
our personnel have other duties. In the 
case of unusually popular titles, plan- 
ning is essential on the part of the 
schools. Within one two-month period, 
for example, we got orders for 6,000 
copies of a single title. Some of the 
later orderers had to wait about six 
months for their copies because there 
just wasn't time to get them all done 
immediately. We anticipate an expan- 
sion in both our staff and our titles 
and expect to continue increasing our 
services to the schools." 

The Production and Technical Serv- 
ices Section is a recipient of another 
set of tapes with duplication rights. 
The United States Department of 
State, approximately once a month, 
sends recordings that fall into two 
categories: (1) messages on very timely 
subjects and (2) addresses by signifi- 
cant individuals. Shaver notes that 
these tapes have been particularly use- 
ful for social studies teachers in their 
contemporary history and current 
events lessons. 

Recent acquisitions from the De- 
partment of State include a recorded 
message called What Should U. S. 
Policy Be Toward South Africa? Offi- 
cials from the Bureau of African Af- 
fairs discuss this complex issue. Anoth- 
er title is Inside Communist China, 
consisting of excerpts from speeches 
by Secretary of State William P. 
Rogers and interviews with the Direc- 
tor and Ex-Director of Asian Com- 
munist Affairs. Also recently received 
is a tape on the U. S.-Spanish Bilateral 
Agreement, in which the Century Offi- 
cer for Spanish Affairs explains details 
of the recent agreement. 

Shaver and his staff try to antici- 
pate heavy-volume needs. When the 
current emphasis on African studies 
took hold (African history will be 
incorporated into seventh and tenth 
grade history classes in 1971-72), they 

pulled all the relevant titles. That 
made them more readily accessible for 
immediate duplication. 

Of particular interest to teachers of 
North Carolina history are the trans- 
parency masters available from the 
Production and Technical Services Sec- 
tion. "These have been developed in 
cooperation with certain subject area 
specialists of the Department of Public 
Instruction," Shaver explains. Al- 
though no new masters have been 
designed this year, we still have some 
on North Carolina government, his- 
tory, and geography. 

"These masters," he continues, "are 
printed on translucent bond paper 
which can be reproduced on any kind 
of transparency production equipment 
available in North Carolina schools. 
The school-made transparencies are 
then used on overhead projectors. 

"As with the other services, there is 
no charge for the transparency mas- 
ters. Copyright laws prohibit our re- 
producing transparency materials from 
commercial manufacturers; therefore, 
we can work only with original mate- 
rial supplied by the Department." 

A third major service available to 
schools is that of the Production and 
Technical Services Section's 16mm 
film library. "Many of these films 
would be entertaining for high school 
students," Shaver laughs, "but they 
are intended for the in-service training 
of teachers. We do permit the colleges 
and universities to borrow them for 
pre-service use with prospective teach- 
ers, however." 

Unlike the tape and transparency 
materials, which are purchased by 
schools, the films are circulated on a 
loan arrangement. The user pays only 
the return postage. 

Linda Kimbrough, the Section's 
film-booking clerk, processes orders 
for the approximately 250 16mm ti- 
tles. General subject areas covered in 
the Professional In-Senice Education 
16mm Film Catalogue are art educa- 
tion, education-administration, English 
education, health and physical educa- 
tion, instructional media (including 
audiovisual education, instructional 
television, and library science), mathe- 
matics education, modern foreign lan- 
guages, music education, school plan- 
ning, science education, and team 
teaching-primary grades. 

"The films are loaned for approxi- 
mately a week at the time," Shaver 
notes. "As a rule, we circulate around 
45 different titles weekly. Availability 
depends on the particular title, but it's 

best if the schools plan their film 
needs well ahead of the time they 
want to show the films. We operate on 
a first-come, first-served basis, and a 
few of our titles are already booked up 
for the next 6 months. We expect to 
reprint the 16mm film catalog during 
the summer and will incorporate sev- 
eral new titles into it." 

Another function, which indirectly 
serves school personnel, is the Produc- 
tion and Technical Services Section's 
advisory committee. Consisting of au- 
diovisual specialists, technicians, ad- 
ministrators, and other users of audio- 
visual equipment in the State's 
schools, the committee continually 
evaluates the various pieces of equip- 
ment in use. Motion picture projec- 
tors, overhead projectors, record play- 
ers, tape recorders, equipment stands, 
and screens get an annual going-over 
by the advisory group, which also 
meets annually with manufacturers' 
representatives. The committee's sug- 
gestions are offered to the State's 
Purchase and Contract Division, which 
carries out further testing and ulti- 
mately negotiates contracts for equip- 
ment purchases. 

"We are hoping," says Shaver, "as 
funds become available, to offer a new 
service to North Carolina schools. We 
would like to begin duplicating l^-inch 
videotapes of the instructional pro- 
grams that are broadcast over the 
University of North Carolina's tele- 
vision network, such as the world 
cultures program and the physical 
science series. This service, to be 
manned by Video Technician Clifton 
McKeel (who now performs video serv- 
ices for Departmental use), would 
operate like the audio tape service - 
for purchase rather than loan. 

Shaver explains that requests for all 
of the available services must be issued 
on official purchase orders. "Because 
of all the bookkeeping we have to do," 
he points out, "we cannot accept 
orders from individual teachers, but 
they can ask the school or central 
office to order the materials they 
need." Schools that already have the 
tape and film catalogues mentioned 
earlier should refer to them, although 
some are still in stock for those with- 
out copies. 

"We're anxious to continue helping 
North Carolina's educators - in the 
classroom, at the seminar table, or 
wherever - do their best," Shaver 
adds. "We welcome inquiries and will 
do our best to keep up with their 
needs." (JLN) ■ 


U ^D 

The Task Force on Student Involve- 
ment has no programs to sell: it 
supports the activities of other student 
groups. Task Force members meet 
monthly in Raleigh: between those 
sessions, they don't do anything as a 
group. Like other high school stu- 
dents, they go to school. 

Some of their school work, how- 
ever, carries a special Council of State 
endorsement and is funded by special 
State appropriations. Task Force ob- 
jectives include opening up channels of 
communication between students and 
administrators; advising the State De- 
partment of Public Instruction of cur- 
rent student concerns; acting as 
spokesmen for youth opinions and 
ideas to any organization requesting 
student participation; and defining, 
exploring, and proposing solutions for 
recurring problems in Tar Heel high 
schools. But all those aims meet in 
their prime reason for being sponsored 
by the State Department of Public 
Instruction. The group's major task, in 
keeping with its name, is to involve 
students .... 

Getting students constructively in- 
volved in the educational process - 
outside the confines of student desks 
in the classroom - that's the Task 
Force goal. "Get 'em interested. Get 
'em positive. Get 'em involved" is the 
way one member describes her role in 
relation to other North Carolina stu- 

The present permanent Task Force 
grew out of a temporary student com- 
mittee that spent the summer of 1969 
trying to determine the causes of 
student unrest in several high schools 
the preceding school year. The study 
culminated in a report to administra- 
tors on student-suggested ways to 
avoid student unrest in the future. 
Since making integration work peace- 
fully was one of the biggest concerns, 
many of the recommendations had to 
do with fair and equal treatment of all 
students in classroom and extracur- 
ricular activities. Overall, the report 

recommended that students be given 
more responsibility (mainly advisory, 
rather than decision-making responsi- 
bility) in the affairs of schools, and 
that traditional barriers (racial, econo- 
mic, academic, etc.) be removed so as 
to permit maximal student involve- 
ment in school goings-on. 

That fall, arrangements were made 
for a permanent Student Task Force. 
The Council of State appropriated 
funds; an adult director and a student 
director were named; and office space 
was made available within the Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction. Two high 
school students from each of the 
State's eight educational districts were 
selected as Task Force members, and 
the group spent the rest of the aca- 
demic year developing its program of 
student involvement, especially in edu- 

In September 1970, a new set of 
Task Force members took the reins. 
"The Task Force is made up entirely 
of high school students. I'm the only 
person over 20," says the group's adult 
director, Sarah Vernon. "Our philoso- 
phy is that students can and should 
be more involved in education and 
other parts of community life. 

"We're trying to represent students 
all across the State. Our membership is 
fairly balanced - black and white, 
male and female, urban and rural. We 
don't ask about grades. There are more 
sophomores and juniors now than last 
year, but more than half of the mem- 
bers are seniors. There are problems 
with 15-year-olds because Task Force 
work involves a lot of travel and they 
can't drive. 

"All 16 district representatives 
meet with Ken Herman (the student 
director) and me once a month, always 
on Sunday and Monday. We try to 
keep missed school time to a mini- 
mum. Between those monthly meet- 
ings, the whole group rarely, if ever, 
gets together. The 16 stay busy in 
their own areas, though. Their work 

varies, but basically they listen out for 
student opinions and attitudes, serve 
as student representatives in meetings 
with school officials, and assist student 
organizations at the local level with 
their projects." 

Some of the more extensive local 
projects have resulted from large 
grants obtained with Task Force help. 
Sarah Vernon notes that the Task 
Force received $4,300 from the Appa- 
lachian Regional Commission, tagged 
for the Youth Development Plan for 
Western North Carolina. The money 
was distributed among three student- 
run activities. In Asheville, for exam- 
ple, vocational students and others are 
working on a project in cooperation 
with Urban Renewal, Model Cities, 
and Community Relations Department 
efforts. Through Project WAR (Work- 
ing Apprentices for Redevelopment), 
the city chooses houses in need of 
repair; the vocational students, work- 
ing under adult supervision, do the 

Another community-level effort 
backed up by the Student Task Force 
is located at Boone. Rescue, a drug 
information and crisis center, has the 
support of the board of education and 
is guided by a board of directors 
composed of several area citizens. 
Drug victims call or go to the center 
for help with their problem. Psycholo- 
gists, ministers, lawyers, and doctors 
lend their services to the high school 
and college students who maintain the 
center. Besides helping the Boone 
group find funds, the Task Force also 
made sure that the local participants 
had taken care of the necessary legal 
steps required for such work. 

Other proposals for federally fund- 
ed projects have been submitted by 
the Task Force on behalf of com- 
munity or school organizations. Mon- 
ey from ESAP (the Emergency School 
Assistance Program) has been granted 
for human relations, dramatics, recrea- 
tion, and tutoring activities of student 




groups planning those projects. Recipi- 
ent schools of ESAP grants are re- 
quired to set up student advisory 
councils, and Task Force members 
have assisted in the mechanics of 
organizing them. 

Task Force members this year con- 
ducted a workshop for New Bern 
teachers on the teacher's role in stu- 
dent-to-student relationships. Teach- 
ers' reactions to dress, drugs, and other 
issues were determined, and the ses- 
sion also pinpointed major concerns of 
teachers, focusing on the problem of 
drug abuse. They carried out a similar 
workshop for Caswell County teach- 
ers. By invitation, they recently re- 
turned there to do a workshop on 
student involvement in the schools - 
this time for students. 

Miss Vernon is a full-time State 
employee. She notes that the job of 
Task Force adult director takes her to 
superintendents' and principals' offices 
throughout the State, as well as to 
numerous speaking and presentation 
engagements. "I try to make it a point 
never to travel without a high school 
student," she says. Usually that stu- 
dent will be a Task Force member 
from the district she is visiting. "When- 
ever I am speaking to a group, I turn 
things into a question and answer 
session because that seems to work 
best. It helps get rid of some people's 
misconceptions about Task Force. I 
also like for the students to do as 
much talking as possible." 

Her job also attracts television ap- 
pearances. During a telephone talk 
show recently, she cleared up at least 
one of those misconceptions by point- 
ing out to a caller that "the Task 
Force does not undertake 'teaching' in 
any form. We do discuss school mat- 
ters with school people, however. But 
we never go into a local unit without 
invitation from or approval by the 

Task Force members keep adminis- 
trators, as well as student councils and 
similar organizations, aware of student 

concerns regarding curriculum, social 
activities (ecology clubs are on the 
rise), and related interests. Last year, 
Task Force members traveled with 
school accreditation teams. This year, 
Miss Vernon reports, they are hoping 
to assist more extensively in accredita- 
tion and curriculum programs. 

Student Director Ken Herman is an 
Enloe High School (Raleigh) senior 
this year. He goes to the Raleigh Task 
Force office every day at 1:30 p.m., 
and works on Task Force matters until 
5:30 p.m., unless they take him on the 
road. Ken presides as chairman of the 
monthly meetings. He also handles 
much of the correspondence to and 
from students. Superintendents and 
principals get copies of his memos and 
other Task Force information, which 
also are distributed through student 
councils across the State. 

This year's Task Force revised the 
original (summer 1969) report Student 
Involvement: A Bridge to Total Educa- 
tion. Some sections were left essential- 
ly the same. The theme of encouraging 
participation in school activities by all 
students, for example, was thought to 
need few additions. One new part of 
the booklet, however, was addressed 
to students themselves. The Task 
Force strongly advises them to bring 
student concerns (potentially trouble- 
causing ones, especially) honestly and 
frankly out into the open with faculty 
and administrators. They are urged, 
further, to become aware of faculty 
and administrative problems, in addi- 
tion to their own. "Communication is 
a 50-50 proposition," students are 
reminded. "At least half the responsi- 
bility must lie with the student. Your 
concern for their problems should 
promote their interest in yours." 

It won't be long now before 
1971-72 Task Force members will be 
chosen. "Unlike their predecessors," 
Student Director Herman explains, 
"they will serve 15-month terms. I 
started working last September with 
an entirely new group. This new way, 

two Task Force memberships will 
overlap during the summer, giving the 
new members a head start on their 

The Task Force on Student Involve- 
ment is still a newborn in North 
Carolina education. Acceptance by 
superintendents and other school offi- 
cials stretches from excellent to nil. 
State-level educators generally support 
its work, and the Task Force reports 
ultimately to them. 

In a mimeographed handout titled 
"Task Force on Student Involvement: 
A Profile," the following philosophy 

It has become increasingly ap- 
parent that students are going to 
be involved in what is taking 
place in their world today. Edu- 
cators' greatest potential re- 
source lies in taking advantage of 
this interest and in channeling it 
into responsible areas of activity. 
What students are saying is that 
they care; they want to be con- 
tributors to the educational pro- 
cess and not just recipients .... 
Responsibility and positive ac- 
tion are the keys to a successful 
Task Force program. Students 
are not indicating a desire to 
'run the whole show' - they are 
displaying an active interest in 
making a greater contribution to 
the educational process. 
Student involvement is in these 
days, that's for sure. North Carolina's 
Task Force on Student Involvement 
would appear to be one of the nation's 
leading advocates. Already it has been 
written up in several national publica- 
tions. And it has helped other interest- 
ed states set up their own similar 

What makes the Student Task 
Force different from so many nega- 
tive, placard-carrying, hostile student 
organizations is its positive attitude 
toward student involvement: To Task 
Force members, involvement means 
contributing to their own education, 
not dissenting from it. (JLN) ■ 




Continuing the "Schools in the Seventies" theme begun last 
year, the State Department of Public Instruction will feature live 
activities in its 1971 State Fair exhibition. Under a geodesic 
dome, kindergarten classes, students engaged in various courses of 
occupational education, live television, communications centers, 
and other phases of school activity from kindergarten through 
senior high school will be seen in action by State Fair visitors. 

School systems are invited to participate, along with the more 
than 150 SDPI personnel who will be involved in planning and 
preparation. School groups, including student organizations, 
should submit ideas for the "Schools in the Seventies" exhibit by 
September 1 to Tom I. Davis, coordinator. 


Junior high school girls, parents, and educators in Wayne 
County recently heard Mrs. Jeanne Swanner Bowline, Miss North 
Carolina of 1964, discuss manners, morals, and related topics. 

The girls, according to Mrs. Bowline, most often wanted to 
know how they can get the respect of boys. Her response was 
that a girl must command respect to earn respect, and that 
respect applies not only to boys, but to parents and teachers, as 
well. Girls, she said, need to set goals and know where they are 
going. Dating brings new responsibilities that place decisions 
directly on the girl. 

To the question, "Do teenagers today have the same feelings 
and emotions as those of their parents?" she answered, "Yes, but 
not the same problems." At age 13, she noted, she did not have 
to decide about smoking, drinking, premarital sex, and the use of 
drugs because these things were not widely indulged in them. 

The biggest problem in this country, Mrs. Bowline concluded 
after extensive talks with Wayne students, is sex - not drugs. She 
referred particularly to their many questions about premarital 
sex, pregnancies, abortions, venereal disease, and so forth, and 
recommended a continuing program of sex education in the 
county's schools, churches, and community organizations and 
agencies. Mrs. Bowline felt that sex education programs conduct- 
ed outside the home are, better received by students. 

The Wayne Schools Morals and Manners Committee responsi- 
ble for planning the consultations led by Mrs. Bowline is now 
arranging similar sessions, with other resource persons as leaders. 


Throughout July and August, training institutes for some 800 
teachers and other personnel who are, or will be, working in the 
State's early childhood education programs will be held in all 
eight educational districts. Each participating school will send a 
team of staff members, rather than an individual, so that local 
application of what is learned will be easier and quicker. 

According to James W. Jenkins, the State Department of 
Public Instruction's special assistant for early childhood educa- 
tion, consultants from across the nation will train the staff 
members who will lead the institutes. Jenkins explains that the 
sessions are designed to combine practicum with theory and that 
activities with children will be available at all eight institutes. 

"The main theme," Jenkins notes, "is to combine early 
childhood and special education children in an open classroom 
environment. The open class concept, with its various interest 
centers for the 5- to 8-year-old children, is the key to learning. 
Through this developmental approach, a child who is attracted to 
a science interest center, for example, can achieve reading skills as 
an outgrowth of his special interest." 

Cosponsoring the institutes are the State Department of Public 
Instruction and the Learning Institute of North Carolina, in 
addition to school units and universities. 


Will Hon, project director of the ESEA (Elementary and 
Secondary Education Act) Title III Marine Science Project in 
Carteret County, is hosting the fourth annual National Marine 
Science in Education Conference June 8-10. The conference has 
been held for the past three years on Catalina Island, Calif. Now 
participants have agreed to locate the conference on the West 
Coast for even-numbered years and on the East Coast on alternate 

Ronald B. Linsky, a Title III project director in Orange 
County, Calif., initiated the first conference in 1968 to give 
scientists and educators the opportunity of sharing their experi- 
ences in the field of marine science. Around 100 have partici- 
pated during each of the past two years. 

This year the conference will be held in the John Yancey 
Motel on Atlantic Beach as a part of North Carolina Marine 
Science Week, June 7-11. Some 125 participants from Texas to 
Maine will register for the conference. Dr. Arthur W. Cooper, 
professor of botany at North Carolina State University, will open 
the conference with a discussion of the "Potential of Coastal 
Environment as Classrooms." The program will then proceed with 
two main purposes: sharing information on basic coastal ecology, 
and acquainting teachers with the resources available on the 
subject. The program will be aimed specifically at helping 
secondary school and small college teachers who desire more 
practical preparation in their area of teaching. 

Another feature of the conference will be exhibits of marine 
science equipment and supplies. Hon has also arranged for over 
50 of the best marine science films from all sources to be 
available for preview, night and day, in 2 projection rooms. All 
available marine science publications and mimeographed materials 
which might be of help to teachers will also be on display. 



Again this year, the annual Superintendents Conference will 
take place at the Timme Plaza in Wilmington. Assistant superin- 
tendents will meet July 18-21; superintendents, July 21-24. 
Representatives of the American Management Association are 
planning the program. 


T. Carl Brown, consultant in the State Department of Public 
Instruction's Division of Occupational Education, was recently 
elected president of the American Vocational Association. Brown 
is the first Tar Heel to hold the top elective office of the 
45,000-member organization. 


Only a few months old, the Division of Management Informa- 
tion Systems of the State education agency is busily engaged in 
continuing efforts to cut down on the duplication of information 
that eventually finds its way from North Carolina's public schools 
and community colleges to the State-level offices. 

Director Alan T. Hill says the Division's primary goal is to 
collect data only one time and store it in a computer system. 
"We're hoping to cut down drastically on the present duplication 
that requires schools to enter the same information on more than 
one report to the State offices," says Hill. "We should all be 
seeing some results in the next year or so, although there will 
probably still be some overlapping of information." 

Part of the initial responsibility of the Division staff is to 
design criteria for an information system and order the appro- 
priate equipment. Hill reports that development of the system is 
well underway. 


The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports has 
invited all states to participate in a cooperative Physical Fitness 
Demonstration School Project. Purpose of the venture is to select 
and recognize elementary and secondary schools that offer sound, 
comprehensive programs of health, physical education, and 
recreation which give emphasis to physical fitness. 

Norman Leafe, director of the Division of Health, Safety, and 
Physical Education for the State Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, says he believes there are physical education programs in 
North Carolina that could qualify as demonstration centers and 
are worthy of this kind of distinction. 

To qualify as a demonstration center, a school must meet four 
basic requirements set by the President's Council, as well as 
additional requirements established by the State. The Council's 
criteria include (1) periodic health appraisals for all pupils, (2) 
identification of the physically underdeveloped pupil and pro- 
visions for alleviating his problems, (3) periodical administration 
of physical achievement tests to evaluate and motivate pupil 
progress, and (4) provision of a daily period of physical education 
emphasizing physical fitness for all pupils. 

Copies of North Carolina's additional criteria and other details 

about the project are available to interested principals from Floyd 
M. Woody, State Coordinator, Physical Education Demonstration 
School Project, State Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, 
North Carolina 27602. 


SDPI's Division of Educational Media is again sponsoring two 
4-week institutes to increase professional competence in the 
design, production, management, and evaluation of nonprint 
materials. These institutes, to be held in Kinston and Hickory, are 
funded by the U. S. Office of Education. They will be conducted 
concurrently from June 14 through July 9, 1971, and will each 
serve 36 participants. Each participating school will send a team, 
consisting of its principal and a librarian. 

During the 1971-72 school year, the institute participants will 
conduct a local workshop for approximately 30 staff members 
from their school administrative unit. 


North Carolina educators who met in Chapel Hill last summer 
for the State Department of Public Instruction's Teacher Drug 
Education Project will regroup this summer at three regional 
meetings. Bob Frye, the project's director for the Division of 
Health, Safety, and Physical Education, notes that the partici- 
pants will try to assess what has already been done and what 
needs to be done, as well as to update their legal and 
pharmacological knowledge of the drug abuse problem. Dates and 
locations of the regional sessions will be as follows: June 7 and 8, 
East Carolina University, Greenville; June 10 and 11, University 
of North Carolina at Greensboro; June 14 and 15, University of 
North Carolina at Asheville. 

Among the many local drug information projects that have 
been carried out across the State during the school year are an 
English class project at Burgaw High School in Pender County 
and a drug education program at Roanoke Rapids High School. 
The Burgaw ninth graders, under the guidance of Mrs. Lillie M. 
Dumas, their teacher, devoted an eight-week unit of English study 
to extensive reading and letter-writing campaigns and visits to 
area health centers as they accumulated information about the 
current drug problem. As their class study was ending, the Pender 
County Fair was opening. The class exhibited its project work, 
won a first prize premium, and spent thp money on a set of 
colored slides of the project items which is being used in 
presentations before area organizations. Since the students serve 
as narrators, public speaking skills, as well as skills involved in 
writing, interviewing, and research have been well exercised. 

The Roanoke Rapids project, which included a drug clinic 
with professional health consultants and faculty in-service fol- 
low-up sessions, was largely coordinated by a local committee. 
Cooperation from community newspaper and radio station 
personnel, working with school officials and other interested 
adults, helped make the project successful. Among student 
activities was the showing of a film called Narcotics: Pit of 
Despair, the story of a teenaged boy who becomes hopelessly 
addicted to drugs through a process of graduated experimenta- 
tions. Students were encouraged to be concerned enough for each 
other to help friends who need professional help get it. 


Occupational Educational Needs 

1971-73 BIENNIUM: 


$9,306,388, to provide approximately 529 additional teachers 
for the regular program of occupational education and 40 
additional local directors of occupational education. If current 
trends in programs continue, teaching positions would be for 
the following program areas: 







teachers for trade and industrial education (such courses 
as carpentry, brick-masonery, electricity, graphics and 
industrial communications, etc.) 
teachers for business and office education (such courses 
as secretarial, bookkeeping, data processing, etc.) 
teachers for distributive education 
teachers for occupational home economics 
teachers for other programs 

These teachers could provide training for an additional 60,000 
children. This would mean that approximately 70.5 percent of 
the children in grades 9-12 would be receiving occupational 
education by the 1972-73 school year. This shows an increase of 
16.8 percent, up from 53.7 percent in 1969-70. 

b. $4,000,000, to provide additional funds for middle grade 
projects in occupational education to reach an additional 
40,000 children, for a total of 80,000 children with "A" and 
"B" budgets. 

c. $275,000, to provide additional teacher training in occupa- 
tional education. 

d. $828,000, to provide teaching materials in areas of occupa- 
tional education. 

e. $2,300,000, to assist the counties and cities in providing 
adequate equipment for an expanded program of vocational 
education in the high schools. 

f. $242,149, to improve State services in occupational education. 


1. 1969-70: 53.7 percent (191,770) of the students in grades 
9-12 were enrolled in occupational education (9-12 total 
school enrollment 357,075). By 1977, there should be 80 
percent enrolled in occupational education to meet labor 

2. 1969-70: 20.9 percent of the high schools in N. C. offered 4 or 
more occupational education programs. 

3. 1969-70: 2,798 occupational education teachers. By 1977, 
there should be approximately 4,800. 

4. 104,660 youngsters in the fifth grade in 1963 in public schools 
should have graduated in 1970. Only 67,564, or 64.4 percent, 
did graduate. Of this 64.6 percent, only 58.96 percent went on 
to any type of further education or training. 

5. Current counselor/student ratio: 

Grades 1-6: one counselor for each 8,538. 
Grades 7-12: one counselor for each 663. 

6. For every $1,000 invested in an individual for occupational 
education, his return during his working lifetime can be 
between $35,000 to $45,000. 

7. During the 1970-71 school year, approximately 68,580 stu- 
dents belonged to the 5 occupational education youth 
organizations - DECA, FBLA, FFA, FHA, and VICA. 

8. 1970-71: There were 3,349 teachers, not including handi- 
capped or Part G (cooperative work-school programs). 

9. 1970-71: There were 221,197 students enrolled - including 
regular programs, middle grades, handicapped, disadvantaged, 
and Part G. 


3 3091 00748 2789